Until the 1970s, Hell's Kitchen was a bastion of poor and working-class Irish Americans. Though its gritty reputation had long held real-estate prices below those of most other areas of Manhattan, by 1969, the City Planning Commission's Plan for New York City reported that development pressures related to its Midtown location were driving people of modest means from the area.
Since the early 1980s, the area has been gentrifying, and rents have risen rapidly. Home of the Actors Studio training school, and adjacent to Broadway theatres, Hell's Kitchen has long been a home to fledgling and working actors. Today, the area has a large LGBTQ population and is home to a large number of LGBTQ bars and businesses.
Hell's Kitchen is part of Manhattan Community District 4. It is patrolled by the 10th and Midtown North Precincts of the New York City Police Department. The area provides transport, medical, and warehouse-infrastructure support to the business district of Manhattan. It is also known for its extensive selection of multiethnic, small, and relatively inexpensive restaurants, delicatessens, bodegas, bars, and associated nightlife.
General map of the Hell's Kitchen area, including the northern part of Hudson Yards to the south, but excluding the Columbus Circle transition area to the north
The name "Hell's Kitchen" generally refers to the area between 34th to the south and 59th Street to the north. Starting west of Eighth Avenue and the north side of 43rd Street, city zoning regulations generally limit buildings to six stories. As a result, most of the buildings are older, and are often walk-up apartments. For the most part, the neighborhood encompasses the ZIP Codes 10019 and 10036. The post office for 10019 is called Radio City Station, the original name for Rockefeller Center on Sixth Avenue.
Several explanations exist for the original name. An early use of the phrase appears in a comment Davy Crockett made about another notorious Irish slum in Manhattan, Five Points. According to the Irish Cultural Society of the Garden City Area:
When, in 1835, Davy Crockett said, "In my part of the country, when you meet an Irishman, you find a first-rate gentleman; but these are worse than savages; they are too mean to swab hell's kitchen", he was referring to the Five Points.
According to an article by Kirkley Greenwell, published online by the Hell's Kitchen Neighborhood Association:
No one can pin down the exact origin of the label, but some refer to a tenement on 54th Street as the first "Hell's Kitchen." Another explanation points to an infamous building at 39th as the true original. A gang and a local dive took the name as well.
Local historian Mary Clark explained the name thus:
...first appeared in print on September 22, 1881 when a New York Times reporter went to the West 30s with a police guide to get details of a multiple murder there. He referred to a particularly infamous tenement at 39th Street and Tenth Avenue as "Hell's Kitchen" and said that the entire section was "probably the lowest and filthiest in the city." According to this version, 39th Street between 9th and 10th Avenues became known as Hell's Kitchen and the name was later expanded to the surrounding streets. Another version ascribes the name's origins to a German restaurant in the area known as Heil's Kitchen, after its proprietors. But the most common version traces it to the story of "Dutch Fred the Cop", a veteran policeman, who with his rookie partner, was watching a small riot on West 39th Street near Tenth Avenue. The rookie is supposed to have said, "This place is hell itself", to which Fred replied, "Hell's a mild climate. This is Hell's Kitchen."
The 1929 book Manna-Hatin: The Story of New York states that the Panic of 1857 led to gangs formed "in the notorious 'Gas House District' at Twenty-First Street and the East River, or in 'Hell's Kitchen', in the West Thirties."
Hell's Kitchen has become the most frequently used name of the neighborhood, even though real estate developers have offered alternatives of "Clinton" and "Midtown West", or even "the Mid-West". The "Clinton" name, used by the municipality of New York City, originated in 1959 in an attempt to link the area to DeWitt Clinton Park at 52nd and Eleventh Avenue, named after the 19th century New York governor.
On the island of Manhattan as it was when Europeans first saw it, the Great Kill formed from three small streams that united near present-day Tenth Avenue and 40th Street, and then wound through the low-lying Reed Valley, renowned for fish and waterfowl, to empty into the Hudson River at a deep bay on the river at the present 42nd Street. The name was retained in a tiny hamlet called Great Kill, which became a center for carriage-making, while the upland to the south and east became known as Longacre, the predecessor of Longacre Square (now Times Square).
One of the large farms of the colonial era in this neighborhood was that of Andreas Hopper and his descendants, extending from today's 48th Street nearly to 59th Street and from the river east to what is now Sixth Avenue. One of the Hopper farmhouses, built in 1752 for John Hopper the younger, stood near 53rd Street and Eleventh Avenue; christened "Rosevale" for its extensive gardens, it was the home of the War of 1812 veteran, Gen. Garrit Hopper Striker, and lasted until 1896, when it was demolished. The site was purchased for the city and naturalistically landscaped by Samuel Parsons Jr. as DeWitt Clinton Park. In 1911 New York Hospital bought a full city block largely of the Hopper property, between 54th and 55th Streets, Eleventh and Twelfth Avenues. Beyond the railroad track, projecting into the river at 54th Street, was Mott's Point, with an 18th-century Mott family house surrounded by gardens, that was inhabited by members of the family until 1884 and survived until 1895.
