HQ-22

Summary

The HQ-22 (simplified Chinese: 红旗-22; traditional Chinese: 紅旗-22; pinyin: Hóng Qí-22; lit. 'Red Banner-22') is a medium- to long-range semi-active radar homing/radio-command guidance air defence system developed and manufactured in China.[1]

HQ-22
08 image 2022 04 30 14 00 00 486 1651320220.jpg
Serbian Armed Forces FK-3 (export version of HQ-22)
TypeSurface-to-air missile
Place of origin China
Service history
In service2017–present
Used bySee § Operators
Specifications
Mass~ 1,300 kilograms (2,900 lb)
Length~ 7 metres (23 ft)
Diameter~ 0.7 metres (2 ft 4 in)
Warhead~ 180 kilograms (400 lb)
Detonation
mechanism
Impact/proximity

EngineRocket motor
PropellantSolid fuel
Operational
range
170 kilometres (110 mi)
Flight altitude50 metres (160 ft) to 27 kilometres (17 mi)
Guidance
system
Semi-active radar homing/radio-command guidance
Launch
platform
Hanyang 8×8

DevelopmentEdit

The HQ-22 air defence system was developed as the second generation of the HQ-12 missile.[2] The HQ-22 is manufactured by Jiangnan Space Industry, also known as Base 061, which is a part of the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC).[1]

In 2014, a downgraded form of the missile known as the FK-3 was revealed, targeting export customers.[3]

At the 2016 Airshow China, the HQ-22 was first publicly revealed as an improved version of the FK-3.[1]

In 2017, the HQ-22 entered service in the People's Liberation Army and has rapidly become one of the main missiles used for air defence.[4]

DesignEdit

A typical HQ-22 battery includes one radar vehicle and three transporter erector launchers equipped with four missiles each. Each battery can reportedly engage six aerial targets simultaneously.[5]

The missile system has been widely compared to the United States' Patriot and Russia's mobile long range S-300 surface-to-air missile system. Although it has a shorter range than S-300 variants such as the S-300PMU-2, it is thought to benefit from superior electronic countermeasures (ECM) and superior capabilities against stealth targets at shorter ranges.[6]

The system is believed to be much less expensive than the HQ-9 also in service and will be one of the mainstays of China's air defense network, replacing the HQ-2 missiles of the Cold War era.[7] It is rumoured that the missile has had a high rate of acquisition, already being deployed in large numbers despite its relatively young age.[8][unreliable source?]

MissileEdit

The HQ-22 has a range of up to 170 kilometres (110 mi) and can strike targets at altitudes from 50 metres (160 ft) to 27 kilometres (17 mi). The system's missiles are guided by semi-active radar guidance[4] and can engage ballistic and cruise missiles, aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles.

One main difference of the HQ-22 from its predecessor HQ-12 is that the HQ-22 has a new "wingless" design.[2]

RadarEdit

The system is capable of launching 12 missiles to engage up to six targets simultaneously,[6] and engage up to 36 targets with 72 missiles when multiple fire units, under the control of a command and coordination vehicle, are used.

The missile can use either semi-active radar homing composite guidance or radio-command guidance through the whole course. Initially, the missile will use semi-active radar homing guidance and in the case that it encounters strong electronic interference, will automatically change to radio-command guidance.

Launch vehicleEdit

The launcher vehicles are based on a 8×8 configuration chassis manufactured by the Hanyang Special Purpose Vehicle Institute. The HQ-22 launches its missiles at an angle, unlike the HQ-9 and HQ-16 which launch their missiles vertically.[4]

VariantsEdit

  • HQ-22 Variant in service with the People's Liberation Army with speed of Mach 6 and a range of 170 kilometres (110 mi).
  • FK-3 Original export variant.[1] Has a speed of Mach 6 and range of 150 kilometres (93 mi).[4]
  • HQ-22B Updated version with improved speed and range that can reach Mach 8 and has a range of 200 kilometres (120 mi). The HQ-22B has been in service with the People's Liberation Army since 2021.
  • HQ-22C Newer version still under development to improve its speed to Mach 10 and range to 250 kilometres (160 mi).

DeploymentEdit

In 2017, the HQ-22 entered service in the People's Liberation Army and has rapidly become one of the country's primary air defence systems.[4]

In August 2020, it was announced that Serbia had purchased the FK-3, surprising many in the Russian media, who had expected the country to purchase the S-300 instead.[9] It was the first time that any Chinese medium- or long-range air defence system had been exported to a European country.[5]

It was reported in April that HQ-22s had been deployed by the PLA near Indian territory in the eastern Ladakh area.[10]

On 9 April 2022, multiple People's Liberation Army Air Force Xi'an Y-20 transport aircraft landed in Belgrade to deliver the FK-3 to the Serbian Armed Forces.[11] On 30 April 2022, the Serbian Ministry of Defence showed the first pictures of the FK-3 officially brought into service.[12]

OperatorsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "HQ-22 (FK-3) anti-aircraft missile system". Missilery.info. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Serbia Orders Chinese Air Defense System". DefenseWorld.net. 4 August 2020. Archived from the original on 6 August 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  3. ^ "China to show latest generation of surface-to-air missile weapon system FK-3 at DSA 2014 2004146". Army Recognition. 20 April 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e "HQ-22 Long-Range Air Defense Missile System". Military-Today.com. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  5. ^ a b Chaudhary, Smriti (4 August 2020). "Did Russian S-400s Got Dumped for Chinese Air Defence System by an Aspiring EU Nation?". The EurAsian Times. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Serbia's New Chinese HQ-22 Missile System to Revolutionise Air Defence Capabilities". Military Watch Magazine. 10 August 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  7. ^ Chuanren, Chen (2 August 2017). "China Shows New Fighters, Missiles and Drones". AINonline. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  8. ^ Noodles In Pita [@nudelsinpita] (28 February 2021). "This is the most up-to-date (notional) PLAAF SAM brigades deployment map for 2021. Total 25 SAM brigades: 1x HQ-6 5x S-300 5x HQ-22 6x HQ-12 8x HQ-9 The 5th Division deploys HQ-9, S-300 and S-400. Beijing is heavily guarded with four brigades and one division (5th)" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 18 June 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2022 – via Twitter.
  9. ^ "RFE: US warns Serbia over Chinese AA missile system purchase". N1. 10 August 2020. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  10. ^ "India closely watching Chinese air defence batteries deployed near LAC". The Economic Times. Asian News International. 12 April 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  11. ^ "Chinese military supplies for Serbia". ItaMilRadar. 9 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  12. ^ "First picture of Serbian army FK-3 Chinese air defense missile system published on Internet". Army Recognition. 29 April 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  13. ^ Negi, Manjeet (12 April 2021). "India closely monitoring Chinese surface-to-air missile batteries deployed close to LAC". India Today. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  14. ^ a b c "HQ-22 / FK-3 - Surface-to-Air Missile". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  15. ^ Yeo, Mike (11 April 2022). "China delivers anti-aircraft missiles to Serbia". Defense News. Retrieved 17 April 2022.