Gerald D. Griffin
Gerald D. Griffin
December 25, 1934
Athens, Texas, U.S.
|Alma mater||Texas A&M University, B.S. 1956|
|Occupation||Flight director during Apollo era; 1982–1986 director of Johnson Space Center|
|Known for||Human Space Flight|
|Spouse(s)||Sandra "Sandy" Huber Griffin|
|Children||Kirk (b. 1959), Gwen (b. 1963)|
Gerald D. Griffin (born December 25, 1934) is an American aeronautical engineer and former NASA official, who served as a flight director during the Apollo program and director of Johnson Space Center, succeeding Chris Kraft in 1982.
When Griffin was nine years old his family moved to Fort Worth, Texas. Upon graduation from Texas A&M he was commissioned as an officer in the United States Air Force. He served four years on active duty, first in flight training, then flying as a weapon systems officer in jet fighter-interceptors. In 1960 Griffin left active duty and began his space career as a systems engineer/flight controller at the USAF Satellite Test Center in Sunnyvale, California.
In 1964 Griffin joined NASA in Houston as a flight controller in Mission Control, specializing in guidance, navigation and control systems during Project Gemini. In 1968 he was named a Mission Control flight director and served in that role for all of the Apollo Program manned missions, including all nine manned missions out to the Moon, six of which included lunar landings. Griffin's "Gold" team conducted half of the lunar landings made during Apollo: Apollos 14, 16, and 17. His team was scheduled to conduct the landing of Apollo 13, but when the landing was cancelled as a result of the oxygen tank explosion, his team played a key role in the safe return of the astronauts.
After the Apollo Program was completed Griffin served in other roles at NASA, first in multiple positions at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., then as the deputy director of the Dryden (now Armstrong) Flight Research Center in California, then as deputy director of the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In 1982 he returned to Houston as director of the Johnson Space Center.
After taking early retirement from NASA in 1986, Griffin became a senior executive with several non-space, as well as space-related, companies and organizations in the private sector. Today Griffin remains active in several businesses at the senior level. He also is a technical and management consultant for a broad range of clients.
Because of his real-life role as a flight director during the troubled flight of Apollo 13, Griffin was a technical advisor for the 1995 film Apollo 13. Later he was a technical advisor and also acted in the films Contact (1997) and Deep Impact (1998), and was the technical advisor for the 2011 film Apollo 18. He is a member of the Screen Actors Guild. Griffin was played by actor David Clyde Carr in the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, .
Griffin is an active general aviation pilot and aircraft owner, holding a commercial license with an instrument rating for single-engine aircraft, multi-engine aircraft and helicopters.
Gerry and his twin brother, Richard L. "Larry" Griffin, were born on December 25, 1934, in Athens, Texas to parents Herschel Hayden Griffin (1903–1989) and Helen Elizabeth Boswell Griffin (1904–1947). The twins also had an older brother, Kenneth H. "Ken" Griffin (1925–2003). The family moved to Fort Worth, Texas in 1944, and Gerry graduated from Arlington Heights High School in 1952. While in high school Gerry continued his activities in the Boy Scouts of America and earned the rank of Eagle Scout in 1951 at the age of 16. In junior high school and high school Gerry also began his long association with the military through the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC), then the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC).
In the fall of 1952 Gerry entered the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, now Texas A&M University, to study aeronautical engineering. He was a member of the famed Texas A&M Corps of Cadets for four years and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the United States Air Force (USAF) upon graduation in 1956 with a Bachelor of Science degree. After graduation Gerry went to work for Douglas Aircraft Company in Long Beach, California, prior to being called to active duty by the USAF.
The USAF ordered Gerry to report for active duty on December 7, 1956 at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. This was a 30-day "Pre-Flight" period which included physical and psychological exams, orientation courses, drill, physical training, ejection seat training, etc.
At the end of Pre-Flight Gerry was ordered to Harlingen Air Force Base in Harlingen, Texas where he would undergo one year of primary and basic navigation training. This was one year of intense ground school and inflight aircraft training in the Convair T-29. All phases of day and night navigation were covered including dead reckoning, celestial, radio, and radar. In December 1957 Gerry was awarded his USAF Navigator Wings.