A lone surviving structure that dates from the time this area was open farmland and suburban villas is a pre-1800s carriage house that once belonged to a villa owned by former Vice President and New York State governor George Clinton, now in a narrow court behind 422 West 46th Street. From 1811 until it was officially de-mapped in 1857, the diminutive Bloomingdale Square was part of the city's intended future; it extended from 53rd to 57th Streets between Eighth and Ninth Avenues. It was eliminated after the establishment of Central Park, and the name shifted to the junction of Broadway, West End Avenue, and 106th Street, now Straus Park. In 1825, the City purchased for $10 clear title to a right-of-way through John Leake Norton's[a] farm, "The Hermitage", to lay out 42nd Street clear to the river. Before long, cattle ferried from Weehawken were being driven along the unpaved route to slaughterhouses on the East Side. Seventy acres of the Leakes' (later the Nortons') property, extending north from 42nd to 46th Street and from Broadway to the river, had been purchased before 1807 by John Jacob Astor and William Cutting, who held it before dividing it into building lots as the district became more suburban.
The West Side later had its own slaughterhouses, which went out of business in the middle 20th century.
Unity with the city and deteriorationEdit
Hell's Kitchen and Sebastopol, c. 1890, photographed by Jacob Riis
There were multiple changes that helped Hell's Kitchen integrate with New York City proper. The first was construction of the Hudson River Railroad, whose initial leg – the 40 mi (64 km) to Peekskill – was completed on September 29, 1849, By the end of 1849, it stretched to Poughkeepsie and in 1851 it extended to Albany. The track ran at a steep grade up Eleventh Avenue, as far as 60th Street.
The formerly rural riverfront was industrialized by businesses, such as tanneries, that used the river for shipping products and dumping waste.
The neighborhood that would later be known as Hell's Kitchen started forming in the southern part of the 22nd Ward in the mid-19th century. Irish immigrants – mostly refugees from the Great Famine – found work on the docks and railroad along the Hudson River and established shantytowns there.
Mission House, Hell's Kitchen, c. 1915
After the American Civil War, there was an influx of people who moved to New York City. The tenements that were built became overcrowded quickly. Many who lived in this congested, poverty-stricken area turned to gang life. Following Prohibition, implemented in 1919, the district's many warehouses were ideal locations for bootleg distilleries for the rumrunners who controlled illicit liquor. At the start of the 20th century, the neighborhood was controlled by gangs, including the violent Gopher Gang led by One Lung Curran and later by Owney Madden.
Early gangs, like the Hell's Kitchen Gang, transformed into organized crime entities, around the same time that Owney Madden became one of the most powerful mobsters in New York. It became known as the "most dangerous area on the American Continent".
By the 1930s, when the McGraw-Hill Building was constructed in Hell's Kitchen, the surrounding area was still largely tenements. After the repeal of Prohibition, many of the organized crime elements moved into other rackets, such as illegal gambling and union shakedowns. The postwar era was characterized by a flourishing waterfront, and longshoreman work was plentiful. By the end of the 1950s, however, the implementation of containerized shipping led to the decline of the West Side piers and many longshoremen found themselves out of work. In addition, construction of the Lincoln Tunnel, Lincoln Tunnel access roads, and the Port Authority Bus Terminal and ramps destroyed much of Hell's Kitchen south of 41st Street.
In 1959, an aborted rumble between rival Irish and Puerto Rican gangs led to the notorious "Capeman" murders in which two innocent teenagers were killed. By 1965, Hell's Kitchen was the home base of the Westies, an Irish mob aligned with the Gambino crime family. It was not until the early 1980s that widespread gentrification began to alter the demographics of the longtime working-class Irish American neighborhood. The 1980s also saw an end to the Westies' reign of terror, when the gang lost all of its power after the RICO convictions of most of its principals in 1986.
First wave of gentrificationEdit
Special Clinton zoning districtEdit
Eighth Avenue was once lined with porn stores and theaters. The stores have mostly gone since the late 1990s, but this particular store, which was highlighted in the 2003 film Phone Booth, remained until 2007.
Although the neighborhood is immediately west of New York's main business district, large-scale redevelopment has been kept in check for more than 40 years by strict zoning rules in a Special Clinton District designed to protect the neighborhood's residents and its low-rise character.
In part to qualify for federal aid, New York developed a comprehensive Plan for New York City in 1969–70. While for almost all neighborhoods, the master plan contained few proposals, it was very explicit about the bright future of Hell's Kitchen. The plan called for 2,000 to 3,000 new hotel rooms, 25,000 apartments, 25×10^6 sq ft (2,300,000 m2) of office space, a new super liner terminal, a subway along 48th Street, and a convention center to replace what the plan described as "blocks of antiquated and deteriorating structures of every sort." However, outrage at the massive residential displacement that this development project would have caused, and the failure of the City to complete any replacement housing, led to opposition to the first project – a new convention center to replace the New York Coliseum.
To prevent the convention center from sparking a development boom that would beget the rest of the master plan with its consequent displacement, the Clinton Planning Council and Daniel Gutman, their environmental planner, proposed that the convention center and all major development be located south of 42nd Street where public policy had already left tracts of vacant land.
