Hertfordshire

Summary

Hertfordshire
Motto(s): 
"Trust and fear not"
Hertfordshire within England
Coordinates: 51°49′N 0°13′W / 51.817°N 0.217°W / 51.817; -0.217Coordinates: 51°49′N 0°13′W / 51.817°N 0.217°W / 51.817; -0.217
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionEast
EstablishedAncient
Time zoneUTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of ParliamentList of MPs
PoliceHertfordshire Constabulary
Ceremonial county
Lord LieutenantRobert Voss
High SheriffThe Hon. Henry Holland-Hibbert [1] (2020-21)
Area1,643 km2 (634 sq mi)
 • Ranked36th of 48
Population (mid-2019 est.)1,184,365
 • Ranked13th of 48
Density721/km2 (1,870/sq mi)
Ethnicity80.8% White British
1.5% White Irish
0.1% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller
5.1% Other White
0.8% White & Black Caribbean
0.3% White & Black African
0.8% White & Asian
0.6% Other Mixed
2.6% Indian
1.1% Pakistani
0.5% Bangladeshi
0.8% Chinese
1.6% Other Asian
1.8% Black African
0.8% Black Caribbean
0.3% Other Black
0.2% Arab
0.4% Other
Non-metropolitan county
County councilHertfordshire County Council
ExecutiveConservative
Admin HQHertford
Area1,643 km2 (634 sq mi)
 • Ranked25th of 26
Population1,189,519
 • Ranked6th of 26
Density724/km2 (1,880/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2GB-HRT
ONS code26
GSS codeE10000015
ITLUKH23
Websitewww.hertfordshire.gov.uk
Districts
Hertfordshire numbered districts.svg
Districts of Hertfordshire
Districts
  1. North Hertfordshire
  2. Stevenage
  3. East Hertfordshire
  4. Dacorum
  5. City of St Albans
  6. Welwyn Hatfield
  7. Broxbourne
  8. Three Rivers
  9. Watford
  10. Hertsmere

Hertfordshire (/ˈhɑːtfədʃɪə/ (About this soundlisten); often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, and Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. It covers 634.366 square miles (1,643.00 km2). It derives its name from a hart (stag) and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and of the flag. Hertfordshire County Council is based in Hertford, once the main market town.

Since 1903, Letchworth is the prototype of the garden city and Stevenage became the first town to expand under post-war Britain's New Towns Act.

In 2013, the population was about 1,140,700, with Hemel Hempstead, Stevenage, Watford (and St Albans, the county's only city) each having between 50,000 and 100,000 residents.[2][3]

Elevations are higher in the north and west, reaching more than 800 feet (240 m) in the Chilterns near Tring. The county centres on the headwaters and upper valleys of the rivers Lea and the Colne; both flow south, and both are accompanied by a canal. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is mainly agricultural and much is protected by green belt. The largest sector of the county's economy is services. Hertfordshire is well-served with motorways and railways for access to London, the Midlands and the North.

History

The county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios. The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas, especially in St Albans which includes remains of the Roman town of Verulamium.

In 913, Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder. Hertford is derived from the Anglo-Saxon heort ford, meaning deer crossing (of a watercourse). The name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. Many of the names of the current settlements date back to the Anglo-Saxon period, with many featuring standard placename suffixes attributed to the Anglo-Saxons: "ford", "ton", "den", "bourn", "ley", "stead", "ing", "lett", "wood", and "worth", are represented in this county by Hertford, Royston, Harpenden, Redbourn, Cuffley, Wheathampstead, Tring, Radlett, Borehamwood and Rickmansworth.

There is evidence of human life in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period. It was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age. This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age.

Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni quickly submitted and adapted to the Roman life; resulting in the development of several new towns, including Verulamium (St Albans) where in c. 293 the first recorded British martyrdom is traditionally believed to have taken place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill. His martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire.

With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now-unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century, the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom. This relatively short-lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region finally became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms.

In the midst of the Norse invasions, Hertfordshire was on the front lines of much of the fighting. King Edward the Elder, in his reconquest of Norse-held lands in what was to become England, established a "burh" or fort in Hertford, which was to curb Norse activities in the area. His father, King Alfred the Great, established the River Lea as a boundary between his kingdom and that of the Norse lord Guthrum, with the north and eastern parts of the county being within the Danelaw. There is little evidence however of Norse placenames within this region, and many of the Anglo-Saxon features remained intact to this day. The county however suffered from renewed Norse raids in the late 10th to early 11th centuries, as armies led by Danish kings Swein Forkbeard and Cnut the Great harried the country as part of their attempts to undermine and overthrow English king Athelred the Unready.

A century later, William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror, before entering London unopposed and being crowned at Westminster. Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, and at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted.

