Gaudiya Vaishnavism

Summary

Gaudiya Vaishnavism (IAST: Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavism), also known as Chaitanya Vaishnavism,[1][2][note 1] is a Vaishnava Hindu religious movement inspired by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534) in India.[14] "Gaudiya" refers to the Gaura or Gauḍa region of Bengal, with Vaishnavism meaning "the worship of Vishnu". Specifically, it is part of KrishnaismKrishna-centric Vaishnavite traditions.[15]

Gaudiya Vaishnavism
ISKONNVCC 08.JPG
Founder
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1534)
Regions with significant populations
Religions
Vaishnavism (Hinduism)
Scriptures
Languages

Its theological basis is primarily that of the Bhagavad Gita and Bhagavata Purana (known within the tradition as the Srimad Bhagavatam), as interpreted by early followers of Chaitanya, such as Sanatana Goswami, Rupa Goswami, Jiva Goswami, Gopala Bhatta Goswami and others.[16][17]

The focus of Gaudiya Vaishnavism is the devotional worship (known as bhakti yoga) of Radha and Krishna, and their many divine incarnations as the supreme forms of God, Svayam Bhagavan. Most popularly, this worship takes the form of singing Radha and Krishna's holy names, such as "Hare", "Krishna" and "Rama", most commonly in the form of the Hare Krishna (mantra), also known as kirtan and dancing along with it. The movement is sometimes referred to as the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya, referring to its belief in the succession of spiritual masters (gurus) believed to originate from Brahma.[18]

Gaudiya Vaishnavism is the spiritual and philosophical foundation of the well-known International Society for Krishna Consciousness, a.k.a. "Hare Krishna Movement".[19][20]

Philosophical conceptsEdit

Living beingsEdit

According to Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy, consciousness is not a product of matter, but is instead a symptom of the soul.[21] All living beings (jivas), including animals and trees, have a soul. That soul is distinct from their current physical body – the nature of the soul being eternal, immutable, and indestructible without any particular birth or death.[22] The soul does not die when the body dies, but it is transmigrated into another new body and takes new birth in a new body. Souls which are captivated by the illusory nature of the world (Maya) are repeatedly reborn among the various 8,400,000 number of species of life on this planet and in other worlds in accordance to the laws of karma and individual desire. This is consistent with the concept of samsara found throughout Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist beliefs.

Release from the process of samsara (known as moksha) is believed to be achievable through a variety of spiritual practices. However, within Gaudiya Vaishnavism, it is bhakti in its purest state (or "pure love of God") which is given as the ultimate aim, rather than liberation from the cycle of rebirth. Gaudiya Vaishnav tradition asserts that in the current yuga, which is Kali Yuga, singing and chanting the various sacred names of God are sufficient for spiritual liberation. [23]

Supreme Person (God)Edit

One of the defining aspects of Gaudiya Vaishnavism is that Shri Krishna is worshiped specifically as the source of all Avataric incarnations of God. This is based on quotations from the Bhagavata Purana, such as "krsnastu bhagavan svayam", literally "Krishna is God Himself".[24]

Inconceivable oneness and differenceEdit

A particularly distinct part of the Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy espoused by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the concept of Achintya Bheda Abheda, which translates to "inconceivable oneness and difference" in the context of the soul's relationship with Krishna,[25][26][27][note 2] and also Krishna's relationship with his other energies (i.e. the material world).[29]

In quality, the soul (jiva) is described as being identical to God, but in terms of quantity, individual jivas are said to be infinitesimal in comparison to the unlimited Supreme Being. The exact nature of this relationship (being simultaneously one and different with Krishna) is inconceivable to the human mind but can be experienced through the process of Bhakti yoga.

This philosophy serves as a meeting of two opposing schools of Hindu philosophy, pure monism (God and the soul as one entity) and pure dualism (God and the soul as absolutely separate). This philosophy largely recapitulates the concepts of qualified nondualism practiced by the older Vedantic school Vishishtadvaita, but emphasizes the figure of Krishna over Narayana and holy sites in and around Bengal over sites in Tamil Nadu. In practice, Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy has much more in common with the dualistic schools especially closely following theological traditions established by Madhvacharya's Dvaita Vedanta.

