Grace Hopper

Summary

Grace Murray Hopper
Commodore Grace M. Hopper, USN (covered).jpg
Photograph from 1984
Birth nameGrace Brewster Murray
Born(1906-12-09)December 9, 1906
New York City, U.S.
DiedJanuary 1, 1992(1992-01-01) (aged 85)
Arlington, Virginia, U.S.
Place of burial
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service1943–1986
RankUS-O7 insignia.svg Rear admiral (lower half)
AwardsDefense Distinguished Service ribbon.svg Defense Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg Legion of Merit
Meritorious Service ribbon.svg Meritorious Service Medal
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal
National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg National Defense Service Medal
AFRM with Hourglass Device (Silver).jpg Armed Forces Reserve Medal with two Hourglass Devices
U.S. Naval Reserve Medal ribbon.svg Naval Reserve Medal
Presidential Medal of Freedom (ribbon).svg Presidential Medal of Freedom (posthumous)
Alma materVassar College (BA)
Yale University (MS, Ph.D.)

Grace Brewster Murray Hopper (née Murray; December 9, 1906 – January 1, 1992) was an American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral.[1] One of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I computer, she was a pioneer of computer programming who invented one of the first linkers. Hopper was the first to devise the theory of machine-independent programming languages, and the FLOW-MATIC programming language she created using this theory was later extended to create COBOL, an early high-level programming language still in use today.

Prior to joining the Navy, Hopper earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University and was a professor of mathematics at Vassar College. Hopper attempted to enlist in the Navy during World War II but was rejected because she was 34 years old. She instead joined the Navy Reserves. Hopper began her computing career in 1944 when she worked on the Harvard Mark I team led by Howard H. Aiken. In 1949, she joined the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation and was part of the team that developed the UNIVAC I computer. At Eckert–Mauchly she managed the development of one of the first COBOL compilers. She believed that a programming language based on English was possible. Her compiler converted English terms into machine code understood by computers. By 1952, Hopper had finished her program linker (originally called a compiler), which was written for the A-0 System.[2][3][4][5] During her wartime service, she co-authored three papers based on her work on the Harvard Mark 1.

In 1954, Eckert–Mauchly chose Hopper to lead their department for automatic programming, and she led the release of some of the first compiled languages like FLOW-MATIC. In 1959, she participated in the CODASYL consortium, which consulted Hopper to guide them in creating a machine-independent programming language. This led to the COBOL language, which was inspired by her idea of a language being based on English words. In 1966, she retired from the Naval Reserve, but in 1967 the Navy recalled her to active duty. She retired from the Navy in 1986 and found work as a consultant for the Digital Equipment Corporation, sharing her computing experiences.

The U.S. Navy Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Hopper was named for her, as was the Cray XE6 "Hopper" supercomputer at NERSC.[6] During her lifetime, Hopper was awarded 40 honorary degrees from universities across the world. A college at Yale University was renamed in her honor. In 1991, she received the National Medal of Technology. On November 22, 2016, she was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama.[7]

Early life and education

Grace Brewster Murray was born in New York City. She was the eldest of three children. Her parents, Walter Fletcher Murray and Mary Campbell Van Horne, were of Scottish and Dutch descent, and attended West End Collegiate Church.[8] Her great-grandfather, Alexander Wilson Russell, an admiral in the US Navy, fought in the Battle of Mobile Bay during the Civil War.[8]: 2–3 

Grace was very curious as a child; this was a lifelong trait. At the age of seven, she decided to determine how an alarm clock worked and dismantled seven alarm clocks before her mother realized what she was doing (she was then limited to one clock).[9] For her preparatory school education, she attended the Hartridge School in Plainfield, New Jersey. Grace was initially rejected for early admission to Vassar College at age 16 (because her test scores in Latin were too low), but she was admitted the following year. She graduated Phi Beta Kappa from Vassar in 1928 with a bachelor's degree in mathematics and physics and earned her master's degree at Yale University in 1930.

In 1930 Grace Murray married New York University professor Vincent Foster Hopper (1906–1976); they divorced in 1945.[10][11] Although she did not marry again, she retained his surname.