Nevertheless, in 1973 the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was approved for a 44th Street site that would replace piers 84 and 86. But in exchange, and after the defeat of a bond issue that would have funded a 48th Street "people mover," the City first abandoned the rest of the 1969–70 master plan and then gave the neighborhood a special zoning district to restrict further redevelopment. Since then, limited new development has filled in the many empty lots and rejuvenated existing buildings. Later, in 1978, when the city could not afford the higher cost of constructing the 44th Street convention center over water, the Mayor and Governor chose the rail yard site originally proposed by the local community.
The SCD was originally split into four areas:
Preservation Area: 43rd to 56th Streets between Eighth and Tenth Avenues. R-7 density, 6-story height limit on new buildings, suggested average apartment size of two bedrooms (this was a response to the fact that between 1960 and 1970 developers had torn down 2,300 family-sized units and replaced them with 1,500 smaller units).
Perimeter Area: Eighth Avenue, 42nd and 57th Streets. Bulkier development permitted to counterbalance the downzoning in the preservation area.
Mixed Use Area: Tenth and Eleventh Avenues between 43rd and 50th Streets. Mixed residential and manufacturing. New residential development only permitted in conjunction with manufacturing areas. Later combined into "Other Areas".
Other Areas: West of Eleventh Avenue. Industrial and waterfront uses. Later combined with "Mixed Use Area"
Special permits are required for all demolition and construction in the SCD, including demolition of "any sound housing in the District" and any rehabilitation that increases the number of dwellings in a structure. In the original provisions, no building could be demolished unless it was unsound. New developments, conversions, or alterations that create new units or zero bedroom units must contain at least 20% two bedroom apartments with a minimum room size of 168 sq ft (16 m2). Alterations that reduce the percentage of two-bedroom units are not permitted unless the resulting building meets the 20% two-bedroom requirement. Finally, building height in the Preservation Area cannot exceed 66 ft (20 m) or seven stories, whichever is less.
Windermere Apartments at Ninth Avenue and 57th Street
As the gentrification pace increased, there were numerous reports of problems between landlords and tenants. The most extreme example was the eight-story Windermere Apartments complex at the southwest corner of Ninth Avenue and 57th Street. Built in 1881, it is the second-oldest large apartment house in Manhattan.
In 1980, the owner, Alan B. Weissman, tried to empty the building of its tenants. According to former tenants and court papers, rooms were ransacked, doors were ripped out, prostitutes were moved in, and tenants received death threats in the campaign to empty the building. All the major New York newspapers covered the trials that sent the Windermere's managers to jail. Although Weissman was never linked to the harassment, he and his wife made top billing in the 1985 edition of The Village Voice's annual list, "The Dirty Dozen: New York's Worst Landlords." Most of the tenants eventually settled and moved out of the building. As of May 2006, seven tenants remained and court orders protecting the tenants and the building allowed it to remain in derelict condition even as the surrounding neighborhood was experiencing a dramatic burst of demolition and redevelopment. Finally, in September 2007, the fire department evacuated those remaining seven residents from the building, citing dangerous conditions, and padlocked the front door. In 2008 the New York Supreme Court ruled that the owners of the building, who include the TOA Construction Corporation of Japan, must repair it.
One impediment to development was the lack of mass transit in the area, which is far from Penn Station, and none of the proposals for a link to Penn Station was pursued successfully (for example, the ill-fated West Side Transitway). No changes to the zoning policy happened until 1990, when the city rezoned a small segment of 11th Avenue near the Javits Center. In 1993, part of 9th Avenue between 35th and 41st Streets was also rezoned. However, neither of these rezonings was particularly significant, as most of the area was still zoned as a manufacturing district with low-rise apartment buildings.
By the early 1990s, there was a recession, which scuttled plans for rezoning and severely reduced the amount of development in the area. After the recession was over, developers invested in areas like Times Square, eastern Hell's Kitchen, and Chelsea, but mostly skipped the Far West Side.
September 11, 2001Edit
Memorial to 15 firefighters from Engine Co. 54/Ladder Co. 4/Battalion 9 who died on September 11, 2001
While most fire stations in Manhattan lost firefighters in the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the station with the greatest loss of firefighters was Engine Co. 54/Ladder Co. 4/Battalion 9 at 48th Street and Eighth Avenue, which lost 15 firefighters. Given its proximity to Midtown, the station has specialized in skyscraper fires and rescues; in 2007, it was the second-busiest firehouse in New York City, with 9,685 runs between the two companies. Its patch reads "Pride of Midtown" and "Never Missed a Performance". Memorials dot the station's exterior walls and a granite memorial is in a park to its north. Ladder 21, the "Pride of Hell's Kitchen", located on 38th Street between Ninth and Tenth Avenues, and stationed with Engine Co. 34, lost seven firefighters on September 11. In addition, on September 11, Engine Co. 26 was temporarily stationed with Engine Co. 34/Ladder Co. 21 and lost many firefighters themselves.