Devotional activitiesEdit

Bhakti YogaEdit

The practical process of devotional life is described as bhakti or bhakti-yoga. The two main elements of the bhakti-yoga process are vaidhi bhakti, which is devotional service through practice of rules and regulations (sadhana) and raganuga bhakti, which is taken as a higher stage of more spontaneous devotional service based on a selfless desire to please one's chosen Ishta-deva of Krishna or his associated expansions and avatars. Practicing vaidhi-bhakti with a view to cultivate prema creates eligibility for raganuga-sadhana.[30] Both vaidhi and raganuga bhakti are based on the chanting or singing of Krishna's names. Attainment of the raganuga stage means that rules of lifestyle are no longer important and that emotions or any material activities for Krishna should not be repressed. Vaidhi-bhakti's purpose is to elevate the devotee to raganuga; something which generally takes a long time.

Within his Siksastaka prayers, Chaitanya compares the process of bhakti-yoga to that of cleansing a dirty place of dust, wherein our consciousness is the object in need of purification.[31] This purification takes place largely through the chanting and singing of Radha and Krishna's names. Specifically, the Hare Krishna (mantra) is chanted and sung by practitioners on a daily basis, sometimes for many hours each day.[32] Famously within the tradition, one of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's close associates, Haridasa Thakur, is reported to have chanted 300,000 holy names of God each day.[33]

Diet and lifestyleEdit

Gaudiya Vaishnavas follow a lacto vegetarian (or stricter) diet, abstaining from all types of animal flesh, including fish and eggs. Onions, garlic and Red Lentils are also avoided as they are believed to promote a more tamasic form of consciousness in the eater when taken in large quantities. Some Gaudiya Vaishnavas, mainly from ISKCON and Gaudiya Matha, also avoid the intake of caffeine, as they believe it is addictive and an intoxicant.[34]

Sampradaya and paramparaEdit

A parampara ("lineage") denotes a succession of teachers and disciples within some sampradaya (school, tradition). In accordance with the tradition, Gaudiya Vaishnavism as a subschool belongs to the Brahma Sampradaya, one of the four "orthodox" Vaishnavite schools. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is said to be a disciple of Isvara Puri who was a disciple of Madhavendra Puri who was a disciple of Lakshmipati Tirtha who was a disciple of Vyasatirtha(1469–1539) of Madhva Sampradaya.[35] The Gaudiya Vaishnavas call their tradition "Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya", which originates from Brahma and has Madhvacharya as the original acharya and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu as the acharya-successor.[18]

However, this traditional point is at least the debatable. Some modern scholars and confessional authors critically assess and pair the Gaudiya Vaishnavism's affiliation with the Madhva tradition.[36][37][38] For example, the famous American Indologist and historian of religion Guy L. Beck, with regard to the Chaitanya Sampradaya, notes the following historical events. At the first time Brahma-Madhva affiliation of Gaudiya Vaishnavism was propounded by Baladeva Vidyabhushana only in the 18th century. And to this day, there is no mention of Chaitanya in the annals of the Madhva Sampradaya.[38] For secular scientists, this means only the originality and non-affiliation of Gaudiya Vaishnavism with any other previous branches. At the same time, there is the consensus of scholars, that Chaitanya was initiated by the two gurus of a Vaishnava-oriented group within Adi Shankara's Dashanami order.[39]

The Prameya Ratnawali of the above-mentioned gaudiya-acharya Baladeva Vidyabhushana contains the following canonical list of disciplic succession: Krishna, Brahma, Narada, Vyasa, Madhva, Padmanabha, Nrihari, Madhava, Akshobhya, Jayatirtha, Gyanasindhu, Dayanidhi, Vidyanidhi, Rajendra, Jayadharma, Purushottama, Brahmanya, Vyasatirtha, Lakshmipati Tirtha, Madhavendra Puri, Isvara Puri, and Chaitanya.[citation needed]