In 1934, Hopper earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale[12] under the direction of Øystein Ore.[10][13] Her dissertation, "New Types of Irreducibility Criteria",[14] was published that same year.[15] She began teaching mathematics at Vassar in 1931, and was promoted to associate professor in 1941.[16]

Career

World War II

Hopper's signatures on a duty officer signup sheet for the Bureau of Ships Computation Project at Harvard, which built and operated the Mark I

Hopper had tried to enlist in the Navy early in World War II. She was rejected for a few reasons. At age 34, she was too old to enlist, and her weight to height ratio was too low. She was also denied on the basis that her job as a mathematician and mathematics professor at Vassar College was valuable to the war effort.[17] During the war in 1943, Hopper obtained a leave of absence from Vassar and was sworn into the United States Navy Reserve; she was one of many women who volunteered to serve in the WAVES. She had to get an exemption to enlist; she was 15 pounds (6.8 kg) below the Navy minimum weight of 120 pounds (54 kg). She reported in December and trained at the Naval Reserve Midshipmen's School at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts. Hopper graduated first in her class in 1944, and was assigned to the Bureau of Ships Computation Project at Harvard University as a lieutenant, junior grade. She served on the Mark I computer programming staff headed by Howard H. Aiken. Hopper and Aiken co-authored three papers on the Mark I, also known as the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator. Hopper's request to transfer to the regular Navy at the end of the war was declined due to her advanced age of 38. She continued to serve in the Navy Reserve. Hopper remained at the Harvard Computation Lab until 1949, turning down a full professorship at Vassar in favor of working as a research fellow under a Navy contract at Harvard.[18]

Hopper in a computer room in Washington, D.C., 1978, photographed by Lynn Gilbert

UNIVAC

In 1949, Hopper became an employee of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation as a senior mathematician and joined the team developing the UNIVAC I.[16] Hopper also served as UNIVAC director of Automatic Programming Development for Remington Rand. The UNIVAC was the first known large-scale electronic computer to be on the market in 1950, and was more competitive at processing information than the Mark I.[19]

When Hopper recommended the development of a new programming language that would use entirely English words, she "was told very quickly that [she] couldn't do this because computers didn't understand English." Still, she persisted. "It's much easier for most people to write an English statement than it is to use symbols," she explained. "So I decided data processors ought to be able to write their programs in English, and the computers would translate them into machine code."[20]

Her idea was not accepted for three years. In the meantime, she published her first paper on the subject, compilers, in 1952. In the early 1950s, the company was taken over by the Remington Rand corporation, and it was while she was working for them that her original compiler work was done. The program was known as the A compiler and its first version was A-0.[21]: 11 

In 1952, she had an operational link-loader, which at the time was referred to as a compiler. She later said that "Nobody believed that," and that she "had a running compiler and nobody would touch it. They told me computers could only do arithmetic."[22] She goes on to say that her compiler "translated mathematical notation into machine code. Manipulating symbols was fine for mathematicians but it was no good for data processors who were not symbol manipulators. Very few people are really symbol manipulators. If they are they become professional mathematicians, not data processors. It's much easier for most people to write an English statement than it is to use symbols. So I decided data processors ought to be able to write their programs in English, and the computers would translate them into machine code. That was the beginning of COBOL, a computer language for data processors. I could say 'Subtract income tax from pay' instead of trying to write that in octal code or using all kinds of symbols. COBOL is the major language used today in data processing."[23]

In 1954 Hopper was named the company's first director of automatic programming, and her department released some of the first compiler-based programming languages, including MATH-MATIC and FLOW-MATIC.[16]

COBOL

Hopper at the UNIVAC I console, c. 1960

In the spring of 1959, computer experts from industry and government were brought together in a two-day conference known as the Conference on Data Systems Languages (CODASYL). Hopper served as a technical consultant to the committee, and many of her former employees served on the short-term committee that defined the new language COBOL (an acronym for COmmon Business-Oriented Language). The new language extended Hopper's FLOW-MATIC language with some ideas from the IBM equivalent, COMTRAN. Hopper's belief that programs should be written in a language that was close to English (rather than in machine code or in languages close to machine code, such as assembly languages) was captured in the new business language, and COBOL went on to be the most ubiquitous business language to date.[24] Among the members of the committee that worked on COBOL was Mount Holyoke College alumna Jean E. Sammet.[25]

