Height above mean sea level is a measure of the vertical distance (height, elevation or altitude) of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level taken as a vertical datum. In geodesy, it is formalized as orthometric heights.
Mean sea levels are affected by climate change and other factors and change over time. For this and other reasons, recorded measurements of elevation above sea level at a reference time in history might differ from the actual elevation of a given location over sea level at a given moment.
Metres above sea level is internationally the standard measurement of the elevation or altitude of:
The elevation or altitude in metres above sea level of a location, object, or point can be determined in a number of ways. The most common include:
Accurate measurement of historical mean sea levels is complex. Land mass subsidence (as occurs naturally in some regions) can give the appearance of rising sea levels. Conversely, markings on land masses that are uplifted due to geological processes can suggest a lowering of mean sea level.
Often, just the abbreviation MSL is used, e.g. Mount Everest (8848 m MSL), or the reference height is omitted completely, e.g. Mount Everest (8848 m).
Metres above mean sea level is commonly abbreviated mamsl or MAMSL, based on the abbreviation AMSL for "above mean sea level". Other abbreviations are m.a.s.l. and MASL for "metres above sea level".