GrapheneOS Logo.svg
DeveloperGrapheneOS team
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateCurrent
Source modelOpen source
Latest release2021.11.21.23 / 21 November 2021; 10 days ago (2021-11-21)
Marketing targetPrivacy/Security-focused smartphones
Update methodOver-the-air (OTA) or locally
Kernel typeMonolithic
LicenseMIT, Apache License 2.0

GrapheneOS is an Android-based, security-hardened, privacy focused, free and open-source, mobile operating system for selected smartphones. It was known as Android Hardening until March 2019,[1] and is focused on privacy and security.[2][3][4] GrapheneOS is compatible with several Google Pixel smartphones.[5][6][7]


The main developer, Daniel Micay, originally worked on CopperheadOS until a schism between the co-founders of Copperhead Limited.[8][9] After the incident, Micay turned his attention to the Android Hardening Project, which he renamed GrapheneOS to better reflect what the project has become.[8][1]


GrapheneOS currently supports the following smartphone models in the Google Pixel product line:[8][10]


Georg Pichler of Der Standard, and other news sources, quoted Edward Snowden, saying on Twitter, "If I were configuring a smartphone today, I'd use Daniel Micay's GrapheneOS as the base operating system."[11][12][13]

In discussing why services should not force users to install proprietary apps, Lennart Mühlenmeier of suggested GrapheneOS as an alternative to Apple or Google.[14] Svět Mobilně and Webtekno repeated the suggestions that GrapheneOS is a good security- and privacy-oriented replacement for standard Android.[6][7]

In a detailed review of GrapheneOS for, Moritz Tremmel and Sebastian Grüner said they were able to use GrapheneOS similarly to other Android, but enjoying more freedom from Google, without noticing differences from "additional memory protection, but that's the way it should be." They concluded GrapheneOS cannot change how "Android devices become garbage after three years at the latest", but "It can better secure the devices during their remaining life while protecting privacy."[8]

In January 2021, Twitter's CEO Jack Dorsey posted a link to GrapheneOS website taking possible interest in the OS.[15]

See also


  1. ^ a b Mathur, Natasha (29 March 2019). "AndroidHardening Project renamed to GrapheneOS to reflect progress and expansion of the project". Packt Hub. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  2. ^ "Doing these 6 difficult things may make your smartphone 'hack proof'". The Times of India. 23 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  3. ^ Collado, Christian (11 June 2019). "GrapheneOS, otra alternativa a Android compatible con sus apps y enfocada en la seguridad" [GrapheneOS, another alternative to Android compatible with its apps and focused on security]. Andro4all (in Spanish). Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  4. ^ "Maximális biztonságra gyúr az Android-alapú GrapheneOS" [Maximum Security in Android-based GrapheneOS]. Origo (in Hungarian). 5 April 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  5. ^ Baader, Hans-Joachim (9 April 2019). "Android Hardening wird zu GrapheneOS" [Android Hardening becomes GrapheneOS]. Pro-Linux [de] (in German). Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  6. ^ a b Šlik, Jáchym (6 April 2019). "GrapheneOS chce napravit bezpečnostní prohřešky Androidu" [GrapheneOS wants to fix Android security violations]. Svět Mobilně (in Czech). Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  7. ^ a b Kalelioğlu, Eray (3 April 2019). "Android Tabanlı İşletim Sistemi 'GrapheneOS' ile Tanışın" [Meet the GrapheneOS Android-Based Operating System]. Webtekno (in Turkish). Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d Tremmel, Moritz; Grüner, Sebastian (11 December 2019). "GrapheneOS: Ein gehärtetes Android ohne Google, bitte" [GrapheneOS: A hardened Android without Google, please]. (in German). Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  9. ^ Chua, Vaughn (3 April 2019). "GrapheneOS is a security and privacy focused mobile operating system". YugaTech. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  10. ^ "GrapheneOS FAQ". GrapheneOS. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  11. ^ Pichler, Georg (24 September 2019). "Wie Edward Snowden sein Smartphone einrichten würde" [How Edward Snowden would set up his smartphone]. Der Standard (in German). Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  12. ^ "Edward Snowden da a conocer las condiciones de seguridad para usar su smartphone" [Edward Snowden reveals the security conditions to use his smartphone]. La República [es] (in Spanish). 2 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  13. ^ "Abhörsicheres Handy: Edward Snowden zeigt dir seine Tricks" [Tap-proof mobile phone: Edward Snowden shows you his tricks]. (in German). 13 December 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  14. ^ Mühlenmeier, Lennart (19 July 2019). "Warum Post, Bank und Co. ihre Kunden nicht zwingen sollten, Apps zu benutzen" [Why Post, Bank and Co. shouldn't force their customers to use apps]. (in German). Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  15. ^ "Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey tweets cryptic link to a custom Android ROM". Android Central. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.

External links

  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata
  • Source code on GitHub