One feature of the Gaudiya succession of spiritual masters should be considered. Chaitanya refused to formally initiate anyone as a disciple, only inspiring and guiding his followers. Chaitanya neither founded the community nor named a successor. That is why, from the very beginning, the sampradaya was divided into several lines of succession that were practically not connected with each other and that still exist today.[40] One of them, namely, the Gaudiya-Sarasvata Sampradaya, belongs to the well known International Society for Krishna Consciousness.[41]

HistoryEdit

 
A murti of Chaitanya in ISKCON temple, Mayapur

Lord Chaitanya MahaprabhuEdit

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (also transliterated Caitanya, IAST Caitanya Mahāprabhu; 1486–1534[42]) was a Bengali spiritual teacher who founded Gaudiya Vaishnavism. He is believed by his devotees to be Krishna himself who appeared in the form of His own devotee in order to teach the people of this world the process of Bhakti and how to attain the perfection of life. This they say with several evidences in scripture. Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is said to be a disciple of Isvara Puri who was a disciple of Madhavendra Puri who was a disciple of Lakshmipati Tirtha who was a disciple of Vyasatirtha(1469–1539) of Madhvacharya's Sampradaya.[43] He is considered as the most merciful manifestation of Krishna. Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was the proponent for the Vaishnava school of Bhakti yoga (meaning loving devotion to God), based on Bhagavata Purana and Bhagavad Gita.[44] Of various incarnations of Vishnu, he is revered as Krishna, popularised the chanting of the Hare Krishna mantra[45] and composed the Siksastakam (eight devotional prayers) in Sanskrit. His followers, Gaudiya Vaishnavas, revere him as a Krishna with the mood and complexion of his source of inspiration Radha.[46]

Early growthEdit

Over the three centuries following the disappearance of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition evolved into the form in which we largely find it today in contemporary India. In the early years of the tradition, the followers of Nityananda Prabhu, Advaita Acharya and other companions of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu educated and initiated people, each in their own locales across Bengal.

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu requested a select few among his followers, who later came to be known as the Six Gosvamis of Vrindavan, to systematically present his theology of bhakti in their writings. This theology emphasized the devotee's relationship to the Divine Couple, Radha and Krishna, and looked to Chaitanya as the embodiment of both Radha and Krishna. The six were Rupa Goswami, Sanatana Goswami, Gopala Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami, Raghunatha dasa Goswami and Jiva Goswami. In the second generation of the tradition, Narottama, Srinivasa and Shyamananda, three students of Jiva Goswami, the youngest among the six Goswamis, were instrumental in spreading the theology across Bengal and Orissa.

The festival of Kheturi (approx 1574),[47] presided over by Jahnava Thakurani, the wife of Nityananda Rama, was the first time the leaders of the various branches of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's followers assembled together. Through such festivals, members of the loosely organized tradition became acquainted with other branches along with their respective theological and practical nuances. That notwithstanding, the tradition has maintained its plural nature, having no central authority to preside over its matters. The festival of Kheturi allowed for the systemization of Gaudiya Vaishnava theology as a distinct branch of Vaishnava theology.

17th–18th centuryEdit

 
Pancha-Tattva deities: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Nityananda, Advaita Acharya, Gadadhara and Srivasa, installed in a Gaudiya Vaishnava temple

During the 17th–18th centuries, there was a period of general decline in the movement's strength and popularity, its "lethargic state", characterized by decreased public preaching and the rise of persons following and promoting tantric teachings and practices.[48][49] These groups are called apasampradayas by the Chaitanyaits.[50][failed verification]

In the 17th century, Vishvanath Chakravarti Thakur held great merit in clarifying core doctrinal issues over the practice of raganuga-bhakti through works such as Raga-vartma-chandrika. His student Baladeva Vidyabhushan wrote a famous commentary on the Vedanta-sutra called Govinda Bhashya.

