Geordie (/ˈdʒɔːrdi/) is a nickname for a person from the Tyneside area of North East England, and the dialect used by its inhabitants, also known in linguistics as Tyneside English or Newcastle English. There are different definitions of what constitutes a Geordie. The term is used and has been historically used to refer to the people of the North East. A Geordie can also specifically be a native of Tyneside (especially Newcastle upon Tyne) and the surrounding areas. Not everyone from the North East of England identifies as a Geordie.
Geordie is a continuation and development of the language spoken by Anglo-Saxon settlers, initially employed by the ancient Brythons to fight the Pictish invaders after the end of Roman rule in Britain in the 5th century. The Angles, Saxons and Jutes who arrived became ascendant politically and culturally over the native British through subsequent migration from tribal homelands along the North Sea coast of mainland Europe. The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that emerged in the Dark Ages spoke largely mutually intelligible varieties of what is now called Old English, each varying somewhat in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. This linguistic conservatism means that poems by the Anglo-Saxon scholar the Venerable Bede translate more successfully into Geordie than into Standard English.
The British Library points out that the Norse, who primarily lived south of the River Tees, affected the language in Yorkshire but not in regions to the north. This source adds that "the border skirmishes that broke out sporadically during the Middle Ages meant the River Tweed established itself as a significant northern barrier against Scottish influence". Today, many who speak the Geordie dialect use words such as gan ('go' – modern German gehen) and bairn ('child' – modern Danish barn) which "can still trace their roots right back to the Angles".
The Geordie dialect and identity are primarily associated with those of a working-class background. A 2008 newspaper survey found the Geordie accent the "most attractive in England". Indeed, the variety has recently acquired a "cool" flavour in the perception of many.
When referring to the people, as opposed to the dialect, dictionary definitions of a Geordie typically refer to a native or inhabitant of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, or its environs, an area that encompasses Blyth, Ashington, North Tyneside, Newcastle, South Tyneside and Gateshead. This area has a combined population of around 700,000, based on 2011 census-data.
The term itself, according to Brockett, originated from all the North East coal mines. The catchment area for the term "Geordie" can include Northumberland and County Durham or be confined to an area as small as the city of Newcastle upon Tyne and the metropolitan boroughs of Tyneside. Scott Dobson, the author of the book Larn Yersel Geordie, once stated that his grandmother, who was brought up in Byker, thought the miners were the true Geordies. There is a theory the name comes from the Northumberland and Durham coal mines. Poems and songs written in this area in 1876 (according to the OED), speak of the "Geordie".
According to the British Library, "Locals insist there are significant differences between Geordie and several other local dialects, such as Pitmatic and Mackem. Pitmatic is the dialect of the former mining areas in County Durham and around Ashington to the north of Newcastle upon Tyne, while Mackem is used locally to refer to the dialect of the city of Sunderland and the surrounding urban area of Wearside".
A number of rival theories explain how the term "Geordie" came about, though all accept that it derives from a familiar diminutive form of the name George, "a very common name among the pitmen" (coal miners) in North East England; indeed, it was once the most popular name for eldest sons in the region.
One account traces the name to the times of the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715. The Jacobites declared that the natives of Newcastle were staunch supporters of the Hanoverian kings, whose first representative George I reigned (1714–1727) at the time of the 1715 rebellion. Newcastle contrasted with rural Northumberland, which largely supported the Jacobite cause. In this case, the term "Geordie" may have derived from the popular anti-Hanoverian song "Cam Ye O'er Frae France?", which calls the first Hanoverian king "Geordie Whelps", a play on "George the Guelph".
Another explanation for the name states that local miners in the northeast of England used Geordie safety lamps, designed by George Stephenson, known locally as "Geordie the engine-wright", in 1815 rather than the competing Davy lamps, designed about the same time by Humphry Davy and used in other mining communities. Using the chronological order of two John Trotter Brockett books, Geordie was given to North East pitmen; later he acknowledges that the pitmen also christened their Stephenson lamp Geordie.