From 1967 to 1977, Hopper served as the director of the Navy Programming Languages Group in the Navy's Office of Information Systems Planning and was promoted to the rank of captain in 1973.[18] She developed validation software for COBOL and its compiler as part of a COBOL standardization program for the entire Navy.[18]

Standards

In the 1970s, Hopper advocated for the Defense Department to replace large, centralized systems with networks of small, distributed computers. Any user on any computer node could access common databases located on the network.[21]: 119  She developed the implementation of standards for testing computer systems and components, most significantly for early programming languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL. The Navy tests for conformance to these standards led to significant convergence among the programming language dialects of the major computer vendors. In the 1980s, these tests (and their official administration) were assumed by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), known today as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Retirement

Hopper being promoted to the rank of commodore in 1983

In accordance with Navy attrition regulations, Hopper retired from the Naval Reserve with the rank of commander at age 60 at the end of 1966.[26] She was recalled to active duty in August 1967 for a six-month period that turned into an indefinite assignment. She again retired in 1971 but was again asked to return to active duty in 1972. She was promoted to captain in 1973 by Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr.[27]

After Republican Representative Philip Crane saw her on a March 1983 segment of 60 Minutes, he championed H.J.Res. 341, a joint resolution originating in the House of Representatives, which led to her promotion on 15 December 1983 to commodore by special Presidential appointment by President Ronald Reagan.[27][28][29][30] She remained on active duty for several years beyond mandatory retirement by special approval of Congress.[31] Effective November 8, 1985, the rank of commodore was renamed rear admiral (lower half) and Hopper became one of the Navy's few female admirals.

Following a career that spanned more than 42 years, Admiral Hopper took retirement from the Navy on August 14, 1986.[32] At a celebration held in Boston on the USS Constitution to commemorate her retirement, Hopper was awarded the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the highest non-combat decoration awarded by the Department of Defense.[33]

At the time of her retirement, she was the oldest active-duty commissioned officer in the United States Navy (79 years, eight months and five days), and had her retirement ceremony aboard the oldest commissioned ship in the United States Navy (188 years, nine months and 23 days).[34] Admirals William D. Leahy, Chester W. Nimitz, Hyman G. Rickover and Charles Stewart were the only other officers in the Navy's history to serve on active duty at a higher age. Leahy and Nimitz served on active duty for life due to their promotions to the rank of fleet admiral.

Post-retirement

Following her retirement from the Navy, she was hired as a senior consultant to Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). Hopper was initially offered a position by Rita Yavinsky, but she insisted on going through the typical formal interview process. She then proposed in jest that she would be willing to accept a position which made her available on alternating Thursdays, exhibited at their museum of computing as a pioneer, in exchange for a generous salary and unlimited expense account. Instead, she was hired as a full-time Principal Corporate Consulting Engineer, a tech-track SVP-equivalent. In this position, Hopper represented the company at industry forums, serving on various industry committees, along with other obligations.[8] She retained that position until her death at age 85 in 1992.

At DEC Hopper served primarily as a goodwill ambassador. She lectured widely about the early days of computing, her career, and on efforts that computer vendors could take to make life easier for their users. She visited most of Digital's engineering facilities, where she generally received a standing ovation at the conclusion of her remarks. Although no longer a serving officer, she always wore her Navy full dress uniform to these lectures contrary to U.S. Department of Defense policy.[35]

"The most important thing I've accomplished, other than building the compiler," she said, "is training young people. They come to me, you know, and say, 'Do you think we can do this?' I say, 'Try it.' And I back 'em up. They need that. I keep track of them as they get older and I stir 'em up at intervals so they don't forget to take chances."[36]