Redevelopment and second wave of gentrificationEdit
Looking north on 8th Avenue from 42nd Street
Hell's Kitchen has become an increasingly upscale neighborhood of affluent young professionals as well as residents from the "old days", with rents in the neighborhood having increased dramatically above the average in Manhattan. It has also acquired a large and diverse community as residents have moved north from Chelsea. Zoning has long restricted the extension of Midtown Manhattan's skyscraper development into Hell's Kitchen, at least north of 42nd Street. The David Childs- and Frank Williams-designed Worldwide Plaza established a beachhead when it was built in 1989 at the former Madison Square Garden site, a full city block between 49th and 50th Streets and between Eighth and Ninth Avenues that was exempt from special district zoning rules. This project led a real-estate building boom on Eighth Avenue, including the Hearst Tower at 56th Street and Eighth Avenue.
An indication of how fast real estate prices rose in the neighborhood was a 2004 transaction involving the Howard Johnson's Motel at 52nd Street and Eighth Avenue. In June, Vikram Chatwal's Hampshire Hotel Group bought the motel and adjoining Studio Instrument Rental building for $9 million. In August, they sold the property to Elad Properties for about $43 million. Elad, which formerly owned the Plaza Hotel, built The Link, a luxury 44-story building, at that location.
In 2003, the New York City Department of City Planning issued a master plan that envisioned the creation of 40,000,000 sq ft (3,700,000 m2) of commercial and residential development, two corridors of open space. Dubbed the Hudson Yards Master Plan, the area covered is bordered on the east by Seventh and Eighth Avenues, on the south by West 28th and 30th Streets, on the north by West 43rd Street, and on the west by Hudson River Park and the Hudson River. The City's plan was similar to a neighborhood plan produced by architect Meta Brunzema and environmental planner Daniel Gutman for the Hell's Kitchen Neighborhood Association (HKNA). The main concept of the HKNA plan was to allow major new development while protecting the existing residential core area between Ninth and Tenth avenues.
The entirety of Community District 4, which comprises Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea, had 122,119 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 83.1 years.: 2, 20 This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.: 53 (PDF p. 84)  Most inhabitants are adults: a plurality (45%) are between the ages of 25–44, while 26% are between 45–64, and 13% are 65 or older. The ratio of youth and college-aged residents was lower, at 9% and 8% respectively.: 2
As of 2017, the median household income in Community Districts 4 and 5 (including Midtown Manhattan) was $101,981, though the median income in Hell's Kitchen individually was $98,727. In 2018, an estimated 11% of Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea residents lived in poverty, compared to 14% in all of Manhattan and 20% in all of New York City. One in twenty residents (5%) was unemployed, compared to 7% in Manhattan and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 41% in Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018[update], Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea are considered to be high-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying.: 7
Hell's Kitchen gear for sale in the Video Cafe on Ninth Avenue (shop closed in January 2014)
Manhattan Plaza, performing artists' residence, Ninth Avenue/43rd Street
With the opening of the original Improv by Budd Friedman in 1963, the club became a hangout for singers to perform but quickly attracted comedians, as well, turning it into the reigning comedy club of its time. Once located at 358 West 44th Street and Ninth Avenue, it has since closed.
Manhattan Plaza at 43rd Street between Ninth and Tenth Avenues was built in the 1970s to house artists. It consists of two 46-story towers with 70% of the apartments set aside for rent discounts for those who work in the arts.The Actors' Temple and St. Malachy Roman Catholic Church with its Actors' Chapel also testify to the long-time presence of show business people.
Ninth Avenue is noted for its many ethnic restaurants. The Ninth Avenue Association's International Food Festival stretches through the Kitchen from 42nd to 57th Streets every May, usually on the third weekend of the month. It has been going on since 1974 and is one of the oldest street fairs in the city. There are Caribbean, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Italian, Irish, Mexican, and Thai restaurants as well as multiple Afghan, Argentine, Ethiopian, Peruvian, Turkish, Indian, Pakistani, and Vietnamese restaurants. Restaurant Row, so-called because of the abundance of restaurants, is located on West 46th Street between Eighth and Ninth Avenues. Notable establishments on Ninth Avenue include Mickey Spillane's, part-owned by the mobster's son, who also owns Mr. Biggs on Tenth Avenue/43rd Street. There are more restaurants and food carts and trucks on Tenth Avenue between 43rd and 47th Streets.
The 100 by 150 ft (30 by 46 m) Clinton Community Garden is located on West 48th Street between Ninth and Tenth Avenues, and consists of 108 plots. Previously a haven for illegal activity, in 1978 the West 48th Street Block Association joined with the Green Guerillas to secure a lease for the site to renovate it for community use. When the city put it up for auction in 1981, residents formed the Committee to Save Clinton Community Garden, through both appeals to Mayor Ed Koch and unsuccessful efforts to purchase the site. In 1984, one month before the auction, the garden was transferred to the city's Parks Department, making it the first community garden to become parkland. It is open from dawn to dusk, and over 2,000 residents have keys to the park, which is used by an average of 500–600 people, including over 100 children, during the warm months. Recreational programs provide for events that include an annual Summer Solstice event, art shows, chamber music picnics, gardening seminars, and dance recitals. Residents have also held weddings in the park, and photographers have used it for photo shoots.