Linguist Katie Wales also dates the term earlier than does the current Oxford English Dictionary; she observes that Geordy (or Geordie) was a common name given to coal-mine pitmen in ballads and songs of the region, noting that such usage turns up as early as 1793. It occurs in the titles of two songs by songwriter Joe Wilson: "Geordy, Haud the Bairn" and "Keep your Feet Still, Geordie". Citing such examples as the song "Geordy Black", written by Rowland Harrison of Gateshead, she contends that, as a consequence of popular culture, the miner and the keelman had become icons of the region in the 19th century, and "Geordie" was a label that "affectionately and proudly reflected this," replacing the earlier ballad emblem, the figure of Bob Crankie.
In the English Dialect Dictionary of 1900, Joseph Wright gave as his fourth definition of "Geordie": A man from Tyneside; a miner; a north-country collier vessel, quoting two sources from Northumberland, one from East Durham and one from Australia. The source from Durham stated: "In South Tyneside even, this name was applied to the Lower Tyneside men."
Newcastle publisher Frank Graham's Geordie Dictionary states:
The origin of the word Geordie has been a matter of much discussion and controversy. All the explanations are fanciful and not a single piece of genuine evidence has ever been produced.
In Graham's many years of research, the earliest record he found of the term's use dated to 1823 by local comedian Billy Purvis. Purvis had set up a booth at the Newcastle Races on the Town Moor. In an angry tirade against a rival showman, who had hired a young pitman called Tom Johnson to dress as a clown, Billy cried out to the clown:
Ah man, wee but a feul wad hae sold off his furnitor and left his wife. Noo, yor a fair doon reet feul, not an artificial feul like Billy Purvis! Thous a real Geordie! gan man an hide thysel! gan an' get thy picks agyen. Thou may de for the city, but never for the west end o' wor toon.
(Rough translation: "Oh man, who but a fool would have sold off his furniture and left his wife? Now, you're a fair downright fool, not an artificial fool like Billy Purvis! You're a real Geordie! Go on, man, and hide yourself! Go on and get your picks [axes] again. You may do for the city, but never for the west end of our town!")
John Camden Hotten wrote in 1869: "Geordie, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century." Using Hotten as a chronological reference, Geordie has been documented for at least 253 years as a term related to Northumberland and County Durham.
The name Bad-weather Geordy applied to cockle sellers:
As the season at which cockles are in greatest demand is generally the most stormy in the year – September to March – the sailors' wives at the seaport towns of Northumberland and Durham consider the cry of the cockle man as the harbinger of bad weather, and the sailor, when he hears the cry of 'cockles alive,' in a dark wintry night, concludes that a storm is at hand, and breathes a prayer, backwards, for the soul of Bad-Weather-Geordy.
— S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835
Travel writer Scott Dobson used the term "Geordieland" in a 1973 guidebook to refer collectively to Northumberland and Durham.
The phonemic notation used in this article is based on the set of symbols used by Watt & Allen (2003). Other scholars may use different transcriptions. Watt and Allen stated that there were approximately 800,000 people in the early 2000s who spoke this form of British English.
Tyneside English (TE) is spoken in Newcastle upon Tyne, a city of around 260,000 inhabitants in the far north of England, and in the conurbation stretching east and south of Newcastle along the valley of the River Tyne as far as the North Sea. The total population of this conurbation, which also subsumes Gateshead, Jarrow, North and South Shields, Whitley Bay, and Tynemouth, exceeds 800,000.
/ɪŋ/ appearing in an unstressed final syllable of a word (such as in reading) is pronounced as [ən] (thus, reading is [ˈɹiːdən]).