Anecdotes

Photograph of the trophy from the "first computer debugging" (a moth that had been caught in a relay)
  • Throughout much of her later career, Hopper was much in demand as a speaker at various computer-related events. She was well known for her lively and irreverent speaking style, as well as a rich treasury of early war stories. She also received the nickname "Grandma COBOL"[37] though among computer-industry hardware and software engineers she was always "Amazing Grace".[38]
  • While she was working on a Mark II Computer at Harvard University in 1947,[39] her associates discovered a moth that was stuck in a relay and impeding the operation of the computer. Upon extraction, the insect was affixed to a log sheet for that day with the notation, “First actual case of a bug being found”. While neither she nor her crew members mentioned the exact phrase, "debugging", in their log entries, the case is held as a historical instance of "debugging" a computer and Hopper is credited with popularizing the term in computing. For many decades, the term "bug" for a malfunction had been in use in several fields before being applied to computers.[40][41] The remains of the moth can be found taped into the group's log book at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.[39]
  • Grace Hopper is famous for her nanoseconds visual aid. People (such as generals and admirals) used to ask her why satellite communication took so long. She started handing out pieces of wire that were just under one foot long—11.8 inches (30 cm)—the distance that light travels in one nanosecond. She gave these pieces of wire the metonym "nanoseconds."[30] She was careful to tell her audience that the length of her nanoseconds was actually the maximum speed the signals would travel in a vacuum, and that signals would travel more slowly through the actual wires that were her teaching aids. Later she used the same pieces of wire to illustrate why computers had to be small to be fast. At many of her talks and visits, she handed out "nanoseconds" to everyone in the audience, contrasting them with a coil of wire 984 feet (300 meters) long,[42] representing a microsecond. Later, while giving these lectures while working for DEC, she passed out packets of pepper, calling the individual grains of ground pepper picoseconds.[43]
  • Jay Elliot described Grace Hopper as appearing to be " 'all Navy', but when you reach inside, you find a 'Pirate' dying to be released."[44]

Death

On New Year's Day 1992, Hopper died in her sleep of natural causes at her home in Arlington, Virginia;[45] she was 85 years of age. She was interred with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.[46]

Dates of rank

Rank Midshipman
MIDN
Lieutenant junior grade
O-2
Lieutenant
O-3
Lieutenant commander
O-4
Commander
O-5
Captain
O-6
Commodore/
Rear admiral (lower half)
O-7
Insignia N/A US Navy O2 insignia.svg US Navy O3 insignia.svg US Navy O4 insignia.svg US Navy O5 insignia.svg US Navy O6 insignia.svg US Navy O7 insignia.svg
Date May 4, 1944[47] June 27, 1944[47] June 1, 1946[47] April 1, 1952[47] July 1, 1957[47][n 1] August 2, 1973[47] December 15, 1983[29]/
redesignated November 8, 1985[48]

Awards and honors

Military awards

Bronze star
Defense Distinguished Service Medal
(1986)
Legion of Merit
(1967)
Meritorious Service Medal
(1980)
Presidential Medal of Freedom
(2016, Posthumous)
American Campaign Medal
(1944)
World War II Victory Medal
(1945)
National Defense Service Medal
with bronze service star
(1953, 1966)
Armed Forces Reserve Medal
with two bronze hourglass devices
(1963, 1973, 1983)
Naval Reserve Medal
(1953)

Other awards

Legacy

Places

  • Grace Hopper Avenue in Monterey, California, is the location of the Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center[79] as well as the National Weather Service's San Francisco Bay Area forecast office.[80]
  • Grace M. Hopper Navy Regional Data Automation Center at Naval Air Station, North Island, California.[81]
  • Grace Murray Hopper Park, located on South Joyce Street in Arlington, Virginia, is a small memorial park in front of her former residence (River House Apartments) and is now owned by Arlington County, Virginia.[82]
  • Brewster Academy, a school located in Wolfeboro, New Hampshire, United States, dedicated their computer lab to her in 1985, calling it the Grace Murray Hopper Center for Computer Learning.[27] The academy bestows a Grace Murray Hopper Prize to a graduate who excelled in the field of computer systems.[83] Hopper had spent her childhood summers at a family home in Wolfeboro.
  • Grace Hopper College, one of the residential colleges of Yale University.[84]
  • An administration building on Naval Support Activity Annapolis (previously known as Naval Station Annapolis) in Annapolis, Maryland is named the Grace Hopper Building in her honor.[27]
  • Vice Admiral Walter E. "Ted" Carter announced on September 8, 2016 at the Athena Conference that the Naval Academy's newest Cyber Operations building would be named Hopper Hall after Admiral Grace Hopper. This is the first building at any service academy named after a woman. In his words, Grace Hopper was "the admiral of the cyber seas."[85]
  • The US Naval Academy also owns a Cray XC-30 supercomputer named "Grace," hosted at the University of Maryland-College Park.[86]
  • Building 1482 aboard Naval Air Station North Island, housing the Naval Computer and Telecommunication Station San Diego, is named the Grace Hopper Building, and also contains the History of Naval Communications Museum.[87]
  • Building 6007, C2/CNT West in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is named after her.[88]
  • The street outside of the Nathan Deal Georgia Cyber Innovation and Training Center in Augusta, Georgia, is named Grace Hopper Lane.[89]
  • Grace Hopper Academy is a for-profit immersive programming school in New York City named in Grace Hopper's honor. It opened in January 2016 with the goal of increasing the proportion of women in software engineering careers.[90][91]
  • A bridge over Goose Creek, to join the north and south sides of the Naval Support Activity Charleston side of Joint Base Charleston, South Carolina, is named the Grace Hopper Memorial Bridge in her honor.[92]
  • Minor planet 5773 Hopper discovered by Eleanor Helin is named in her honor. The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 8 November 2019 (M.P.C. 117229).[93]
  • Grace Hopper Hall, a community meeting hall in Orlando, Florida (located on the site of the former Orlando Naval Training Center) is named for her.[94]

