Hausdorff measure


In mathematics, Hausdorff measure is a generalization of the traditional notions of area and volume to non-integer dimensions, specifically fractals and their Hausdorff dimensions. It is a type of outer measure, named for Felix Hausdorff, that assigns a number in [0,∞] to each set in or, more generally, in any metric space.

The zero-dimensional Hausdorff measure is the number of points in the set (if the set is finite) or ∞ if the set is infinite. Likewise, the one-dimensional Hausdorff measure of a simple curve in is equal to the length of the curve, and the two-dimensional Hausdorff measure of a Lebesgue-measurable subset of is proportional to the area of the set. Thus, the concept of the Hausdorff measure generalizes the Lebesgue measure and its notions of counting, length, and area. It also generalizes volume. In fact, there are d-dimensional Hausdorff measures for any d ≥ 0, which is not necessarily an integer. These measures are fundamental in geometric measure theory. They appear naturally in harmonic analysis or potential theory.


Let   be a metric space. For any subset  , let   denote its diameter, that is


Let   be any subset of   and   a real number. Define


where the infimum is over all countable covers of   by sets   satisfying  .

Note that   is monotone nonincreasing in   since the larger   is, the more collections of sets are permitted, making the infimum not larger. Thus,   exists but may be infinite. Let


It can be seen that   is an outer measure (more precisely, it is a metric outer measure). By Carathéodory's extension theorem, its restriction to the σ-field of Carathéodory-measurable sets is a measure. It is called the  -dimensional Hausdorff measure of  . Due to the metric outer measure property, all Borel subsets of   are   measurable.

In the above definition the sets in the covering are arbitrary. However, we can require the covering sets to be open or closed, or in normed spaces even convex, that will yield the same   numbers, hence the same measure. In   restricting the covering sets to be balls may change the measures but does not change the dimension of the measured sets.

Properties of Hausdorff measuresEdit

Note that if d is a positive integer, the d-dimensional Hausdorff measure of   is a rescaling of the usual d-dimensional Lebesgue measure  , which is normalized so that the Lebesgue measure of the unit cube [0,1]d is 1. In fact, for any Borel set E,


where αd is the volume of the unit d-ball; it can be expressed using Euler's gamma function


This is


where   is the volume of the unit diameter d-ball.

Remark. Some authors adopt a definition of Hausdorff measure slightly different from the one chosen here, the difference being that the value   defined above is multiplied by the factor  , so that Hausdorff d-dimensional measure coincides exactly with Lebesgue measure in the case of Euclidean space.

Relation with Hausdorff dimensionEdit

It turns out that   may have a finite, nonzero value for at most one  . That is, the Hausdorff Measure is zero for any value above a certain dimension and infinity below a certain dimension, analogous to the idea that the area of a line is zero and the length of a 2D shape is in some sense infinity. This leads to one of several possible equivalent definitions of the Hausdorff dimension:


where we take   and  .

Note that it is not guaranteed that the Hausdorff measure must be finite and nonzero for some d, and indeed the measure at the Hausdorff dimension may still be zero; in this case, the Hausdorff dimension still acts as a change point between measures of zero and infinity.


In geometric measure theory and related fields, the Minkowski content is often used to measure the size of a subset of a metric measure space. For suitable domains in Euclidean space, the two notions of size coincide, up to overall normalizations depending on conventions. More precisely, a subset of   is said to be  -rectifiable if it is the image of a bounded set in   under a Lipschitz function. If  , then the  -dimensional Minkowski content of a closed  -rectifiable subset of   is equal to   times the  -dimensional Hausdorff measure (Federer 1969, Theorem 3.2.29).

In fractal geometry, some fractals with Hausdorff dimension   have zero or infinite  -dimensional Hausdorff measure. For example, almost surely the image of planar Brownian motion has Hausdorff dimension 2 and its two-dimensional Hausdorff measure is zero. In order to "measure" the "size" of such sets, the following variation on the notion of the Hausdorff measure can be considered:

In the definition of the measure   is replaced with   where   is any monotone increasing set function satisfying  

This is the Hausdorff measure of   with gauge function   or  -Hausdorff measure. A  -dimensional set   may satisfy   but   with an appropriate   Examples of gauge functions include


The former gives almost surely positive and  -finite measure to the Brownian path in   when  , and the latter when  .

See alsoEdit


  • Evans, Lawrence C.; Gariepy, Ronald F. (1992), Measure Theory and Fine Properties of Functions, CRC Press.
  • Federer, Herbert (1969), Geometric Measure Theory, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 3-540-60656-4.
  • Hausdorff, Felix (1918), "Dimension und äusseres Mass" (PDF), Mathematische Annalen, 79 (1–2): 157–179, doi:10.1007/BF01457179, S2CID 122001234.
  • Morgan, Frank (1988), Geometric Measure Theory, Academic Press.
  • Rogers, C. A. (1998), Hausdorff measures, Cambridge Mathematical Library (3rd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62491-6
  • Szpilrajn, E (1937), "La dimension et la mesure" (PDF), Fundamenta Mathematicae, 28: 81–89, doi:10.4064/fm-28-1-81-89.

External linksEdit

  • Hausdorff dimension at Encyclopedia of Mathematics
  • Hausdorff measure at Encyclopedia of Mathematics