H. D. Deve Gowda
|11th Prime Minister of India|
1 June 1996 – 21 April 1997
|President||Shankar Dayal Sharma|
|Preceded by||Atal Bihari Vajpayee|
|Succeeded by||Inder Kumar Gujral|
|Minister of Home Affairs|
1 June 1996 – 29 June 1996
|Preceded by||Murli Manohar Joshi|
|Succeeded by||Indrajit Gupta|
|14th Chief Minister of Karnataka|
11 December 1994 – 31 May 1996
|Governor||Khurshed Alam Khan|
|Deputy||Jayadevappa Halappa Patel|
|Preceded by||Veerappa Moily|
|Succeeded by||Jayadevappa Halappa Patel|
|Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha|
|Assumed office |
26 June 2020
|Preceded by||D. Kupendra Reddy|
23 September 1996 – 2 March 1998
|Preceded by||Leeladevi Renuka Prasad|
|Succeeded by||A Laxmisagar|
|President of Janata Dal (Secular)|
|Assumed office |
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Member of Parliament, Lok Sabha|
17 May 2004 – 23 May 2019
|Preceded by||G. Puttaswamy Gowda|
|Succeeded by||Prajwal Revanna|
2 February 2002 – 16 May 2004
|Preceded by||M. V. Chandrashekara Murthy|
|Succeeded by||Tejashwini Sreeramesh|
10 March 1998 – 26 April 1999
|Preceded by||Rudresh Gowda|
|Succeeded by||G. Puttaswamy Gowda|
20 June 1991 – 11 December 1994
|Preceded by||H.C Srikantaiah|
|Succeeded by||Rudresh Gowda|
|Member of Karnataka Legislative Assembly|
|Preceded by||CM Lingappa|
|Succeeded by||CM Lingappa|
|Preceded by||Y. Veerappa|
|Succeeded by||G. Puttaswamy Gowda|
Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda
18 May 1933
Haradanahalli, Kingdom of Mysore, British India
(now Karnataka, India)
|Political party||Janata Dal (Secular)|
|Children||6 children; including H. D. Revanna,|
H. D. Kumaraswamy
|Education||Diploma in Civil Engineering|
|Alma mater||L. V. Polytechnic, Hassan|
|Profession||Politician, Farmer, Civil Engineer|
Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda // (listen) (born 18 May 1933) is an Indian politician from the state of Karnataka. He served as the 12th prime minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997. He was previously the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996. He presently is a Member of Parliament in the Rajya Sabha representing Karnataka. He is the National President of the Janata Dal (Secular) party.
Born in a humble farming family, he joined the Indian National Congress party in 1953, and remained a member until 1962. He was imprisoned during the Emergency. He became President of the state unit of Janata Dal in 1994, and was considered to be a driving force in the party's victory in Karnataka. He served as the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996.
In the 1996 general elections, no party won enough seats to form a government. When the United Front, a coalition of regional parties, formed the central government with the support of the Congress, Deve Gowda was unexpectedly chosen to head the government and was elected Prime Minister. During his tenure as prime minister, he also served as Home Minister for some time. His prime ministerial tenure lasted for less than a year.
After his prime ministerial tenure, he was elected to the 12th (1998), 14th (2004), 15th, and 16th Lok Sabha, as Member of Parliament for the Hassan Lok Sabha constituency. He lost Lok Sabha elections in 2019 from Tumkuru but has been elected to Rajya Sabha since.
H. D. Deve Gowda was born on 18 May 1933 in Haradanahalli, a village in Holenarasipura Taluk, of the erstwhile Kingdom of Mysore (now in Hassan, Karnataka) into a Vokkaliga caste family, which is categorised as an Other Backward Class by the Indian government. His father Dodde Gowda was a paddy farmer and mother, Devamma.
Gowda joined the Indian National Congress party in 1953 and remained a member until 1962. During that period, he was President of Anjaneya Cooperative Society of Holenarasipura and later became a member of the Taluk Development Board of Holenarasipura.
In 1962, Gowda was elected to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly from Holenarasipura constituency as an independent candidate. Later, he was elected from the same constituency to the Assembly for six consecutive terms from 1962 to 1989. He joined the Congress (O) during the Congress split and served as the Leader of Opposition in the Assembly from March 1972 to March 1976 and again from November 1976 to December 1977. During the Emergency (1975–77), he was imprisoned in the Bangalore Central Jail.
Gowda was the two time President of state unit of the Janata Party. He continued to win from Holenarasipur assembly segment on Janata Party's ticket in 1978, 1983 and 1985. He served as a minister in the Janata Party Government in Karnataka headed by Ramakrishna Hegde from 1983 to 1988. When V P Singh joined Janata Dal, Subramanian Swamy formed Janata Party (Jaya Prakash) faction, and Deve Gowda joined him to become Janata Party (JP)'s Karnataka President. But he lost from Holenarasipur in 1989, and soon later rejoined Janata Dal. He became President of the state unit of Janata Dal in 1994 and was the driving force behind the victory of the party in the 1994 State Assembly elections. He was elected from the Ramanagara, and sworn in as the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka in December.