Programs

In popular culture

  • In his comic book series, Secret Coders by Gene Luen Yang, the main character is named Hopper Gracie-Hu.[99]
  • Since 2013, Hopper's official portrait has been included in the matplotlib python library as sample data to replace the controversial Lenna image.[100]

Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing

Her legacy was an inspiring factor in the creation of the Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing.[101] Held yearly, this conference is designed to bring the research and career interests of women in computing to the forefront.[102]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ On the retired list from December 31, 1966 to August 1, 1967 and from 1971–1972.[47]

Obituary notices

References

  1. ^ Cantrell, Mark (March 1, 2014). "Amazing Grace: Rear Adm. Grace Hopper, USN, was a pioneer in computer science". Military Officer. 12 (3). Military Officers Association of America. pp. 52–55, 106. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
  2. ^ Donald D. Spencer (1985). Computers and Information Processing. C.E. Merrill Publishing Co. ISBN 978-0-675-20290-9.
  3. ^ Phillip A. Laplante (2001). Dictionary of computer science, engineering, and technology. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-2691-2.
  4. ^ Bryan H. Bunch, Alexander Hellemans (1993). The Timetables of Technology: A Chronology of the Most Important People and Events in the History of Technology. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-76918-5.
  5. ^ Bernhelm Booss-Bavnbek, Jens Høyrup (2003). Mathematics and War. Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7643-1634-1.
  6. ^ "Hopper". www.nersc.gov. Archived from the original on March 14, 2016. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
  7. ^ "White House honors two of tech's female pioneers". cbsnews.com. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c Williams, Kathleen (2004). Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-61251-265-5.
  9. ^ Dickason, Elizabeth (April 1992). "Looking Back: Grace Murray Hopper's Younger Years". Chips.
  10. ^ a b Green, Judy; LaDuke, Jeanne (2009). Pioneering Women in American Mathematics: The Pre-1940 PhD's. Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society. ISBN 978-0-8218-4376-5. Biography on p.281-289 of the Supplementary Material at AMS
  11. ^ "Prof. Vincent Hopper of N.Y U., Literature Teacher, Dead at 69". The New York Times. January 21, 1976. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  12. ^ "Grace Hopper". womenshistory.org. National Women's History Museum. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
  13. ^ Though some books, including Kurt Beyer's Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age, reported that Hopper was the first woman to earn a Yale PhD in mathematics, the first of ten women prior to 1934 was Charlotte Cynthia Barnum (1860–1934). Murray, Margaret A. M. (May–June 2010). "The first lady of math?". Yale Alumni Magazine. 73 (5). pp. 5–6. ISSN 0044-0051.
  14. ^ Murray Hopper, Grace (1934). "New Types of Irreducibility Criteria" (PDF). American Mathematical Society (Thesis). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University.
  15. ^ G. M. Hopper and O. Ore, "New types of irreducibility criteria," Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 40 (1934) 216 "New types of irreducibility criteria". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 40 (3): 209–234. 1934. doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1934-05818-X.
  16. ^ a b c Ogilvie, Marilyn; Joy Harvey (2000). The biographical dictionary of women in science: pioneering lives from ancient times to the mid-20th century. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92040-7.[verification needed]
  17. ^ "Grace Hopper". www.thocp.net. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c Williams, Kathleen Broome (2001). Improbable Warriors: Women Scientists and the U.S. Navy in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-961-1.
  19. ^ Ann., Camp, Carole (2004). American women inventors. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7660-1538-8. OCLC 48398924.
  20. ^ "Women in History" (PDF).
  21. ^ a b McGee, Russell C. (2004). My Adventure with Dwarfs: A Personal History in Mainframe Computers (PDF). University of Minnesota: Charles Babbage Institute. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  22. ^ "The Wit and Wisdom of Grace Hopper".
  23. ^ Gilbert, Lynn (1981). Women of Wisdom: Grace Murray Hopper. Lynn Gilbert, Inc.
  24. ^ Beyer, Kurt W. (2009). Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-01310-9.
  25. ^ Lohr, Steve (June 4, 2017). "Jean Sammet, Co-Designer of a Pioneering Computer Language, Dies at 89". The New York Times.
  26. ^ "Attrition/Retirement". Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  27. ^ a b c d "Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, USN". Biographies in Naval History. United States Navy Naval Historical Center. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
  28. ^ "Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, USNR, (1906–1992) Informal Images taken during the 1980s". Biographies in Naval History. United States Navy Naval Historical Center. Retrieved July 2, 2013. Commodore Grace M. Hopper, USNR. receives congratulations from President Ronald Reagan, following her promotion from the rank of Captain to Commodore in ceremonies at the White House, 15 December 1983
