History
Nazi Germany
Name: U-361
Ordered: 7 December 1940
Builder: Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft, Flensburg
Yard number: 480
Laid down: 12 September 1941
Launched: 9 September 1942
Commissioned: 18 December 1942
Fate: Sunk by a British aircraft, July 1944, west of Narvik
General characteristics
Class and type: Type VIIC submarine
Displacement:
  • 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
  • 871 t (857 long tons) submerged
Length:
Beam:
  • 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
  • 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draught: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Installed power:
  • 2,800–3,200 PS (2,100–2,400 kW; 2,800–3,200 bhp) (diesels)
  • 750 PS (550 kW; 740 shp) (electric)
Propulsion:
Speed:
  • 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
  • 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
Range:
  • 8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
  • 80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth:
  • 230 m (750 ft)
  • Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 4 officers, 40–56 enlisted
Armament:
Service record[1]
Part of:
Commanders:
  • Kptlt. Hans Seidel
  • 18 December 1942 – 17 July 1944
Operations:
  • 1st patrol: 28 February – 27 March 1944
  • 2nd patrol: 31 March – 24 April 1944
  • 3rd patrol: 27 June – 17 July 1944
Victories: None

German submarine U-361 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.

She carried out three patrols. She did not sink or damage any ships.

She was a member of six wolfpacks.

She was sunk by a British aircraft west of Narvik in July 1944.

Design

German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-361 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged.[2] She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).[2]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph).[2] When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-361 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and two twin 2 cm (0.79 in) C/30 anti-aircraft guns. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.[2]

Service history

The submarine was laid down on 12 September 1941 at the Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft yard at Flensburg as yard number 480, launched on 9 September 1942 and commissioned on 18 December under the command of Kapitänleutnant Hans Seidel.

She served with the 8th U-boat Flotilla from 18 December 1942 and the 11th flotilla from 1 March 1944.

1st patrol

U-359's first patrol took her from Kiel in Germany to Narvik in Norway.

2nd patrol

Her second foray was toward Bear Island in the Barents Sea, then into the Norwegian Sea.

3rd patrol and loss

U-361 left Narvik for the last time on 27 June 1944. On 17 July, she was sunk by depth charges dropped by a British Catalina flying boat of No. 210 Squadron RAF. The pilot, Flying Officer John Cruickshank was awarded the Victoria Cross.

52 men died in the U-boat; there were no survivors.[3]

Previously recorded fate

U-361 was originally noted as sunk on 17 July 1944 by a British B-24 Liberator of 86 Squadron. This attack sank U-347.[1]

Wolfpacks

U-361 took part in six wolfpacks, namely.

  • Boreas (29 February - 10 March 1944)
  • Thor (10–26 March 1944)
  • Blitz (2–5 April 1944)
  • Keil (5–20 April 1944)
  • Donner & Keil (20–23 April 1944)
  • Trutz (28 June - 10 July 1944)

References

  1. ^ a b Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-361". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d Gröner 1991, pp. 43-46.
  3. ^ Hofmann, Markus. "U 361". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 26 December 2014.

Bibliography

  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). German U-boat commanders of World War II : a biographical dictionary. Translated by Brooks, Geoffrey. London, Annapolis, Md: Greenhill Books, Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-186-6.
  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [German U-boat losses from September 1939 to May 1945]. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German). IV. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler. ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.

External links

  • Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-361". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  • Hofmann, Markus. "U 361". Deutsche U-Boote 1935-1945 - u-boot-archiv.de (in German). Retrieved 26 December 2014.