The 18th century saw a number of luminaries headed by Siddha Jayakrishna Das Babaji of Kamyavan and Siddha Krishnadas Babaji of Govardhan. The latter, a widely renowned teacher of the mode of internal worship (raga-bhajan) practiced in the tradition, is largely responsible for the current form of devotional practice embraced by some of the traditions based in Vrindavan.

Manipuri VaishnavismEdit

The "Manipuri Vaishnavism" is a regional form of Gaudiya Vaishnavism with a culture-forming role among the Meitei people in the north-eastern Indian state of Manipur.[51] There, after a short period of Ramaism penetration, Gaudiya Vaishnavism spread in the early 18th century, especially from beginning its second quarter. Raja Gharib Nawaz (Pamheiba) was initiated into the Chaitanya tradition. Most devotee ruler and propagandist of Gaudiya Vaishnavism, under the influence of Natottama Thakura's disciples, was raja Bhagyachandra, who has visited the holy for the Chaytanyaits Nabadwip.[52] Rasa Lila dance became a feature of the regional folk and religious tradition.[52]

20th century renaissanceEdit

 
Yogapith temple at Chaitanya's birthsite in Mayapur established in 1880s by Bhaktivinoda Thakur, presently takecared by the Sri Chaitanya Math.
 
Sri Gaudiya Math (Kolkata, estd. 1930) is the formed headquarters of Gaudiya Math, now headquarter of Gaudiya Mission.

From the very beginning of Chaitanya's bhakti movement in Bengal, Haridasa Thakur and others Muslim by birth were the participants. This openness received a boost from Bhaktivinoda Thakur's broad-minded vision in the late 19th century, Baba Premananda Bharati's mission in the United States in the beginning of 20th century and was institutionalized by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakur in his Gaudiya Math in the 20th century.[53]

A renaissance began at the start of the 20th century both in India and the West. One pioneer of the Gaudiya Vaishnavite mission in the West was Baba Premananda Bharati (1858–1914),[54] author of Sree Krishna – the Lord of Love (1904) – the first full-length trearment of Gaudiya Vaishnavism in English,[55] who, in 1902, founded the short-lived "Krishna Samaj" society in New York City and built a temple in Los Angeles.[56][57] He belonged to the circle of adherents of the guru Prabhu Jagadbandhu[58] with teachings similar to the later ISKCON mission.[57] His followers formed several organizations including the now defunct Order of Living Service and the AUM Temple of Universal Truth.[57]

The reform change of traditional caste Gaudiya Vaishnavism of 19th century is believed to have happened largely in India due to the efforts of a particularly adept preacher known as Bhaktivinoda Thakur, who also held the position of a deputy magistrate with the British government. Bhaktivinoda Thakur's son grew up to be both an eminent scholar and a highly influential Vaishnava preacher, and was later known as Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. In 1920, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati founded Gaudiya Math in India, and later sixty-four Gaudiya Matha monasteries in India, Burma and Europe. In 1933, the first European preaching center was established in London (London Glouster House, Cornwall Garden, W7 South Kensington) under the name "Gaudiya Mission Society of London".[59][60]

Soon after Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati's death (1 January 1937), a dispute began, which divided the original Gaudiya Math mission into two administrative bodies still in existence today. In a settlement, they divided the sixty-four Gaudiya Math centers into two groups: the Sri Chaitanya Math headed by Bhakti Vilasa Tirtha Maharaj and the Gaudiya Mission headed by Ananta Vasudev (Bhakti Prasad Puri Maharaj).[41][61]

Many of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati's disciples disagreed with the spirit of these two factions and/or started their own missions to expand their guru's mission.[62] In the 1960s, the one of his disciples, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada went to the West to spread Gaudiya-Vaishnavism and establish the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), "the most successful of the Gaudiya Math's offspring," an organization that continues today.[63]

However, despite the active missionary work of the reformed Gaudiya Math and its followers, most of the Gaudiya Vaishnava community in India remained under the influence of hereditary brahmins-goswamis, who run famous old Gaudiya mandirs, as one example, the Radha Raman Temple in Vrindavan and its prominent scholar-acharya Shrivatsa Goswami.[64]