  29. ^ a b "Historic Images of Ronald Reagan". U.S. Defense Department. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved March 7, 2016. President Ronald Reagan greets Navy Capt. Grace Hopper as she arrives at the White House for her promotion to Commodore, Dec. 15, 1983. Hopper was a computer technology pioneer
  30. ^ a b "Late Night with David Letterman". Late Night with David Letterman. Season 5. Episode 771. New York City. October 2, 1986. NBC. "[to President Ronald Reagan on her promotion] Sir ... I'm older than you are ... YouTube title: Grace Hopper on Letterman
  31. ^ Hacker, Barton C. (2006). American Military Technology: The Life Story of a Technology. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-313-33308-8.
  32. ^ Taffe Jr., Richard (August 14, 1986). "Navy Admiral Grace Hopper retires". United Press International. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  33. ^ "Admiral Hopper Awarded the National Medal of Technology" (Press release). Digital Equipment Corporation. September 16, 1991. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  34. ^ "Computer Whiz Retires from Navy". Detroit Free Press. United Press International. August 15, 1986. p. 4A. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  35. ^ "32 CFR § 53.2 – Policy". Legal Information Institute. Cornell University. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  36. ^ Gilbert, Lynn (December 10, 2012). Particular Passions: Grace Murray Hopper. Women of Wisdom Series (1st ed.). New York City: Lynn Gilbert Inc. ISBN 978-1-61979-403-0.
  37. ^ Cavna, Michael (December 9, 2013). "Grace Hopper: Google Doodle honors computing pioneer". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  38. ^ "Science history: The first de-bugger". cosmosmagazine.com. Retrieved November 17, 2021.
  39. ^ a b "Log Book With Computer Bug". National Museum of American History. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  40. ^ Edison to Puskas, November 13, 1878, Edison papers, Edison National Laboratory, U.S. National Park Service, West Orange, N.J., cited in Thomas P. Hughes, American Genesis: A History of the American Genius for Invention, Penguin Books, 1989, ISBN 0-14-009741-4, on page 75.
  41. ^ Alexander Magoun and Paul Israel (August 1, 2013). "Did You Know? Edison Coined the Term "Bug"". IEEE Spectrum. Archived from the original on August 10, 2021. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
  42. ^ "YouTube". www.youtube.com. Archived from the original on February 25, 2012.
  43. ^ "Good-Bye and Good Wishes". InformationWeek. January 6, 1992. p. 4.
  44. ^ Elliott, Jay; Simon, William L. (2011). The Steve Jobs way: iLeadership for a new generation. Philadelphia: Vanguard. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-59315-639-8.
  45. ^ Castellanos-Monfil, Román (December 9, 2015). "Happy 109th birthday to Yale alumna Grace Hopper, a pioneer in computer science". YaleNews.
  46. ^ "Grace Murray Hopper (1906–1992): A legacy of innovation and service". YaleNews. February 10, 2017.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g "Captain Grace Murray Hopper" (PDF). U.S. Naval Reserve. July 1981.
  48. ^ "Pub.L. 99–145: Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1986". GovTrack.us. November 8, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  49. ^ "First Ladies". SWE Philadelphia Section. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
  50. ^ "The Founders" (PDF). SWE Magazine of the Society of Women Engineers: 34. Spring 2015. ISSN 1070-6232. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 20, 2020. Gathering at the Cooper Union's Green Engineering Camp on a spring weekend, the following women founded the Society of Women Engineers on May 27, 1950, known as Founders' Day: ... Mary Blade ... Beatrice Alice Hicks ... Grace M. Hopper
  51. ^ "DISA Recipients – Association of Information Technology Professionals". Retrieved June 28, 2016.
  52. ^ a b Grant, April (November 22, 2016). "Computer Science Legend, Rear Adm. Grace Hopper, Posthumously Receives Presidential Medal of Freedom". United States Navy. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  53. ^ Anon (2016). "Roll of Distinguished Fellows". British Computer Society. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
  54. ^ "Honorary Degrees | University Honors". Marquette University. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
  55. ^ "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
  56. ^ Lee, J.A.N. "Computer Pioneers — Grace Brewster Murray Hopper". IEEE Computer Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  57. ^ "Western New England: From College to University A Retrospective: 1919–2011" (PDF). Western New England University. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 2, 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  58. ^ "SU Archives: Awards and Honors – Recipient of Honorary Degrees". adminmanual.syr.edu. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  59. ^ "Grace Hopper – Computer History Museum Fellow Award Recipient". Computerhistory.org. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  60. ^ "Past Golden Gavel Recipients" (PDF). Toastmasters International. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  61. ^ Mitchell, Carmen (1994). The contributions of Grace Murray Hopper to computer science and computer education. University of North Texas.
