Geographical feature

Summary

A feature (also called an object or entity), in the context of geography and geographic information science, is a discrete phenomenon that exists at a location in the space and scale of relevance to geography; that is, at or near the surface of Earth, at a moderate to global scale.[1]: 62  It is one of the primary types of phenomena represented in geographic information, such as that represented in maps, geographic information systems, remote sensing imagery, statistics, and other forms of geographic discourse. Such representations of features consists of descriptions of their inherent nature, their spatial form and location, and their characteristics or properties.[2]

Ontology and terminologyEdit

The term "feature" is meant to be broad and inclusive, including both natural and human-constructed phenomena. It is metaphysically neutral, including both phenomena that exist physically (e.g. a building) and those that are conceptual or social creations (e.g. a neighbourhood). In an ontological sense, the term is generally restricted to endurants, which are wholly present at any time during their lifespan (e.g., the state of New York in 1820 was a complete state, and is the same state as the New York in 2021). A feature is also discrete, meaning that it has a clear identity distinct from other phenomena, and is comprehended as a whole, defined in part by the boundary of its extent (although this can be problematic when vagueness arises, such as in the boundaries of a "valley"). This differentiates features from geographic processes and events, which are perdurants that only exist in time; and from geographic masses and fields, which are continuous in that they are not conceptualized as a distinct whole.[3]

In geographic information science, the terms feature, object, and entity are generally used as roughly synonymous. In the 1992 Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS), one of the first public standard models of geographic information, an attempt was made to formally distinguish them: an entity as the real-world phenomenon, an object as a representation thereof (e.g. on paper or digital), and a feature as the combination of both entity and representation objects.[4] Although this distinction is often cited in textbooks, it has not gained lasting nor widespread usage. In the ISO 19101 Geographic Information Reference Model[5] and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Simple Features Specification,[6] international standards that form the basis for most modern geospatial technologies, a feature is defined as "an abstraction of a real-world phenomena," essentially the object in SDTS.

Despite these attempts at formalization, the broadly interchangeable use of these English terms has persisted. That said, Phenomenon is likely the most broad, comfortably including geographic masses, processes, and events that would be difficult to call "objects" or "entities."[7]

Natural geographical featuresEdit

A natural feature is a phenomenon that was not created by humans, but is a part of the natural world. There has been some metaphysical debate over whether such features are "real," independent of the human mind (a realist stance), whether they are purely human conceptualizations of continuous natural phenomena (a constructivist stance), or a hybrid of discrete natural phenomena that highly motivate, but are simplified by human concepts (a experientialist stance). It is also possible that individual features may be of any of these three types.[8]

EcosystemsEdit

There are two different terms to describe habitats: ecosystem and biome. An ecosystem is a community of organisms.[9] In contrast, biomes occupy large areas of the globe and often encompass many different kinds of geographical features, including mountain ranges.[10]

Biotic diversity within an ecosystem is the variability among living organisms from all sources, including inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems.[11] Living organisms are continually engaged in a set of relationships with every other element constituting the environment in which they exist, and ecosystem describes any situation where there is relationship between organisms and their environment.

Biomes represent large areas of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms.[12] Biomes are defined based on factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf), plant spacing (forest, woodland, savanna), and climate. Unlike biogeographic realms, biomes are not defined by genetic, taxonomic, or historical similarities. Biomes are often identified with particular patterns of ecological succession and climax vegetation.

Water bodiesEdit

A body of water is any significant accumulation of water, usually covering the land. The term "body of water" most often refers to oceans, seas, and lakes, but it may also include smaller pools of water such as ponds, creeks or wetlands. Rivers, streams, canals, and other geographical features where water moves from one place to another are not always considered bodies of water, but they are included as geographical formations featuring water.

Some of these are easily recognizable as distinct real-world entities (e.g., an isolated lake), while others are at least partially based on human conceptualizations. Examples of the latter include a branching stream network in which one of the branches has been arbitrarily designated as the continuation of the primary named stream; or a gulf or bay of an ocean, which has no meaningful dividing line from the rest of the ocean.