Gaudiya and other Vaishnava schoolsEdit

Although sharing a common set of core beliefs, there are a number of philosophical differences which distinguish Gaudiya Vaishnavism from other Vaishnava schools:

  • In Gaudiya Vaishnavism, Krishna is seen as the original form of God, i.e. the source of Vishnu and not as His avatar. This is based primarily on verse 1.3.28 of the Bhagavata Purana (krsnas tu bhagavan svayam)[65] and other scriptures. This belief is shared by the Nimbarka and Vallabha sampradayas, but not by the Ramanuja and Madhva schools, who view Krishna as an avatar of Vishnu.
  • As Krishna's consort, Radha is similarly viewed as the source of all other Shaktis, including Lakshmi and Sita.
  • Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is worshiped as the most recent i.e. ninth Avatar of Krishna to descend in the current yuga, or age. Other sampradayas view Chaitanya as a devotee of Krishna only, and not Krishna himself or a form of avatar.[citation needed] According to his biographies, Chaitanya did not display himself as Krishna in public,[dubious ] and would, in fact, avoid being addressed as such. In this regard A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami states, "[When] addressed as Lord Krishna, He denied it. Indeed, He sometimes placed His hands over His ears, protesting that one should not be addressed as the Supreme Lord".[66] However at times Chaitanya would exhibit a different mood and would welcome worship of himself as the Supreme Lord, and at a few occasions, is said to have exhibited his Universal form. Rupa Goswami, when first meeting with Chaitanya, composed the following verse showing his belief in Chaitanya Mahaprabhu's divinity:

"O most munificent incarnation! You are Krishna Himself appearing as Sri Krishna Caitanya Mahaprabhu. You have assumed the golden colour of Srimati Radharani, and You are widely distributing pure love of Krishna. We offer our respectful obeisances unto You."[67]

Although this viewpoint outside of the Gaudiya tradition was disputed, Chaitanya's followers prove it by pointing at verses throughout the Puranic literatures as evidence to support this claim.[68][69] Evidences such as the Krishna-varnam verse SB 11.5.32 have many interpretations by scholars, including Sridhara Svami who is accepted as authority by Mahaprabhu himself.[70]

Theological sourcesEdit

Gaudiya Vaishnava theology is prominently expounded by Jiva Goswami in his Sat-sandarbhas, six elaborate treatises on various aspects of God. Other prominent Gaudiya Vaishnava theologians are his uncles, Rupa Gosvami author of Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu[71] and Sanatana Gosvami, author of Hari-bhakti-vilasa,[72] Visvanatha Chakravarti author of Sri Camatkara-candrika[73] and Baladeva Vidyabhushana, author of Govinda Bhashya, a famous commentary on Vedanta Sutra.

Modern Gaudiya Vaishnava societiesEdit

The strictly centralized form of church-type organization and the idea that one has to be an unconventional (uttama) spiritual master introduced by the reformer Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati and his Gaudiya Math was not characteristic of the traditional caste Gaudiya Vaishnavism with its hereditary brahmins-goswamis and family teachers (kula gurus). And much of the Gaudiya Vaishnava community in India remained committed to the unreformed and loosely organized tradition.[74] Many modern organisations are independent branches of the tree of the Gaudiya Math.[62]

Gaudiya Math and offshoots
Traditional Gaudiya societies

Many of branches of the Gaudiya Math (not all) are members of the World Vaisnava Association — Visva Vaisnava Raj Sabha (WVA–VVRS), which had been established in 1994 by some Gaudiya leaders.[62][83] But and after this establushment, there is little real cooperation among Gaudiya organisations.[62]

DemographyEdit

There are adherents of Gaudiya Vaishnavism in all strata of Indian society, but a tendency has been revealed, Bengali Vaishnavas belong to the lower middle castes ("middle class"), while the upper castes as well as lowest castes and tribes in Bengal are Shaktas.[4]