  62. ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter H" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 8, 2018.
  63. ^ "Admiral Grace Murray Hopper Scholarship (Est. 1992)". Society of Women Engineers. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
  64. ^ "Hopper, Grace". National Women’s Hall of Fame.
  65. ^ Rehak, Melanie (November 4, 2001). "Map of Love". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  66. ^ "The 2002 Government Technology Leadership Awards". Government Executive. April 1, 2002. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
  67. ^ "Hopper Home Page". nersc.gov. Archived from the original on March 25, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  68. ^ Robert K. Ackerman (February 2009), "Naval Intelligence Ramps up Activities", Signals
  69. ^ "Grace Hopper's 107th Birthday". Retrieved December 9, 2013.
  70. ^ Matthew Sparkes (December 9, 2013). "Grace Hopper honoured with Google doodle". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
  71. ^ "These Are The 21 People Receiving The Nation's Highest Civilian Honor". NPR. November 16, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
  72. ^ "Calhoun Who? Yale Drops Name of Slavery Advocate for Computer Pioneer". The New York Times. September 3, 2017. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  73. ^ "The Admiral Grace Hopper Award". College of Information and Cyberspace. Retrieved July 14, 2021.
  74. ^ "Inventor of the Week: Archive". Web.mit.edu. Archived from the original on February 17, 2003. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
  75. ^ "Hopper biography". History.mcs.st-and.ac.uk. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
  76. ^ "Biography – Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper, USN". United States Navy. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
  77. ^ Born with Curiosity: The Grace Hopper Story at IMDb
  78. ^ 🖉"Navy Destroyer Hopper's Commanding Officer Fired Over Morale Problems". www.military.com.
  79. ^ "Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center". United States Navy. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  80. ^ "San Francisco Bay Area, CA". National Weather Service. NOAA. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  81. ^ "NH 96929 Commodore Grace M. Hopper, USNR". Naval History and Heritage Command. United States Navy. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  82. ^ "Grace Murray Hopper Park". Parks & Recreation. Arlington County Government. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  83. ^ "Brewster Connections: Summer 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 11, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
  84. ^ "Yale to change Calhoun College's name to honor Grace Murray Hopper". YaleNews. February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  85. ^ Witte, Brian (August 7, 2017). "Naval Academy to honor computer scientist Grace Hopper". Navy Times. Associated Press. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  86. ^ "US Naval Academy Dedicates New Supercomputer" (Press release). Department of Defense High Performance Computing Modernization Program. August 29, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  87. ^ "Grace Hopper Museum". United States Navy. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  88. ^ "New campus built on tradition of excellence". United States Army. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  89. ^ Cline, Damon (July 14, 2018). "Scuttlebiz: Ribbon was worthy adversary, but not for Deal's penknife". The Augusta Chronicle. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  90. ^ "Grace Hopper Academy". gracehopper.com. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  91. ^ "Exclusive: Grace Hopper Academy, An All-Women Coding School, To Open in New York". International Business Times. October 15, 2015. Retrieved October 15, 2015.
  92. ^ Brading, Tom (March 13, 2012). "Women's History Month: Beyond the bridge: Story of 'Amazing Grace' Hopper". Archived from the original on March 17, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
  93. ^ "MINOR PLANET CIRCULARS/MINOR PLANETS AND COMETS, M.P.C 117229" (PDF). November 8, 2019.
  94. ^ "Grace Hopper Hall".
  95. ^ Buscher, Ranae (April 13, 2001). "Inside Microsoft, Hoppers Writing New Code". Women's eNews. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  96. ^ "New Subdivision Names". First Robotics Corporation. February 9, 2015. Retrieved March 16, 2016.
  97. ^ Yale News, July 18, 2008
  98. ^ "Google data cable to link US, UK and Spain". BBC News. July 28, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  99. ^ Lehoczky, Etelka (October 7, 2015). "Robot Birds Teach Kids To Program In 'Secret Coders'". NPR. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  100. ^ "Ada Lovelace and Grace Murray Hopper images in place of Lena by ivanov · Pull Request #1599 · matplotlib/matplotlib". GitHub. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  101. ^ "Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing". Gracehopper.org. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
  102. ^ "We Went to the Grace Hopper Celebration. Here's What We're Bringing Back". The New York Times. October 31, 2016.