LandformsEdit

A landform comprises a geomorphological unit and is largely defined by its surface form and location in the landscape, as part of the terrain, and as such is typically an element of topography. Landforms are categorized by features such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type. They include berms, mounds, hills, cliffs, valleys, rivers, and numerous other elements. Oceans and continents are the highest-order landforms.

Artificial geographical featuresEdit

SettlementEdit

A settlement is a permanent or temporary community in which people live. Settlements range in components from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Other landscape features such as roads, enclosures, field systems, boundary banks and ditches, ponds, parks and woods, mills, manor houses, moats, and churches may be considered part of a settlement.[13]

Administrative regions and other constructsEdit

These include social constructions that are created to administer and organize the land, people, and other spatially-relevant resources.[14] Examples include governmental units such as a state, cadastral land parcels, mining claims, zoning partitions of a city, or a church parish. There are also more informal social features, such as city neighbourhoods and other vernacular regions. These are purely conceptual entities established by edict or practice, although they may align with visible features (i.e. a river boundary), and may be subsequently manifested on the ground, such as by survey markers or fences.

Engineered constructsEdit

Engineered geographic features include highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs, and are part of the anthroposphere because they are man-made geographic features.

Cartographic featuresEdit

Cartographic features are types of abstract geographical features, which appear on maps but not on the planet itself, even though they are located on the planet. For example, latitudes, longitudes, the Equator, and the prime meridian are shown on maps of Earth, but it do not physically exist. It is a theoretical line used for reference, navigation, and measurement.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Longley, Paul A.; Goodchilde, Michael F.; Maguire, David J.; Rhind, David W. (2015). Geographic Information Systems & Science (4th ed.). Wiley.
  2. ^ Mennis, Jeremy; Peuquet, Donna J.; Qian, L. (2000). "A geographical database representation". International Journal of Geographical Information Science. 14 (6): 501–520. doi:10.1080/136588100415710.
  3. ^ Plewe, Brandon (2019). "A Case for Geographic Masses". In Timpf, S.; Schlieder, C.; Kattenbeck, M.; Ludwig, B.; Stewart, K. (eds.). 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2019). Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik. pp. 14:1–14. doi:10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.14.
  4. ^ Fegeas, Robin G.; Cascio, Janette L.; Lazar, Robert A. (1992). "An Overview of FIPS 173, The Spatial Data Transfer Standard". Cartography and Geographic Information Systems. 19 (5): 278–293. doi:10.1559/152304092783762209.
  5. ^ International Standards Organization. "ISO 19101-1:2014, Geographic Information-Reference Model-Part 1: Fundamentals". ISO Standards.
  6. ^ Open Geospatial Consortium. "Simple Feature Access - Part 1: Common Architecture". OGC Standards.
  7. ^ Plewe, Brandon (2019). "A Case for Geographic Masses". 14th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory. Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics. doi:10.4230/LIPIcs.COSIT.2019.14.
  8. ^ Frank, Andrew U. (2003). "Ontology for Spatio-Temporal Databases". In Sellis, Timos (ed.). Spatio-Temporal Databases: The Chorochronos Approach. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Vol. V.2520. Springer-Verlag. pp. 9–77. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45081-8_2.
  9. ^ Odum, Eugene P.; Odum, Howard T. (1971). Fundamentals of Ecology (3rd ed.). Saunders.
  10. ^ Botkin, Daniel B.; Keller, Edward A. (1995). Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Canada.
  11. ^ "Convention Text — Article 2. Use of Terms". www.CBD.int. Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  12. ^ Basak, Anindita (2009). Environmental Studies. Dorling Kindersley. p. 288. ISBN 978-81-317-2118-6. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  13. ^ "MSRG Policy Statement". Medieval-Settlement.com. Medieval Settlement Research Group. 2014-05-11. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  14. ^ Montello, Daniel R. (2003). "Regions in geography: Process and content". In Duckham, Matthew; Goodchild, Michael F.; Worboys, Michael (eds.). Foundations of geographic information science. Taylor & Francis. pp. 173–189.