The Geordie accent does not use the glottal stop in a usual fashion. It is characterised by a unique type of glottal stops. /p, t, k/ can all be pronounced simultaneously with a glottal stop after them in Geordie, both at the end of a syllable and sometimes before a weak vowel.
T-glottalisation, in which /t/ is realised by [ʔ] before a syllabic nasal (e.g., button as [ˈbʊtʔn̩]), in absolute final position (get as [ɡɛtʔ]), and whenever the /t/ is intervocalic so long as the latter vowel is not stressed (pity as [ˈpɪtʔi]).
Glottaling in Geordie is known as 'pre-glottalisation', which is 'an occlusion at the appropriate place of articulation and 'glottalisation', usually manifested as a short period of laryngealised voice before and/or after and often also during the stop gap'. This type of glottal is unique to Tyneside English.
The dialect is non-rhotic, like most British dialects, most commonly as an alveolar approximant [ɹ], although a labiodental realisation [ʋ] is also growing for younger females (this is also possible by older males, albeit rarer). Traditionally, intrusive R was not present, instead glottalising between boundaries, however is present in newer varieties.
Yod-coalescence in both stressed and unstressed syllables (so that dew becomes [dʒɵʊ]).
/l/ is traditionally clear in all contexts, meaning the velarised allophone is absent. However, modern accents may periodically use [ɫ] in syllable final positions, sometimes it may even be vocalised (as in bottle[ˈbɒʔʊ]).
Vowel length is phonemic for many speakers of Geordie, meaning that length is often the one and only phonetic difference between DRESS and SQUARE (/ɛ/ and /ɛː/) or between LOT and START (/ɒ/ and /ɒː/). If older or traditional dialect forms are considered, TRAP (/a/) also has a phonemic long counterpart /aː/, which is mostly used in THOUGHT words spelled with ⟨a⟩, making minimal pairs such as tack/tak/ vs. talk/taːk/ (less broad Geordie pronunciation: /tɔːk/). Another [aː] appears as an allophone of /a/ before final voiced consonants in words such as lad[laːd].
Phonetic quality and phonemic incidence
FLEECE and GOOSE, /iː, uː/, are typically somewhat closer than in other varieties in morphologically closed syllables; /uː/ is also less prone to fronting than in other varieties of BrE and its quality is rather close to the cardinal [u]. However, younger women tend to use a central [ʉː] instead. In morphologically open syllables, FLEECE and GOOSE are realised as closing diphthongs [ei, ɵʊ]. This creates minimal pairs such as freeze[fɹiːz] vs. frees[fɹeiz] and bruise[bɹuːz ~ bɹʉːz] (hereafter transcribed with ⟨uː⟩ for the sake of simplicity) vs. brews[bɹɵʊz].
The HAPPY vowel is tense [i] and is best analysed as belonging to the /iː/ phoneme.
As other Northern English varieties, Geordie lacks the FOOT-STRUT split, so that words like cut, up and luck have the same /ʊ/ phoneme as put, sugar and butcher. The typical phonetic realisation is unrounded [ɤ], but it may be hypercorrected to [ə] among middle-class (especially female) speakers.
The long close-mid vowels /eː, oː/, in FACE and GOAT, may be realised as monophthongs [eː, oː] in open syllables or as opening diphthongs [ɪə, ʊə] in closed syllables. Alternatively, /eː/ can be a closing diphthong [eɪ] and /oː/ can be centralised to [ɵː]. The opening diphthongs are recessive, as younger speakers reject them in favour of the monophthongal [eː, oː ~ ɵː].
Other, now archaic, realisations of /oː/ include [aː] in snow[snaː] and [aʊ] in soldiers[ˈsaʊldʒɐz].
Many female speakers merge GOAT/oː/ with THOUGHT/ɔː/, but the exact phonetic quality of the merged vowel is uncertain.
NURSE, /øː/, may be phonetically [øː] or a higher, unrounded vowel [ɪː]. An RP-like vowel [ɜ̝ː] is also possible.