Further reading

  • Beyer, Kurt W. (September 30, 2009). Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age (1st ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-01310-9.
  • Marx, Christy (August 2003). Grace Hopper: the first woman to program the first computer in the United States. Women hall of famers in mathematics and science (1st ed.). New York City: Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-3877-3.
  • Norman, Rebecca (June 1997). "Biographies of Women Mathematicians: Grace Murray Hopper". Agnes Scott College. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
  • Williams, Kathleen Broome (November 15, 2004). Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea (1st ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-952-9.
  • Williams, Kathleen Broome (2001). Improbable Warriors: Women Scientists and the U.S. Navy in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-961-1. Williams' book focuses on the lives and contributions of four notable women scientists: Mary Sears (1905–1997); Florence van Straten (1913–1992); Grace Murray Hopper (1906–1992); Mina Spiegel Rees (1902–1997).
  • Ignotofsky, Rachel (2017). Women in Science: 50 fearless pioneers who changed the world. London: Wren & Rook. ISBN 978-1-9848-5615-9.
  • Vining, Margaret (2012). "Reviewed work: Grace Hopper and the Invention of the Information Age, Kurt W. Beyer". Technology and Culture. 53 (2): 516–517. doi:10.1353/tech.2012.0051. JSTOR 41475535. S2CID 111125455.
  • Williams, Kathleen Broome (1999). "Scientists in Uniform: The Harvard Computation Laboratory in World War II". Naval War College Review. 52 (3): 90–110. JSTOR 44643011.
  • Billings, Charlene (1989). Grace Hopper : Navy admiral and computer pioneer. Enslow Publishers. ISBN 0-89490-194-X.

External links

  • Oral History of Captain Grace Hopper – Interviewed by: Angeline Pantages 1980, Naval Data Automation Command, Maryland.
  • RADM Grace Hopper, USN Ret. at the Wayback Machine (archived February 24, 2010) from Chips, the United States Navy information technology magazine.
  • Grace Hopper: Navy to the Core, a Pirate at Heart (2014), To learn more about Hopper's story and Navy legacy navy.mil.
  • The Queen of Code (2015), a documentary film about Grace Hopper produced by FiveThirtyEight.
  • Norwood, Arlisha. "Grace Hopper". National Women's History Museum. 2017.