Offshoots of Gaudiya VaishnavismEdit

There are Krishnaite gurus and groups who belong to the Chaitanya lineage, but actually separated from Gaudiya Vaishnavism, becoming new independent movements.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Other names include Bengali Vaishnavism,[5][6][7][4][8] the Bengali, Chaitanya or Gaudiya Sampradaya,[9][10] Chaitanyaism,[11] and Gaura Dharma.[13]
  2. ^ "It is the living entity's constitutional position to be an eternal servant of Krishna because he is the marginal energy of Krishna and a manifestation simultaneously one with and different from the Lord, like a molecular particle of sunshine or fire."[28]

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ De 1942, p. 7.
  2. ^ Sinha 2001.
  3. ^ De 1942, Preface.
  4. ^ a b c McDermott 2005, p. 826.
  5. ^ The term Bengali Vaishnavism is not co-extensive with Chaitanya's movement – there are also the other Vaishnava traditions in Bengal, such as Vaishnava-Sahajiya, Ramanandi Sampradaya, Mahanam Sampraday, and others – but Gaudiya Vaishnavism is described as "the most characteristic form of Vaishnavism in Bengal" and is called Bengali Vaishnavism.[3][4]
  6. ^ De 1942, pp. 1–2, 9–12.
  7. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 80.
  8. ^ Carney 2020.
  9. ^ De 1942, pp. 10 note 1, 17.
  10. ^ Rosen 1992, p. 127.
  11. ^ De 1942, pp. 1, 7–8, and Preface.
  12. ^ Singh 2004, p. 131 note 4.
  13. ^ "Gaura or Gauranga is an epithet of Chaitanya and hence Chaitanyaite Vaishnavism is also known as Gaura Dharma, 'religion of Gaura'."[12]
  14. ^ Sen 1922; Kennedy 1925; De 1942.
  15. ^ Hardy 1987, pp. 387–392.
  16. ^ Bryant 2017, p. 650.
  17. ^ Holdrege 2017.
  18. ^ a b Kapoor 1977, p. 46.
  19. ^ Kapoor 1977, Front matter.
  20. ^ Gelberg 1983, Front matter.
  21. ^ Consciousness the Symptom of the Soul by Stephen Knapp
  22. ^ "Bhagavad Gita 2.20". Vedabase.io. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  23. ^ "Kali yuga Method of Liberation".
  24. ^ "Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the original Personality of Godhead". Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  25. ^ Vidyavinoda 1951.
  26. ^ Kapoor 1977.
  27. ^ Rosen 1992, pp. 249–260.
  28. ^ Caitanya-Caritamrita Ml 20.108–109 Archived 11 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  29. ^ "B-Gita 7.8". Vedabase.net. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  30. ^ Tripurari Swami, Learn to Think Differently Archived 13 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Sanga, 1999.
  31. ^ "Teachings of Lord Caitanya - Sikshashtakam". Iskconvrindavan.com. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  32. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, pp. 35–44.
  33. ^ Caitanya Caritamrita 1.10.43, 3.3.100, 3.3.176, 3.4.101, 3.7.48
  34. ^ Buxton, Julia (17 December 2010). The Politics of Narcotic Drugs: A Survey. p. 189. ISBN 978-1857437591.
  35. ^ https://gaudiya.com/pdf/Is_the_Gaudiya_Vaishnava_sampradaya_connected_to_the_Madhva_line.pdf Connection between Gaudiya and Madhva Sampradayas (pdf)
  36. ^ De 1942, pp. 10–20.
  37. ^ Vidyavinoda 1951, pp. 207–213, 240–241.
  38. ^ a b Beck 2005, pp. 74–75.
  39. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 77.
  40. ^ Stewart 2010.
  41. ^ a b c d e Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 131.
  42. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  43. ^ Connection between Gaudiya and Madhva Sampradayas(pdf)
  44. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam (Introduction) "Lord Caitanya not only preached the Srimad-Bhagavatam but propagated the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita as well in the most practical way."