In older broadest Geordie, NURSE merges with THOUGHT/ɔː/ to [ɔː] under the influence of a uvular [ʁ] that once followed it (when Geordie was still a rhotic dialect). The fact that the original /ɔː/ vowel is never hypercorrected to [øː] or [ɜ̝ː] suggests that either this merger was never categorical, or that speakers are unusually successful in sorting those vowels out again.
The schwa /ə/ is often rather open ([ɐ]). It also tends to be longer in duration than the preceding stressed vowel, even if that vowel is phonologically long. Therefore, words such as water and meter are pronounced [ˈwɔd̰ɐː] and [ˈmid̰ɐː]. This feature is shared with the very conservative (Upper Crust) variety of Received Pronunciation.
Words such as voices and ended have /ə/ in the second syllable (so /ˈvɔɪsəz, ˈɛndəd/), rather than the /ɪ/ of RP. That does not mean that Geordie has undergone the weak vowel merger because /ɪ/ can still be found in some unstressed syllables in place of the more usual /ə/. An example of that is the second syllable of seven/ˈsɛvɪn/, but it can also be pronounced with a simple schwa /ə/ instead. Certain weak forms also have /ɪ/ instead of /ə/; these include at/ɪt/ (homophonous with strong it), of/ɪv/ (nearly homophonous with if), as/ɪz/ (homophonous with strong is), can/kɪn/ and us/ɪz/ (again, homophonous with strong is).
As in other Northern English dialects, the BATH vowel is short /a/ in Geordie, thus there is no London-style trap-bath split. There are a small number of exceptions to this rule; for instance, half,master, plaster and sometimes also disaster are pronounced with the START vowel /ɒː/.
Some speakers unround START, /ɒː/, to [ɑː]. Regardless of the rounding, the difference in backness between /ɒː/ and /a/ is very pronounced, a feature which Geordie shares with RP and some northern and midland cities such as Stoke-on-Trent and Derby, but not with the accents of the middle north.
Older traditional Geordie does not always adhere to the same distributional patters of vowels found in standard varieties of English. Examples of that include the words no and stone, which may be pronounced [niː] and [stɪən], so with vowels that are best analysed as belonging to the /iː/ and /iə/ phonemes.
The second elements of NEAR and CURE, /iə, uə/, are commonly as open as the typical Geordie realisation of /ə/ ([ɐ]).
The first element of MOUTH, /æʊ/, varies between [æ], [ä] and [ɛ]. Traditionally, this whole vowel was a high monophthong [uː] (with town being pronounced close to RP toon) and this pronunciation can still be heard, as can a narrower diphthong [əu] (with town being pronounced close to RP tone).
PRICE is /ɛɪ/, but Geordie speakers generally use a less common allophone for certain environments in accordance with the Scottish vowel length rule, [äɪ], which has a longer, lower, and more back onset than the main allophone. Thus [ɛɪ] is used in words such as knife[nɛɪf], whereas [äɪ] is used in knives[näɪvz]. For simplicity, both of them are written with ⟨ɛɪ⟩ in this article.
For a list of words relating to the Geordie dialect, see the Geordie English category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The Geordie dialect shares similarities with other Northern English dialects, as well as with the Scots language (See Rowe 2007, 2009).
Dorfy, real name Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid, was a noted Geordie dialect writer. In her column for the South Shields Gazette, Samuelson-Sandvid attests many samples of Geordie language usage, such as the nouns bairn ("child") and clarts ("mud"); the adjectives canny ("pleasant") and clag ("sticky"); and the imperativeverb phrasehoway ("hurry up!"; "come on!")