Police and crimeEdit
Hell's Kitchen is patrolled by two precincts of the NYPD. The area south of 42nd Street is patrolled by the 10th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 230 West 20th Street in Chelsea, while the area north of 42nd Street is patrolled by the 18th (Midtown North) Precinct, located at 306 West 54th Street. The 10th Precinct ranked 61st safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010, while the Midtown North and Midtown South precincts ranked 69th safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime. As of 2018[update], with a non-fatal assault rate of 34 per 100,000 people, Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 313 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.: 8
The 10th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 74.8% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct reported 1 murder, 19 rapes, 81 robberies, 103 felony assaults, 78 burglaries, 744 grand larcenies, and 26 grand larcenies auto in 2018. The 18th Precinct also has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 84.2% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct reported 3 murders, 21 rapes, 130 robberies, 190 felony assaults, 175 burglaries, 1,875 grand larcenies, and 31 grand larcenies auto in 2018.
Engine Company 34/Ladder Company 21 – 440 West 38th Street
Engine Company 54/Ladder Company 4/Battalion 9 – 782 8th Avenue
As of 2018[update], preterm births in Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea are the same as the city average, though births to teenage mothers are less common. In Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea, there were 87 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 9.9 births to teenage mothers per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).: 11 Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea have a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 11%, slightly less than the citywide rate of 12%.: 14
The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea is 0.0098 mg/m3 (9.8×10−9 oz/cu ft), more than the city average.: 9 Eleven percent of Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea residents are smokers, which is less than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.: 13 In Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea, 10% of residents are obese, 5% are diabetic, and 18% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.: 16 In addition, 14% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.: 12
Ninety-one percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is higher than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 86% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," more than the city's average of 78%.: 13 For every supermarket in Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea, there are 7 bodegas.: 10
Hell's Kitchen is located within three primary ZIP Codes. From north to south they are 10018 between 34th and 41st Streets, 10036 between 41st and 48th Streets, and 10019 between 48th and 59th Streets. The United States Postal Service operates three post offices in Hell's Kitchen:
Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea generally have a higher rate of college-educated residents than the rest of the city as of 2018[update]. A majority of residents age 25 and older (78%) have a college education or higher, while 6% have less than a high school education and 17% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 64% of Manhattan residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher.: 6 The percentage of Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea students excelling in math rose from 61% in 2000 to 80% in 2011, and reading achievement increased from 66% to 68% during the same time period.
Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is lower than the rest of New York City. In Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea, 16% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, less than the citywide average of 20%.: 24 (PDF p. 55) : 6 Additionally, 81% of high school students in Hell's Kitchen and Chelsea graduate on time, more than the citywide average of 75%.: 6
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York operates Catholic schools in Manhattan. The Holy Cross School served the Hells Kitchen/Times Square area. Circa 2011 it had about 300 students. Some students originated from areas outside of New York City and outside New York State. In 2013 the archdiocese announced that the school was to close. The school had the possibility of remaining open if $720,000 in pledges to the school were obtained, and the school community almost got to the number; however, the school was to be closed anyway.
The New York Public Library (NYPL) operates the Columbus branch at 742 10th Avenue. The Columbus branch was founded in 1901 as the Columbus Catholic Club's collection, and it became an NYPL branch four years later. The current Carnegie library building opened in 1909 and was renovated in 2004–2005.
Port Authority Bus Terminal at 42nd and Eighth Avenue
Parking lots dot the neighborhood but are dwindling in quantity as developments are being built. Eleventh Avenue is lined with car dealerships, many of which claim to have the highest volume among all dealerships for their brands in the country.
Many of the horse-drawn carriages from Central Park stay in stables just off the West Side Highway. It is not uncommon to hear the sound of horses in the neighborhood. There have been calls for banning horse-drawn carriages, especially from Mayor of New York CityBill de Blasio following a handful of collisions between cars and carriages. The carriage horses live in stables originally built in the 19th century, but today contain modern design features such as fans, misting systems, box stalls, and sprinkler systems. The carriage horses live upstairs in their stables while the carriages are parked below on the ground floor.
Intercity and long-distance transportEdit
The massive Port Authority Bus Terminal is between 40th and 42nd Streets and Eighth and Ninth Avenues. It serves numerous commuter and intercity routes, as well as airport shuttles and tour buses.
The Kitchen, an eight-issue Vertigo Comics miniseries, is a female-driven crime drama set in Hell's Kitchen.
The Marvel superhero Daredevil was born and raised in Hell's Kitchen, and most of the comic's run takes place in the area. He is also commonly referred in the books as "the Devil of Hell's Kitchen".
The Marvel character Nick Fury grew up in Hell's Kitchen.
The character Gail Wynand in Ayn Rand's 1943 novel The Fountainhead grew up in Hell's Kitchen. Several chapters in the book are extensive flashbacks to his childhood and youth there. At the end of the book he buys up several blocks of Hell's Kitchen, in which to build the world's tallest skyscraper.
