George Akerlof


George Arthur Akerlof (born June 17, 1940) is an American economist who is a university professor at the McCourt School of Public Policy at Georgetown University and Koshland Professor of Economics Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley.[2][3] Akerlof was awarded 2001 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, jointly with Michael Spence and Joseph Stiglitz, "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information."

George Akerlof
George Akerlof.jpg
Akerlof in 2007
George Arthur Akerlof

(1940-06-17) June 17, 1940 (age 82)
(m. 1978)
InstitutionGeorgetown University
London School of Economics
University of California, Berkeley
School or
New Keynesian economics
Alma materYale University (B.A)
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Ph.D)
Robert Solow[1]
Charles Engel
Adriana Kugler
InfluencesJohn Maynard Keynes
ContributionsInformation asymmetry
Efficiency wages
AwardsNobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (2001)
Information at IDEAS / RePEc

Early life and educationEdit

Akerlof was born in New Haven, Connecticut, United States, the son of Rosalie Clara Grubber (née Hirschfelder) and Gösta Carl Åkerlöf, who was a chemist and inventor.[4][5][6] His mother was Jewish, from a family that had emigrated from Germany. His father was a Swedish immigrant.[7] Akerlof attended Princeton Day School, graduated from the Lawrenceville School[7] in 1958, and received the Aldo Leopold Award in 2002. In 1962 he received his BA degree from Yale University, in 1966 his PhD degree from MIT and taught at the London School of Economics 1978–80.

Contributions to economicsEdit

"The Market for Lemons" and asymmetric informationEdit

Akerlof is perhaps best known for his article, "The Market for Lemons: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism", published in the Quarterly Journal of Economics in 1970, in which he identified certain severe problems that afflict markets characterized by asymmetric information, the paper for which he was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize.[10] In Efficiency Wage Models of the Labor Market, Akerlof and coauthor/wife, current Secretary of the U.S. Treasury Janet Yellen propose rationales for the efficiency wage hypothesis in which employers pay above the market-clearing wage, in contradiction to the conclusions of neoclassical economics. This work introduced gift-exchange game to economics.

Identity economicsEdit

Akerlof and collaborator Rachel Kranton of Duke University have introduced social identity into formal economic analysis, creating the field of identity economics. Drawing on social psychology and many fields outside of economics, Akerlof and Kranton argue that individuals do not have preferences only over different goods and services. They also adhere to social norms for how different people should behave. The norms are linked to a person's social identities. These ideas first appeared in their article "Economics and Identity", published in the Quarterly Journal of Economics in 2000.

Reproductive technology shockEdit

In the late 1990s Akerlof's ideas attracted the attention of some on both sides of the debate over legal abortion. In articles appearing in The Quarterly Journal of Economics,[11] The Economic Journal,[12] and other forums Akerlof described a phenomenon that he labeled "reproductive technology shock." He contended that the new technologies that had helped to spawn the late twentieth century sexual revolution, modern contraceptives and legal abortion, had not only failed to suppress the incidence of out-of-wedlock childbearing but also had actually worked to increase it. According to Akerlof, for women who did not use them, these technologies had largely transformed the old paradigm of socio-sexual assumptions, expectations, and behaviors in ways that were especially disadvantageous. For example, the availability of legal abortion now allowed men to view their offspring as the deliberate product of female choice rather than as the joint product of sexual intercourse. Thus, it encouraged biological fathers to reject not only the notion of an obligation to marry the mother but also the idea of a paternal obligation.

While Akerlof did not recommend legal restrictions on either abortion or the availability of contraceptives his analysis seemed to lend support to those who did. Thus, a scholar strongly associated with liberal and Democratic-leaning policy positions has been approvingly cited by conservative and Republican-leaning analysts and commentators.[13][14]


In 1993 Akerlof and Paul Romer published "Looting: The Economic Underworld of Bankruptcy for Profit", describing how under certain conditions, owners of corporations will decide it is more profitable for them personally to 'loot' the company and 'extract value' from it instead of trying to make it grow and prosper. For example:

Bankruptcy for profit will occur if poor accounting, lax regulation, or low penalties for abuse give owners an incentive to pay themselves more than their firms are worth and then default on their debt obligations. Bankruptcy for profit occurs most commonly when a government guarantees a firm's debt obligations.[15]

Norms and macroeconomicsEdit

In his 2007 presidential address to the American Economic Association, Akerlof proposed natural norms that decision makers have for how they should behave, and showed how such norms can explain discrepancies between theory and observed facts about the macroeconomy. Akerlof proposed a new agenda for macroeconomics, using social norms to explain macroeconomic behavior.[16] He is considered[according to whom?] together with Gary Becker as one of the founders of social economics.