Gerry chose the fighter interceptor path in order to eventually be able to fly in high-performance supersonic jet fighters. This advanced training was at James Connally Air Force Base in Waco, Texas and was six months in duration. Again, intense ground school was accompanied by inflight day and night intercept training, first in the North American B-25 Mitchell, then in the Northrop F-89D Scorpion. Finally, after a year and a half of primary, basic and advanced training was over! Gerry finished second in his class and was able to select the operational assignment he wanted: the 84th Fighter Interceptor Squadron (FIS) at Hamilton Air Force Base in Marin County, California...just north of the Golden Gate Bridge!
The 84th FIS was a fighter squadron in the USAF Air Defense Command. Gerry arrived at the 84th FIS in June 1958 to serve as a Weapons Systems Officer, flying first in the Northrop F-89J Scorpion, a subsonic air defense fighter, and then in the McDonnell F-101B Voodoo a supersonic air defense fighter. Both aircraft carried two MB-1 Genie nuclear air-to-air missiles with 3.5 kiloton warheads. Both aircraft also carried two Hughes Falcon infra red heat seeking missiles with high explosive warheads. In 1960, while still serving in the 84th FIS, Gerry, on his own and in his spare time, began his general aviation career as a pilot by taking flying lessons at a local airport in nearby Novato, California. Gerry served in the 84th FIS for two and a half years before leaving active duty on December 26, 1960 at the rank of first lieutenant. Gerry remained in the USAF Active Reserve until 1964 attaining the rank of captain. He was then assigned to the USAF Inactive Reserve until 1974, when he was retired officially from the USAF Reserve. During four years on active duty and four years in the active reserve Gerry logged over 800 hours of military flight time.
Immediately after leaving USAF active duty Gerry joined LMSC in January 1961 as a Missile Systems Engineer at the USAF Satellite Test Center (STC) in Sunnyvale, California. LMSC was the prime contractor for flight operations in the STC which controlled USAF satellites launched into polar orbit from Vandenberg AFB, California. This was the era of the early reconnaissance (spy) satellites with names such as Discoverer, MIDAS and SAMOS. This was Gerry's first experience as a real-time flight controller during launch, orbit, and entry of space vehicles. He performed systems analysis of the satellites and the Agena upper stage used on the Thor and Atlas launch vehicles. Gerry's primary areas of specialty were guidance, control and propulsion systems.
In 1962 Gerry left LMSC after two years to return to his native Texas and become a Senior Aerosystems Engineer at GD/FW in Fort Worth, Texas. GD/FW, a long-time designer and developer of aircraft, was venturing into space systems studies and, hopefully, space hardware development in the future. Gerry was brought in to help in the space effort, but from the beginning he was involved in research and engineering tasks involving aircraft and spacecraft guidance and control systems for NASA and USAF customers.
From May 5, 1961, the day astronaut Al Shepard rode the Freedom 7 spacecraft in a suborbital flight down the Atlantic Ocean from Cape Canaveral, Gerry's strong desire was to work at NASA as a flight controller in Mission Control. "Coming home to Texas" gave him the opportunity not only to work for a fine aerospace company, GD/FW, it also got him closer to Houston and the Manned Spacecraft Center!
In June 1964 Gerry went to work at the Manned Spacecraft Center (renamed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in 1973). Project Mercury had recently ended and Project Gemini was just beginning. The USAF Agena was to be used as a rendezvous and docking target for the Gemini, and because of his background with the Agena Gerry was hired as an Agena flight controller. However, the second (and final) unmanned test flight of the Gemini-Titan was about to take place at Cape Canaveral, and Gerry was diverted to become a Gemini flight controller in the position of "GNC": Guidance, Navigation & Control. He served as a GNC flight controller throughout the Gemini program, specializing in guidance, navigation, control and propulsion systems. At the completion of Project Gemini he was preparing for similar role for the Apollo program when the Apollo 1 fire occurred.