Apollo, the protagonist from Rick Riordan's 2016 novel The Hidden Oracle, crashes in a Hell's Kitchen dumpster after being turned mortal, and meets and is saved from muggers by his companion Meg McCaffrey there.
Bruce Willis (born 1955), actor, lived at West 49th Street and Tenth Avenue as a struggling actor.
^Norton, the great-nephew of John Leake, founder of Leake and Watts Children's Home, is listed among early 19th-century owners of considerable tracts in what is now Hell's Kitchen, with John Jacob Astor, William Cutting, Thomas Addis Emmet, Andrew Hopper, John Horn and William Wright.
^ ab"NYC Planning | Community Profiles". communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
^ abTable PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre – New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division – New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
^ abTable PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin – New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division – New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
^ ab"Hell's Kitchen neighborhood in New York". Retrieved March 18, 2019.
^"Hell's Kitchen LGBTQ+ Nightlife and Dining", nycgo.com, April 4, 2017
^ abcdeBenson, Michael R. "Clinton frets over that gleam in developers' eyes", The New York Times, December 22, 1985. Accessed May 23, 2020. "Hell's Kitchen, which stretched from 40th to 59th Streets and from Eighth Avenue to the Hudson, is now called Clinton. The modern district reaches south to 34th Street."
^Jacobson, Aileen. "Living In Hell's Kitchen: Where East Village Grit Meets the Artsy West Side", The New York Times, November 11, 2020. Accessed November 15, 2020. "Stretching from Eighth Avenue to the Hudson River (busy commercial thoroughfare to sublime park) and from West 59th to West 41st Streets (sleek Time Warner Center to scruffy Port Authority bus terminal), Hell's Kitchen is a jumble of contrasts."
^Walsh, John (September 1994). "The Five Points". Irish Cultural Society of the Garden City Area. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
^Greenwell, Kirkley. "Hell's Kitchen Neighborhood Association". HKNA Official website. World Wide Vibe.com. Archived from the original on December 21, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
^Lambert, Bruce. "Neighborhood Report: Chelsea/Clinton; Hell's Kitchen Hotter With Revivalist Fans", The New York Times, December 4, 1994. Accessed March 31, 2017. "Among the theories on the name is that it derived from a restaurant called Heil's Kitchen."
^Eric W. Sanderson, Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City, 2009: Appendix A, p. 253 ISBN 978-0-8109-9633-5; refs. G.E. Hill and G.E. Waring Jr, "Old wells and water-courses on the isle of Manhattan", in Historic New York, M.W. Goodwin, A.C. Royce, and R. Putnam, 1897; and others.
^Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898, 1999:721. ISBN 0-19-511634-8
^"New Hospital Home on Old Hopper Farm; Elegant Country Mansion for Over a Century on Block Bought by the New York Hospital". The New York Times. March 12, 1911. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
^ ab"New York's New Up-town Centre; Long Acre Square of To-day and Yesterday – Scenes Witnessed in the Neighborhood "During Revolutionary Times – Property Owners Whose Gardens and Farms Once Made the District Attractive – Washington's Connection with the Place – A Famous Road House and the Civil War". The New York Times. September 21, 1902. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
^"Profile: Harborview Terrace" Archived March 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, NYCHA website
^Kevin Walsh, Forgotten New York: The Ultimate Urban Explorer's Guide to All Five Boroughs (2006), p. 176.
^Gilbert Tauber, "Old Streets of New York": "B" Streets.
^Ken Bloom, Broadway: Its History, People, and Places: An Encyclopedia, "Introduction", 2004, p. xiii.
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^McGarrity, Maria (March 2008). "Hell's Kitchen as Contact Zone: The Essentialized African in Jim Sheridan's In America". CLA Journal. 51 (3): 304–323. JSTOR 44325430.
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^Kelly, Andy (June 22, 2020). "Revisiting Deus Ex, Ion Storm's classic cyberpunk RPG". PC Gamer. Future US. Retrieved February 1, 2022. A great example of the game's reactivity can be found in the Hell's Kitchen level.
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^Barbara K. "La La Anthony dishes on her Hell's Kitchen crib", New York Post, April 19, 2012. Accessed July 4, 2016.
^Jamieson, Wendell. "City Lore; Hard-Boiled Tales, Told by a Gentleman", The New York Times, January 1, 2006. Accessed August 11, 2009. "Benjamin Appel was an author of more than 25 novels from 1934 to 1977, many of them set in New York. He was raised in Hell's Kitchen in Manhattan and lived much of his life in Roosevelt, N.J., but after he moved he still came back to New York often."
^Friend, Tad. "Lewis Black, Playwright", The New Yorker, June 5, 2012. Accessed July 4, 2016. "In his living room high up in Hell's Kitchen, the comedian Lewis Black sat on a sofa with three throw pillows tucked around him, as if he'd had a bad breakup and needed a hug and some Häagen-Dazs."