  45. ^ Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu "He spread the Yuga-dharma as the practice for attainment of pure love for Radha-Krishna. That process is Harinam-Sankirtan, or the congregational chanting of the Holy Names of Krishna "Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare"
  46. ^ Benjamin E. Zeller (2010), Prophets and Protons, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814797211, pp. 77–79
  47. ^ Women Saints in Gaudiya Vaishnavism "The event at which this took place was the famous Kheturi festival already mentioned above, the date of which is still a matter of conjecture, but likely took place in the 1570s."
  48. ^ Kennedy 1925, pp. 77–78.
  49. ^ śuna haridāsa ei līlā saṃgopane viśva andhakāra karibeka duṣṭa jane, Harinama Cintamani 15.108
  50. ^ gaudiya kutir – Asampradaya Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ Singh 2004, pp. 125–132.
  52. ^ a b Singh 2004, p. 128.
  53. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 139.
  54. ^ Carney 2020, pp. 135–136.
  55. ^ Carney 2020, p. 140.
  56. ^ Carney 2020, p. 152.
  57. ^ a b c Jones & Ryan 2007, pp. 79–80, Baba Premanand Bharati.
  58. ^ Carney 2020, pp. 140–143.
  59. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 130.
  60. ^ Jones & Ryan 2007, p. 165, Gaudiya Math.
  61. ^ "The Sons of the Son: The Breakup of the Gaudiya Matha" (PDF). Retrieved 2 October 2020.
  62. ^ a b c d Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 90.
  63. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 91.
  64. ^ Case 2000.
  65. ^ "Bhagavata Purana 1.3.28". vedabase.io. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  66. ^ "Teachings of Lord Chaitanya". Vedabase.io. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  67. ^ "Caitanya Caritamrita 2.19.53". vedabase.io. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  68. ^ Bhagavata Purana 11.5.32 Archived 8 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine "In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the names of Krishna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krishna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions."
  69. ^ "Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu predicted". Veda.harekrsna.cz. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  70. ^ "Faith in Chaitanya Mahaprabhu as Krishna". jiva.org. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  71. ^ Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu-bindu, ISBN 978-81-86737-16-3 ISBN 978-81-208-1861-3
  72. ^ Hari-bhakti-vilasa, ISBN 81-87812-86-9
  73. ^ Sri Camatkara-candrika, ISBN 81-86737-33-2
  74. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, pp. 78–79, 88, chapter 2.6 Jan Brzezinski. "Charismatic Renewal and Institutionalization in the History of Gaudiya Vashnavism and the Gaudiya Math".
  75. ^ Jones & Ryan 2007, p. 166.
  76. ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, Front matter.
  77. ^ Bhrgumuni dasa (10 July 2001). "The Later Life Of Srila Bhakti Hriday Bon Maharaj". India.
  78. ^ Jones & Ryan 2007, pp. 165–166, Gaudiya Vaishnavite Society.
  79. ^ Doktorski, Henry (2021). Eleven Naked Emperors: The Crisis of Charismatic Succession in the Hare Krishna Movement (1977–1987). Kindle: Independently Published. pp. 389–390. ISBN 9781079561371.
  80. ^ Jones & Ryan 2007, pp. 199–200, International Society for Krishna Consciousness Revival Movement (IRM).
  81. ^ Gelberg 1983, p. 196.
  82. ^ Rosen 1992, p. 249.
  83. ^ Jones & Ryan 2007, pp. 504–505.
  84. ^ Carney 2020, pp. 140–141.