As a result of the Apollo 1 fire the Apollo mission schedule was delayed for 21 months. During the flight delay Gerry was named to be an Apollo flight director and served in that role for all of the Apollo Program manned missions. Gerry was lead flight director for three lunar missions: Apollo 12, Apollo 15, and Apollo 17. Gerry's "Gold" team controlled two Earth launches (Apollo 12 and Apollo 15), and half of Apollo's six lunar landings (Apollo's 14, 16, and 17). His team was scheduled to conduct the landing of Apollo 13, but when the landing was canceled as a result of the oxygen tank explosion, his team played a key role in the safe return of the astronauts.
Gerry was responsible for coordinating and orchestrating all NASA liaison activities with Congress. He served as the principal advisor to the Administrator and other NASA officials on matters involving relations with the Congress as well as state and local governments.
Gerry was responsible for early Space Transportation Systems (STS) operations planning, the development of user policies, and the establishment of pricing policies. These initial STS operational concepts were incorporated in overall Agency planning for the Shuttle era and became the foundation for later STS operations.
Gerry served as "general manager" of the NASA center responsible for aircraft flight research programs involving a wide variety of aeronautical and space technology. Major efforts involved the flight testing of high-speed aircraft and preparations for the Shuttle Approach and Landing Test Program. In addition to general management functions, his specific duties required a strong interface with USAF flight research/test activities.
Gerry served as the "general manager" of NASA's center for launch operations for unmanned and manned systems. KSC was a 140,000-acre installation with an original plant value of $1.8 billion, a workforce of 2,200 civil servants and 10,000 support contractors and an annual budget of $550 million. During this period KSC was the launch site for the unmanned Delta and Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles and the April 1981 first launch of the Space Shuttle.
Gerry had responsibility for systems engineering and general management functions of the company, a small R&D organization involved in high-technology products manufacturing and testing, research studies, management systems consultation and classified support contact work for the Department of Defense manned space flight activities.
Gerry was responsible for NASA's prime center for manned space flight R&D and operations. The workforce included 3,200 civil servants and 10,000 support contractors. He was responsible for a budget of $1.5 billion per year and a diverse array of unique facilities. Griffin led the successful effort to bring the full Shuttle capability to operational status and played a key role in securing Presidential and Congressional approval for the development of the International Space Station.
Gerry was responsible for the total operation of the Greater Houston Chamber of Commerce, one of the largest chambers of commerce in the United States. His duties included external and internal functions. External functions included developing and executing a board-approved program of work aimed at regional improvements and economic development. Internal functions included budget planning and control, membership development and staffing.
Gerry was responsible for leading and directing the operation of the Houston office of Korn/Ferry International. He conducted searches in a general practice and, on a firm wide basis, specialized in searches for the aerospace, defense and other technology intensive industries.
Gerry joined the board of Comarco as a director in April 1986 and, in August 1988, was named Chairman of the Board. Comarco was a publicly owned company traded on the NASDAQ exchange and had sales of approximately $55 million per year. Comarco was a leading provider of advanced technology tools and engineering services to the wireless communications industry. Comarco also designed and manufactured mobile power products for wireless devices.
As a Senior Consultant with Korn/Ferry International Gerry assists the firm in recruiting assignments for senior level executives, especially for clients in technology-intensive industries and organizations. He has 29 years experience as a search professional and is the former Managing Director of Korn/Ferry's Houston office.
Gerry currently provides technical and management consulting services for a broad range of clients.
KLG Contracting, Inc., an S-corporation, provides general contracting, site preparation, and construction services for private home and other building projects.
Gerry is Chairman of the Board of the Golden Spike Company (GSC), a Delaware Corporation headquartered in Boulder, Colorado. GSC is early-stage commercial space company whose long-term goal is to develop and operate capabilities in space infrastructure for travel and exploration in and beyond low Earth orbit.
(Aircraft Class C-1b is an aircraft with a gross weight of 500–1,000 kilograms (1,102-2,205 lbs) and powered by a piston engine)
N1937G was originally manufactured in 1959 and used periodically as a crop duster. The aircraft was purchased by Larry and Gerry Griffin in 1985. They had the aircraft completely rebuilt including the installation of a modified Lycoming O-360 engine which produces 200 horsepower, a constant speed propeller, and long range fuel tanks. The reconstruction was completed in 1989.