He is a trustee of Economists for Peace and Security and co-director of the Social Interactions, Identity and Well-Being Program at the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR). He is on the advisory board of the Institute for New Economic Thinking. He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1985.[17]

Personal lifeEdit

Akerlof is married to Janet Yellen, an economist who is current United States secretary of the treasury and former chair of the Federal Reserve, as well as a professor emeritus at Berkeley's Haas School of Business.[18][19] They have one child, a son named Robert, who was born in 1981.[7] Robert Akerlof is also an economist, earned a bachelor degree in economics and mathematics from Yale and a PhD in economics from Harvard, currently working as an associate professor of economics at the University of Warwick.[20][21]

Akerlof was one of the signees of a 2018 amici curiae brief that expressed support for Harvard University in the Students for Fair Admissions v. President and Fellows of Harvard College lawsuit. Other signees of the brief include Alan B. Krueger, Robert M. Solow, Janet Yellen, Cecilia Rouse, as well as numerous others.[22]


  • Akerlof, George A. (1984). An economic theorist's book of tales : essays that entertain the consequences of new assumptions in economic theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Akerlof, George A., and Janet Yellen. 1986. Efficiency Wage Models of the Labor Market. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press.
  • Akerlof, George A., Romer, Paul M., Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, "Looting: The Economic Underworld of Bankruptcy for Profit" Vol. 1993, No. 2 (1993), pp. 1–73[23]
  • Akerlof, George A. 2000. "Economics and Identity," Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), pp. 715–53.
  • Akerlof, George A. 2005. Explorations in Pragmatic Economics, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925390-6.
  • Akerlof, George A. 2005. "Identity and the Economics of Organizations," Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(1), pp. 9–32.
  • Akerlof, George A. "Thoughts on global warming." chinadialogue (2006). 14 July 2008.
  • Akerlof, George A. and Robert J. Shiller. 2009. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14233-3.
  • Akerlof, George A., and Rachel E. Kranton. 2010. Identity Economics: How Our Identities Shape Our Work, Wages, and Well-Being, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14648-5. Description & TOC, "Introduction," pp. 3–8, and preview.
  • George A. Akerlof and Robert J. Shiller. 2015. Phishing for Phools: The Economics of Manipulation and Deception, Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-16831-9.


  1. ^ Akerlof, George (1966). Wages and capital (PDF) (Ph.D.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  2. ^ "George Akerlof (aka Mr. Janet Yellen) Heads to Georgetown - Real Time Economics - WSJ". 2014-09-23. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
  3. ^ "Faculty".
  4. ^ Swedberg, R. (1990). Economics and Sociology: Redefining Their Boundaries : Conversations with Economists and Sociologists. Princeton University Press. p. 61. ISBN 9780691003764. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
  5. ^ Secretary, O.H.; Sciences, N.A. (1980). Biographical Memoirs. Vol. 51. National Academies Press. p. 221. ISBN 9780309028882. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b c George Akerlof on   "The Princeton Country Day School ended at grade nine. At that point most of my classmates dispersed among different New England prep schools. Both for financial reasons and also because they preferred that I stay at home, my family sent me down the road to the Lawrenceville School."
  8. ^ Writing the “The Market for ‘Lemons’”: A Personal and Interpretive Essay by George A. Akerlof
  9. ^ "Citations of Akerlof: The Market for Lemons: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism". Google Scholar. Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
  10. ^ Both the American Economic Review and The Review of Economic Studies rejected the paper for "triviality", while the reviewers for Journal of Political Economy rejected it as incorrect, arguing that if this paper was correct, then no goods could be traded. Only on the fourth attempt did the paper get published in Quarterly Journal of Economics.[8] Today, the paper is one of the most-cited papers in modern economic theory (more than 5800 citations in academic papers as of July 2009).[9]
  11. ^ Akerlof, George A.; Yellen, Janet & Katz, Michael L. (1996), "An Analysis on Out-of-Wedlock Childbearing in the United States", Quarterly Journal of Economics, The MIT Press, 111 (2): 277–317, doi:10.2307/2946680, JSTOR 2946680, S2CID 11777041
  12. ^ Akerlof, George A. (1998), "Men Without Children", Economic Journal, Blackwell Publishing, 108 (447): 287–309, doi:10.1111/1468-0297.00288, JSTOR 2565562
  13. ^ Failed Promises of Abortion, archived from the original on 2008-10-12
  14. ^ The Facts of Life & Marriage
  15. ^ 1993 George Akerlof and Paul Romer, "Looting: The Economic Underworld of Bankruptcy for Profit", Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 24, Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, 1993, as quoted in Yves Smith (2010), Econned, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-230-62051-3 pp. 164–165
  16. ^ The Missing Motivation in Macroeconomics
  17. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
  18. ^ "Janet Yellen Fast Facts". CNN. December 3, 2020. Archived from the original on December 4, 2020. Retrieved December 4, 2020.
  19. ^ "Janet Yellen Fact Sheet | Berkeley-Haas". 2013-09-25. Retrieved 2014-10-25.
  20. ^ "Robert Akerlof Resume" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 13, 2021. Retrieved March 13, 2021.
  21. ^ "Robert Akerlof". University of Warwick. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  22. ^ (PDF) Retrieved 2018-12-22. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  23. ^ George A. Akerlof and Paul M. Romer (23 December 2007). "Looting: The Economic Underworld of Bankruptcy for Profit" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-10-25.

External linksEdit



  • Akerlof's criticism of Bush, February 12, 2003
  • Akerlof slams Bush government, July 29, 2003
Preceded by Laureate of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics
Served alongside: A. Michael Spence, Joseph E. Stiglitz
Succeeded by
Academic offices
Preceded by President of the American Economic Association
Succeeded by