BibliographyEdit

  • Beck, Guy L. (2005). "Krishna as Loving Husband of God: The Alternative Krishnology of the Rādhāvallabha Sampradaya". In Guy L. Beck (ed.). Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. pp. 65–90. ISBN 978-0-7914-6415-1.
  • Broo, Måns (2003). As good as God: the guru in Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavism. Åbo Akademi University Press. ISBN 951-765-132-5. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  • Bryant, Edwin (2017). Bhakti yoga: tales and teachings from the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. ISBN 9780865477759.
  • Bryant, Edwin; Ekstrand, Maria, eds. (2004). The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12256-X.
  • Carney, Gerald T. (2020). "Baba Premananda Bharati: his trajectory into and through Bengal Vaiṣṇavism to the West". In Ferdinando Sardella; Lucian Wong (eds.). The Legacy of Vaiṣṇavism in Colonial Bengal. Routledge Hindu Studies Series. Milton, Oxon; New York: Routledge. pp. 135–160. ISBN 978-1-138-56179-3.
  • Case, Margaret H. (2000). Seeing Krishna: The Religious World of a Brahman Family in Vrindavan. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513010-3.
  • Chakravarti, Ramakanta (1985). Vaiṣṇavism in Bengal, 1486–1900. Calcutta: Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar.
  • De, Sushil Kumar (1942). Early History of the Vaisnava Faith and Movement in Bengal from Sanskrit and Bengali Sources. Calcutta: General Printers and Publishers.
  • Gelberg, Steven J., ed. (1983). Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna: Five Distinguished Scholars on the Krishna Movement in the West, Harvey Cox, Larry D. Shinn, Thomas J. Hopkins, A. L. Basham, Shrivatsa Goswami. Grove Press Eastern Philosophy and Literature Series. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0394624548.
  • Hardy, Friedhelm E. (1987). "Kṛṣṇaism". In Mircea Eliade (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol. 8. New York: MacMillan. pp. 387–392. ISBN 978-0-02897-135-3 – via Encyclopedia.com.
  • Holdrege, Barbaraga (2017). Bhakti and Embodient: fashioning divine bodies and devotional bodies in Kṛṣṇa Bhakti. ISBN 9781138492455.
  • Jones, Constance A.; Ryan, James D. (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Encyclopedia of World Religions. J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor. New York: Facts On File. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016.
  • Kapoor, O.B.L. (1977). The Philosophy and Religion of Śrī Caitanya: The Philosophical Background of the Hare Krishna Movement. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
  • Kennedy, Melville T. (1925). The Chaitanya Movement: A Study of the Vaishnavism of Bengal. The Religious Life of India. Calkutta: Association Press; Humphery Milford; Oxford University Press.
  • McDermott, Rachel Fell (2005). "Bengali religions". In Lindsay Jones (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion: 15 Volume Set. Vol. 2 (2nd ed.). Detroit, Mi: MacMillan Reference USA. pp. 824–832. ISBN 0-02-865735-7.
  • Rosen, Steven J., ed. (1992). Vaiṣṇavism: Contemporary Scholars Discuss the Gaudiya Tradition. New York: FOLK Books. ISBN 0-9619763-6-5.
  • Sen, Dinesh Chandra (1922). Chaitanya and His Age (PDF). Calcutta: University of Calcutta Press.
  • Singh, Kunj Bihari (2004) [1963]. "Manipur Vaishnavism: A Sociological Interpretation". In Rowena Robinson (ed.). Sociology of Religion in India. Themes in Indian Sociology, 3. New Delhi: Sage Publ. India. pp. 125–132. ISBN 0-7619-9781-4.
  • Sinha, K. P. (2001). Sri Caitanya's Vaisnavism and Its Sources. Kolkata: Punthi Pustak.
  • Stewart, Tony K. (2010). The Final Word: The Caitanya Caritāmṛta and the Grammar of Religious Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-539272-2.
  • Vidyavinoda, Sunderananda (1951). Acintya-bhedabheda-vada. Calcutta.

External linksEdit

  • An overview of Gaudiya Vaishnavism – (gaudiya.com)
  • An ecstatic ride across ancient spiritual Bengal: Nadia & Kalna Archives
  • Official statement by Vishwesha Tirtha on link between the line of Madhvacharya and Gaudiya Vaishnavism
  • Is Gaudiya Vaishnavism in the diksa line of Madhvacharya?

Official websitesEdit

  • Gaudiya Mission
  • Gaudiya Vedanta Samiti
  • International Society for Krishna Consciousness
  • ISKCON Revival Movement
  • Science of Identity Foundation
  • Sri Caitanya Sangha
  • Sri Chaitanya Saraswat Math
  • The Vaishnava Foundation
  • World Vaisnava Association