Howay is broadly comparable to the invocation "Come on!" or the French "Allez-y!" ("Go on!"). Examples of common use include Howay man!, meaning "come on" or "hurry up", Howay the lads! as a term of encouragement for a sports team for example (the players' tunnel at St James' Park has this phrase just above the entrance to the pitch), or Ho'way!? (with stress on the second syllable) expressing incredulity or disbelief. The literal opposite of this phrase is haddaway ("go away"); although not as common as howay, it is perhaps most commonly used in the phrase "Haddaway an' shite" (Tom Hadaway, Figure 5.2 Haddaway an' shite; 'Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.').
Another word, divvie or divvy ("idiot"), seems to come from the Co-op dividend, or from the two Davy lamps (the more explosive Scotch Davy used in 1850, commission disapproved of its use in 1886 (inventor not known, nicknamed Scotch Davy probably given by miners after the Davy lamp was made perhaps by north east miners who used the Stephenson Lamp), and the later better designed Davy designed by Humphry Davy also called the Divvy.) As in a north east miner saying 'Marra, ye keep way from me if ye usin a divvy.' It seems the word divvie then translated to daft lad/lass. Perhaps coming from the fact one would be seen as foolish going down a mine with a Scotch Divvy when there are safer lamps available, like the Geordie, or the Davy.
Bill Griffiths, in A Dictionary of North East Dialect, points to the earlier form, the Old Englishníd; he writes: "MS locates a possible early ex. "Robert Hovyngham sall make... at the other end of his house a knyttyng" York 1419, in which case the root could be OE níd 'necessary'". Another related word, nessy is thought (by Griffiths) to derive from the Modern English "necessary".
A poem called "Yam" narrated by author Douglas Kew, demonstrates the usage of a number of Geordie words.
^ ab"AskOxford.com – a person from Tyneside". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
^ abcdBrockett, John Trotter (1829). A Glossary of North Country Words in Use with Their Etymology and Affinity to Other Languages, and Occasional Notices of Local Customs and Popular Superstitions. E. Charnley. p. 131. GEORDIE, George-a very common name among the pitmen. "How! Geordie man! how is't"
^ abcDobson, Scott (1973). A Light Hearted Guide to Geordieland. Graham. ISBN 978-0-902833-89-0. Plus Geordieland means Northumberland and Durham
^ abcdCamden Hotten, John (2004) . The Slang Dictionary: Or Vulgar Words, Street Phrases and Fast Expressions of High and Low Society (reprint ed.). p. 142. Retrieved 11 October 2007. Geordie, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century
^ abcd"Geordie Accent and Dialect Origins". englandsnortheast.co.uk. 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
^ abc"Geordie Guide: Defining Geordie". Newcastle University. 13 November 2019. Retrieved 13 November 2019.
^"Geordie: A regional dialect of English". The British Library. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
^Rowley, Tom (21 April 2012). "Are you Geordie, a Mackem or a Smoggie?". nechronicle. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
^Welford, Joanne (12 March 2018). "The day Ken Dodd learned not to call Teessiders 'Geordies'". gazettelive. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
^Simpson, David (2009). "Venerable Bede". Retrieved 6 August 2010. Bede's Latin poems seem to translate more successfully into Geordie than into modern day English!
^Hickey, Raymond (January 2002). A Source Book for Irish English. ISBN 9027237530.
^"Migration of Irish to Newcastle upon Tyne and Weetslade Northumberland". Retrieved 27 October 2014.
^"Ac/Dc's Brian Johnson To Receive Honorary Doctorate From U.K.'S Northumbria University". Blabbermouth. 12 December 2016.
^"AskOxford.com – from the given name George". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
^ abBrockett, John Trotter (1846). A Glossary of North Country Words (revised ed.). Newcastle-upon-Tyne, E. Charnley. p. 187. GEORDIE, George – a very common name among the pitmen. 'How! Geordie man! How is't' The Pitmen have given the name of Geordie to Mr George Stephenson's lamp in contra-distinction of the Davy, or Sir Humphry Davy's Lamp.
^Smiles, Samuel (1862). "chapter 8". The lives of the engineers. Vol. III.
