Early GOES Spac0174.jpg
Artist's impression of an SMS-series GOES satellite in orbit
Mission typeWeather satellite
OperatorNOAA / NASA
COSPAR ID1977-048A
SATCAT no.10061
Mission duration24 years
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeSMS
ManufacturerFord Aerospace
Launch mass295 kilograms (650 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date16 June 1977, 10:51:00 (1977-06-16UTC10:51Z) UTC
RocketDelta 2914
Launch siteCape Canaveral LC-17B
ContractorMcDonnell Douglas
End of mission
Deactivated5 May 2001, 21:08 (2001-05-05UTC21:09Z) UTC
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
Longitude75° West (1977-1978)
100-110° West (1978-1984)
112-114° West (1984-1990)
60° West (1990-1992)
135° West (1992-1995)
177° West (1995-2001)[1][2]
Perigee altitude35,972 kilometres (22,352 mi)
Apogee altitude36,094 kilometres (22,428 mi)
Period24 hours
Epoch17 May 2016, 10:12:31 UTC[3]

GOES-2, known as GOES-B before becoming operational, was a geostationary weather satellite which was operated by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as part of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system.[4] GOES-2 was built by Ford Aerospace, and was based on the satellite bus developed for the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite programme. At launch it had a mass of 295 kilograms (650 lb).[5] It was positioned in geostationary orbit, from where it was used for weather forecasting in the United States. Following its retirement as a weather satellite, it was used as a communications satellite until its final decommissioning in 2001.

Launch of GOES-B on a Delta 2914

GOES-B was launched using a Delta 2914 carrier rocket flying from Launch Complex 17B at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.[2] The launch occurred at 10:51:00 GMT on 16 June 1977.[6] The launch successfully placed GOES-B into a geosynchronous transfer orbit, from which it raised itself to geostationary orbit by means of an onboard SVM-5 apogee motor. Its insertion into geosynchronous orbit occurred at 03:26 GMT on 17 June.[1]

Following on-orbit testing, GOES-B was redesignated GOES-2, and replaced SMS-1 at a longitude of 60 degrees west. It was operated as a weather satellite at several different positions until 1993, and was then placed into storage. It was reactivated as a communications satellite in 1995, and moved to 177° West. It was used by Peacesat to provide communications services to islands in the Pacific Ocean, a role in which it was replaced by GOES-7 in 1999, and by the US National Science Foundation for communications with the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. On 5 May 2001, it was retired to a graveyard orbit. At 21:08 GMT, two hours after the last manoeuvre to remove it from geosynchronous orbit, GOES-2 was commanded to deactivate its communications system, preventing future ground commands being sent to it.

See also


  1. ^ a b McDowell, Jonathan. "Index". Geostationary Orbit Catalog. Jonathan's Space Page. Archived from the original on 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2009-08-12. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. ^ a b Wade, Mark. "GOES". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2009-08-12. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. ^ GOES-2 - Orbit. Heavens Above. Retrieved 2016-17-05.
  4. ^ "GOES-2". The GOES Program - ESE 40th Anniversary. NASA. Retrieved 2009-08-12. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "SMS 1, 2 / GOES 1, 2, 3". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2009-08-12. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 2009-08-12. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)