When the United Front (a conglomeration of non-Congress and non-BJP regional parties) decided to form the Government at the Centre with the support of the Congress, Deve Gowda was unexpectedly chosen to head the government and became the 11th Prime Minister of India. He took over as Prime Minister of India on 1 June 1996 and continued until 21 April 1997. Also, he was the Chairman of the Steering Committee of the United Front, the policy making apex body of all the constituents of the ruling front. He is credited for providing financial closure and kickstarting development of the Delhi Metro Project.
The Janata Dal was formed on the merger of the Janata Party with smaller opposition parties in 1988. Vishwanath Pratap Singh became the first Prime Minister of India from Janata Dal when he headed the National Front government in 1989. Later Deve Gowda and Inder Kumar Gujral too became prime ministers heading the United Front (UF) coalition governments in 1996 and 1997 respectively.
In 1999, when some senior leaders of the party decided to join hands with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led NDA, the party split into factions. Many leaders, including Madhu Dandawate and Siddaramaiah, joined the Janata Dal (Secular) faction headed by Deve Gowda, who became the National president of this faction.
He was defeated in the 1999 general elections but staged a comeback by winning the Kanakapura By-elections in 2002.
The 2004 elections in Karnataka witnessed the revival of his party's fortunes under the leadership of Siddaramaiah with the Janata Dal (Secular) winning 58 seats and becoming a part of the ruling coalition in the state. Later, the party joined with the BJP and formed an alternate government in 2006. His son H. D. Kumaraswamy headed the BJP-JD(S) coalition government in the state for 20 months. In the 2008 state elections, the party performed poorly and won just 28 seats, but it has remained a significant force in South Karnataka.
Deve Gowda expelled Siddaramaiah and CM Ibrahim JDS party, because Siddaramaiah led AHINDA movement; representing minority, backward, and Dalit people in Karnataka. Later, both Siddaramaiah and CM Ibrahim joined the Indian National Congress, which won the 2013 Vidhana Sabha election. Siddaramaiah was elected as the Chief Minister of Karnataka state in 2013.
In 2008, JDS did not transfer the power to BJP with B. S. Yediyurappa as CM in accord to the initial negotiation. This led to major setback for JDS in 2008 vidhana sabha election, JDS received only 28 seats compared to 58 seats in the 2004 vidhana sabha election. Since B. S. Yediyurappa is from Lingayath community, largest in the Karnataka state, many leaders in JDS from Lingayath community such as M.P. Prakash quit the party. B. S. Yediyurappa was elected as the Chief Minister of Karnataka state in 2008. Deve Gowda abused B. S. Yediyurappa, who was then chief minister of Karnataka. This event was termed as "new low in Indian politics". Gowda later apologised for hurling abuse at the chief minister of Karnataka.
Both B. S. Yediyurappa and Siddaramaiah eventually became Chief Minister of Karnataka state. JDS party led by Deve Gowda did not make impact in Karnataka politics from 2008 till 2018 general elections. In the 2018 Karnataka Assembly general elections, held on 12 May, there was a three-front competition between INC, BJP and JD(S). BJP won 104 seats, INC won 78 seats and JD(S) won 37 seats to become the King-maker. INC did not want to loose out to BJP and hence immediately have offered unconditional support to JD(S), to form the cabinet. But the governor of Karnataka has rejected this majority support and has called on for BS yeddyurappa to become CM and prove majority in 2 weeks. JDS and INC approached supreme court with the allegation on Governor who misused his powers to form the Karnataka state cabinet & showed partiality. And allowed the BJP to form the cabinet with insufficient seats (1.e 104) Supreme court given judgment that BJP have to prove the strength in a day i.e. on 19 May 2018 in the Assembly. On 19 May B. S. Yeddyurappa failed to prove the majority & hence he resigned after an emotional speech on the floor of assembly. On 23rd of may H. D. Kumaraswamy (Head of coalition INC & JDS) sworn in as CM & proved majority on 25th of may on the floor of assembly.
Deve Gowda contested the 2019 general elections against G. S. Basavaraj in Tumkur Lok Sabha constituency of Karnataka. G. S. Basavaraj, BJP candidate of Tumkur Constituency won against Deve Gowda by a margin of 13,339 votes. G. S. Basavaraj polled 5,96,127 votes while Deve Gowda got 5,82,788 votes.
He married Chennamma in 1954. They have six children together: four sons, including politicians H. D. Revanna and H. D. Kumaraswamy, who is the former Chief Minister of Karnataka, and two daughters.
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