^ abSmiles, Samuel (1859). The Life of George Stephenson, Railway Engineer. Ticknor and Fields. p. 120. As to the value of the invention of the safety lamp, there could be no doubt; and the colliery owners of Durham and Northumberland, to testify their sense of its importance, determined to present a testimonial to its inventor.
^Katie Wales (2006). Northern English: A Cultural and Social History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 134–136. ISBN 978-0-521-86107-6.
^Wright, Joseph (1900). English Dialect Dictionary Volume 2: D-G. London: Henry Frowde. p. 597.
^Arthur, T. (1875). The Life of Billy Purvis. S. Cowan and Co., Strathmore Printing Works, Perth. p. 82. Retrieved 27 October 2014.
^Orton, Harold; Halliday, Wilfrid J (1962). Survey of English Dialects: Volume 1 Basic Material, Six Northern Counties and Man: Part 1. Leeds: EJ Arnold & Son. pp. 17–18.
^Petyt, Keith Malcolm (1980). The Study of Dialect: An introduction to dialectology. Andre Deutsch. pp. 94–96. ISBN 0233972129.
^Mather, J.Y; Spetiel, H.H.; Leslie, G.W. (1977). The Linguistic Atlas of Scotland: Scots Section, Volume 2. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books. pp. 212–213. ISBN 0208014756.
^Docherty & Foulkes (2005). Hardcastle & Mackenzie Beck (ed.). Glottal variants of (t) in the Tyneside variety of English: an acoustic profiling study. A Figure of Speech – a Festschrift for John Laver. London: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 173–199.
^"Dorphy, Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid. Dorphy's Geordie dialog, South Shields Gazette". Archived from the original on 13 April 2003. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
^Sandvid, D (1970). Basinful o' Geordie: Tyneside Readings. H Hill. ISBN 978-0-900463-11-2.
^ ab"Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Aa wuz a bairn.
^ abcd"Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Wor Geordie taalk is hyemly taalk; an wawds like 'clag' and 'clarts'
^ ab"Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Is canny, friendly, hyemly wawds that waarms aall Geordie hearts.
^ ab"Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. wawds y've nigh forgot – ""Howay!"" ""Gan on!""
^ abcde"Dorphy dialog". Archived from the original on 13 April 2003. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
^Colls, Robert; Lancaster, Bill; Bryne, David; Carr, Barry; Hadaway, Tom; Knox, Elaine; Plater, Alan; Taylor, Harvey; Williamson; Younger, Paul (2005). Geordies. Northumbria University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-904794-12-7. Hadaway an' shite; 'Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.'
^IMS: Customer Satisfaction: BIP2005 (Integrated Management Systems). BSI Standards. 2003. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-580-41426-8. An early example, which may be remembered by older readers was the Co-op dividend or 'divvie'. On paying their bill, shoppers would quote a number recorded ...
^Henderson, Clarks. "NEIMME: Lamps – No. 14. SCOTCH DAVY LAMP". Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2007. CONSTRUCTION. Gauzes. Cylindrical, 2 ins diameter. 41/2" high with conical top, a double gauze 1 ins. in depth at the peak. 24 mesh iron. Light. Candle.
^Henderson, Clarks. "NEIMME: Lamps – No. 16. STEPHENSON (GEORDIE) LAMP". Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
^Henderson, Clarks. "NEIMME: Lamps – No. 1 – DAVY LAMP". Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
^ abcGraham, Frank (November 1986). The Geordie Netty: A Short History and Guide. Butler Publishing; New Ed edition. ISBN 978-0-946928-08-8.