^Dargis, Manohla. "Roll the Fairy Tale, Fade to the Fists", The New York Times, June 3, 2005. Accessed July 8, 2016. "On June 13, 1935, the boxer James J. Braddock fought the fight of a lifetime. Born in Hell's Kitchen when that New York neighborhood still warranted that rough-and-tumble epithet, the 30-year-old heavyweight was the son of immigrants whose bloodlines and hardscrabble woes traced back to Ireland."
^Eldridge, David. American Culture in the 1930s, p. 74. Edinburgh University Press, 2008. ISBN 9780748629770. Accessed July 8, 2016. "Born in New York City's Hell's Kitchen, Cagney brought something 'fresh' to the movie, a machismo that was natural, uncontrolled and seemingly spontaneous (as when he spits beer into someone's face), and imbued with a wise-guy wit."
^Grimes, William. "George Cain, Writer of Blueschild Baby, Dies at 66", The New York Times, October 29, 2010. Accessed October 31, 2010.
^Lambert, Bruce. "Neighborhood Report: Point-Counterpoint; A Church vs. Sleepers", The New York Times, October 15, 1995. Accessed July 8, 2016. "Sacred Heart of Jesus Church and its elementary school on West 51st Street are focal elements in the current best seller Sleepers, which the author, Lorenzo Carcaterra, presents as a true story drawn from his Hell's Kitchen boyhood."
^Staff. "Second Cup Cafe: Vanessa Carlton", CBS News, November 17, 2007. Accessed August 10, 2009. "A few years ago, this three-time Grammy nominee was living in New York's Hell's Kitchen and working as a waitress in Lower Manhattan between performances at open mic nights in the city's clubs."
^Ward, Jack (April 26, 1993). Television Guest Stars: An Illustrated Career Chronicle for 678 Performers of the Sixties and Seventies. McFarland & Company. ISBN 9780899508078 – via Google Books.
^Henderson, Kathy (March 7, 2016). "Prodigal Son Playwright John Patrick Shanley & Star Timothee Chalamet on the Pain, Poetry & Pride of Revisiting 15". Broadway.com. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
^Krawitz, Alan. "Richard Christy: Queens' quirky caller", Queens Chronicle, January 21, 2010. Accessed July 8, 2016. "Formerly a resident of Hell's Kitchen, Christy moved to LIC in 2008 and says he's been pleasantly surprised."
^ abMcShane, Larry. "The real Kramer says actor no racist: But Richards is 'paranoid,' 'very wound-up'"[permanent dead link], Chicago Sun-Times, November 26, 2006. Accessed August 11, 2009. "The real Kramer lived for 10 years in a Hell's Kitchen apartment across the hall from Seinfeld co-creator Larry David, and his life became the framework for Richards' quirky, bumbling Seinfeld sidekick."
^Kaufman, Joanne. "Marcelo Gomes, the Dancer at Home in Hell's Kitchen", The New York Times, April 11, 2014. Accessed July 4, 2016. "Not long after Marcelo Gomes moved with his dachshund, Lua, into a subcompact (475 square feet) condo in Hell's Kitchen two and a half years ago, he gave a housewarming party."
^Berkow, Ira. "Sports of the Times; Tom Gorman's Final Call", The New York Times, August 17, 1986. Accessed July 9, 2016. "Yesterday, in a cemetery in Paramus, N.J., Thomas David Gorman, born in Hell's Kitchen in Manhattan, was laid to rest."
^"Charlton Heston". www.hollywoodsgoldenage.com. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
^Mervis, Scott. "Music Preview: Through her first several records, Alicia Keys has a golden touch", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 17, 2008. Accessed August 10, 2009. "Keys, a classically trained pianist raised in Hell's Kitchen by her Italian-Scottish mother, spent a few years after she dropped out of Columbia University trying to launch her pop career with songs on soundtracks."
^"Princess Mako, new husband move into one-bedroom in Hell's Kitchen" by Emily Crane, New York Post, November 15, 2021
^Lyman, Rick. "Stanley Kramer, Filmmaker With Social Bent, Dies at 87", The New York Times, February 21, 2001. Accessed July 9, 2016. "Stanley Earl Kramer was born in Hell's Kitchen in Manhattan, the only child of a divorced mother who worked as a secretary for Paramount."
^Clines, Francis X. (March 15, 2004). "The City Life; Recalling a Complicated Man". The New York Times.
^"A Daily Show Correspondent Adjusts to Life in New York" by Joanne Kaufman, The New York Times, December 16, 2016
^ abAllen, Kevin. "Mullen brothers come long way from Hell's Kitchen", USA Today, February 7, 1989. Accessed August 11, 2009.
^Kussoy, Howie. "You can't understand Joakim Noah until you know where he came from", New York Post, October 28, 2016. Accessed March 3, 2017. "A life set up to be overshadowed started in Manhattan, but Noah grew up in one of Paris' wealthiest suburbs, splitting time between his divorced parents. When he was 12, he moved to New York, living with his mother – who had moved to New York as a teenager – and younger sister, Yelena, near the corner of 51st Street and 10th Avenue. In Hell's Kitchen, he was no longer the child of France's favorite son."