^ abcdGriffiths, Bill (1 December 2005). A Dictionary of North East Dialect. Northumbria University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-904794-16-5. Netty outside toilet, Ex.JG Annfield Plain 1930s. "nessy or netty" Newbiggin-in-Teesdale C20/mid; "outside netties" Dobson Tyne 1972; 'lavatory' Graham Geordie 1979. EDD distribution to 1900: N'd. NE 2001: in circulation. ?C18 nessy from necessary; ? Ital. cabinette; Raine MS locates a possible early ex. "Robert Hovyngham sall make... at the other end of hys house knyttyng" York 1419, in which case root could be OE nid 'necessity'. Plus "to go to the Necessary" (public toilet) Errington p.67 Newcastle re 1800s: "lav" Northumbrian III C20/2 re Crawcrook; "oot back" G'head 2001 Q; "larty – toilet, a children's word, the school larties'" MM S.Shields C20/2 lavatory
^ abcTrotter Brockett, John (1829). A glossary of north country words, in use. From an original manuscript, with additions. Oxford University. p. 214. NEDDY, NETTY, a certain place that will not bear a written explanation; but which is depleted to the very life in a tail-piece in the first edition of Bewick's Land Birds, p. 285. In the second edition a bar is placed against the offending part of this broad display of native humour. Etymon needy, a place of need or necessity.
^ ab"Netty". although some theories suggest it is an abbreviation of Italian gabbinetti, meaning 'toilet'
^ abcWainwright, Martin (4 April 2007). "Urinal finds museum home". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 October 2007. the urinals have linguistic distinction: the Geordie word "netty" for lavatory derives from Roman slang on Hadrian's Wall which became "gabinetto" in Italian
^"Famed Geordie netty is museum attraction". The Northern Echo. 31 March 2007.
^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
^Saunders, Rod. "Italian Migration to Nineteenth Century Britain: Why and Where, Why?". anglo-italianfhs.org.uk. Retrieved 3 September 2008. They were never in great numbers in the northern cities. For example, the Italian Consul General in Liverpool, in 1891, is quoted as saying that the majority of the 80–100 Italians in the city were organ grinders and street sellers of ice-cream and plaster statues. And that the 500–600 Italians in Manchester included mostly Terrazzo specialists, plasterers and modellers working on the prestigious, new town hall. While in Sheffield 100–150 Italians made cutlery.
^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
^"Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
^YAM narrated by author Douglas Kew. 29 July 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
^Kew, Douglas (7 February 2001). A Traveller's Tale. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55212-552-6.
^"A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 1 July 2009.
^ abcdefghijklm"A housewife's lot, according to Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 22 July 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2010.
^"A housewife's lot, according to Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 22 July 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Aa aalwiz...
^"Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Aa gan alang the streets...
^"Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. It larnt us alreet...
^"Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. when y' cannit produce a ticket?
^"Dorfy's school days, with just pennies for uniforms". South Shields Gazette. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. the whole o' me childhud
^"A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Aa cud dee aall these things.
^"Dorfy on the stress of Christmas shopping". South Shields Gazette. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2013. Y' divvent see onny salt so...
^"We divvn't want ta gan..." Evening Chronicle. 6 February 2004. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
^"Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. that on Frida's..
^"Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. wor fud.
^ abcdefg"Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
^ abcdef"Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
^"Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Wheor d' the' gan t'?
^ ab"Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Thor's music in the hyemly soond o' 'howk,' or 'haadaway.'
^"Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
^"Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. an' w' had nivvor hord o'...
^ abc"Dorfy's school days, with just pennies for uniforms". South Shields Gazette. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
^"Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. o' ivry parent wuz t' own...
^"Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. one 'musical' bairn that wuz sent t' larn music.
^ abc"Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
^"A housewife's lot, according to Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 22 July 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. NEEBODY seems t' reelise that a hooswife aalwiz...
^"Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.
^"Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. that had been shifted oot..
^"Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. y' warn't reet.
^"Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. come roond an'...
^"A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. a bucket o' smaall coal t'...
^"A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. o' watt sh'...
^"A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Cud Aa wesh?
^"Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. w' got worsel's interested...
^"Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. y' kin set doon as...
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Look up Geordie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Newcastle English (Geordie)
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