^Staff. "Trevor Noah Bought a $10 Million New York City Penthouse; The comedian upgraded to the best apartment in his building", Architectural Digest, March 1, 2017. Accessed March 3, 2017. "After taking the helm of The Daily Show, Trevor Noah's hard work has clearly paid off. The comedian just purchased a $10 million penthouse apartment in the same building where he's been renting for the past six months, reports StreetEasy. The duplex is located in Manhattan's Hell's Kitchen, which is conveniently close to where The Daily Show films."
^Mervis, Scott. "Music Preview: Trans-Siberian Orchestra tour leans on old special and new album", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 24, 2015. Accessed March 3, 2017. " 'I've always been fascinated by night', Mr. O'Neill says. 'Night is where the fringes of society can feel safe. At one point of my life I used to live in Hell's Kitchen, when I was younger, and at night you would see the winos, the schizophrenics, the drug addicts.' "
^Van Matre, Lynn. "Tony Orlando: Fame dawns the second time around", Chicago Tribune, July 2, 1975. Accessed March 3, 2017. "Raised in Manhattan's tough 'Hells' Kitchen' area (most of the people he grew up with, Orlando says, 'are either dead or in jail'), Tony attended high school only one week before dropping out."
^Mason, Kiki. "The Lady Is a Champ; Actress/Lawyer/Activist Ilka Tanya Payán fights for the glamorous life" POZ (magazine), August 1, 1995. Accessed March 3, 2017. "A homecare worker with a ring through her nose greets me at the door to Ilka Tanya Payán's high-rise apartment in Manhattan's West Fifties."
^via Associated Press. "Josh Peck leaves Drake & Josh behind", Today, July 7, 2008. Accessed March 3, 2017. "A shy, overweight kid growing up in New York's Hell's Kitchen, Peck says he got into standup comedy as young as he did simply because it was the only thing he was good at."
^Homberger, Eric. "Mario Puzo: The author of the Godfather, the book the Mafia loved", The Guardian, July 5, 1999. Accessed August 10, 2009. "Born the son of illiterate Neapolitan immigrants, and one of 12 children, Puzo grew up in Hell's Kitchen on the west side of Manhattan."
^Gussow, Mel. "Mario Puzo, Author Who Made 'The Godfather' a World Addiction, Is Dead at 78", The New York Times, July 3, 1999. Accessed July 9, 2016. "Mario Puzo was born in Hell's Kitchen on the west side of Manhattan. His parents were poor Italian-American immigrants from Naples (not, like the Corleones, from Sicily)."
^via Associated Press, "'Tough guy' George raft dies of emphysema at 85", The Milwaukee Sentinel, November 25, 1980. Accessed August 10, 2009. "After growing up in New York's tough Hell's Kitchen area, Raft was a boxer, electrician and baseball player before landing a job as a dancer in nightclubs in the 1920s."
^John Reed, Pen Parentis, October 5, 2013. Accessed March 3, 2017. "I live with my wife and two young children in Hell's Kitchen."
^Frankel, Bruce. "Rourke sits in on trial of pal Gotti", USA Today, March 17, 1992. Accessed August 10, 2009. "The bad-boy actor, who grew up in Hell's Kitchen in Manhattan, spent the morning in court on a 'family' – the Gotti family – pass, following transcripts of conversations between Gotti, Salvatore 'Sammy Bull' Gravano and others."
^Traub, James. "The Lord's of Hell's Kitchen", The New York Times, April 5, 1987. Accessed March 3, 2017. "By the Mid-1970s, Control over Hell's Kitchen crime had passed to the mythically named Michael (Mickey) Spillane. A bookmaker, loan shark and murderer, Spillane was one of the last of the old-fashioned gangsters, handing out turkeys at Thanksgiving and paying visits to the elderly."
^Gilbey, Ryan. " Sylvester Stallone: the wacky people's champ who battled his own ego; Leading the race for best supporting actor Oscar for his comeback in Creed, this self-made star's creative fortunes have been inseparably bound to his most famous creation, Rocky Balboa", The Guardian, February 24, 2016. Accessed March 3, 2017. "He was born in Hell's Kitchen, New York City, to an astrologer mother and a father whom Stallone claimed ate raw sparrows and rabbit entrails."
^Hunt, Denis. "Lisa Lisa Is Cookin' In Hell's Kitchen", Los Angeles Times, July 5, 1987. Accessed March 3, 2017. "To hear Lisa Velez talk, you'd think New York City's infamous Hell's Kitchen—a dangerous, drug-infested slum—was paradise.... Usually kids grow up in Hell's Kitchen with one thought: escaping as soon as they are able. But Velez, the youngest of 10 children, had a different goal. She wanted to be a singer."
^Turan, Kenneth. "Motion Pictures; Bruce Willis Looks for the Man Within the Icon", The New York Times, July 1, 1990. Accessed August 15, 2017. "Somewhere in Hell's Kitchen, hard by West 49th Street and 10th Avenue in Manhattan, there is an apartment with Bruce Willis's name on it. A railroad flat where, for $175 a month, he bivouacked as one of New York's small army of aspiring actors, it still remains, and not by accident, in the man's family."
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