The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past. The other seven were Braughing, Broadwater, Cashio, Edwinstree, Hertford, Hitchin and Odsey.

In the later Plantagenet period, St. Albans Abbey was an initial drafting place of what was to become the Magna Carta. And in the later Wars of the Roses, St. Albans was the scene of two major battles between the Lancastrians and the Yorkists.

In Tudor times, Hatfield House was often frequented by Queen Elizabeth I. Stuart King James I used the locale for hunting and facilitated the construction of a waterway, the New River, supplying drinking water to London.

As London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital; much of the area was owned by the nobility and aristocracy, this patronage helped to boost the local economy. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946.

The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley.[4]

From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies (IV, V, & VI). The studios generally used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but also lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden; the Harry Potter series was filmed here and the 1995 James Bond film GoldenEye.[5]

On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured.[6] The crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which consequently saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people; the train was at high speed when it derailed and flipped into the air when one of the carriages slid along the platform where it came to rest.

In early December 2005, the 2005 Hemel Hempstead fuel depot explosions occurred at the Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal.[7][8][9]

Geography

Hertfordshire is the county immediately north of London and is part of the East of England region, a mainly statistical unit.[10] To the east is Essex, to the west is Buckinghamshire and to the north are Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire. A significant minority of the population across all districts commute to Central London.

The county's boundaries were roughly fixed by the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844 which eliminated exclaves; amended when, in 1965 under the London Government Act 1963, East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District were abolished, their area was transferred to form part of the present-day London Borough of Barnet and the Potters Bar Urban District of Middlesex was transferred to Hertfordshire.

The highest point in the county is at 244 m (801 ft) (AOD) on the Ridgeway long distance national path, on the border of Hastoe near Tring with Drayton Beauchamp, Buckinghamshire.[11]

At the 2011 census, among the county's ten districts, East Hertfordshire had the lowest population density (290 people per km2) and Watford the highest (4210 per km2). Compared with neighbouring Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire lacks large towns or cities on the scale of Luton or Milton Keynes, whose populations exceed 200,000, but its overall population (approximately 1 million) is greater than those of the two aforementioned counties.

The River Lea near Harpenden runs through Wheathampstead, Welwyn Garden City, Hertford, Ware, and Broxbourne before reaching Cheshunt and ultimately the River Thames. The far west of the county is the most hilly, with the Chiltern Hills surrounding Tring, Berkhamsted and the Ashridge estate. This Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty runs from near Hitchin in the north to Berkshire and Oxfordshire.

Many of the county's major settlements are in the central, northern and southern areas, such as Watford, Hemel Hempstead, Kings Langley, Rickmansworth, St. Albans, Harpenden, Radlett, Borehamwood, Potters Bar, Stevenage, Hatfield, Welwyn and Welwyn Garden City, Hitchin, Letchworth and Baldock. These are all small to medium-sized locations, featuring a mix of post-WWII new towns and older/more historical locales. The City of St. Albans is an example of a historical settlement, as its cathedral and abbey date to the Norman period, and there are ruins from the Roman settlement of Verulamium nearby the current city centre. Stevenage is a mix of post-WWII new town planning amidst its prior incarnation as a smaller town. The Old Town in Stevenage represents this historic core and has many shops and buildings reflecting its pre-WWII heritage. Hitchin also has a historic centre, with many Tudor and Stuart era buildings interspersed amongst more contemporary structures.

Hertfordshire's eastern regions are predominantly rural and arable, intermixed with villages and small to medium-sized towns. Royston, Buntingford and Bishops Stortford, along with Ware and the county town of Hertford are major settlements in this regard. The physical geography of eastern Hertfordshire is less elevated than the far west, but with lower rising hills and prominent rivers such as the Stort. This river rises in Essex and terminates via a confluence with the Lea near to Ware. Apart from the Lea and Stort, the River Colne is the major watercourse in the county's west. This runs near Watford and Radlett, and has a complex system/drainage area running south into both Greater London and Buckinghamshire.

An unofficial status, the purple star-shaped flower with yellow stamens, the Pasqueflower is among endemic county flowers.[12]

Geology

The rocks of Hertfordshire belong to the great shallow syncline known as the London Basin. The beds dip in a south-easterly direction towards the syncline's lowest point roughly under the River Thames. The most important formations are the Cretaceous Chalk, exposed as the high ground in the north and west of the county, forming the Chiltern Hills and the younger Palaeocene, Reading Beds and Eocene, London Clay which occupy the remaining southern part. The eastern half of the county was covered by glaciers during the Ice Age and has a superficial layer of glacial boulder clays.

Natural resources and environment

Peter de Wint, Cornfields near Tring Station, Hertfordshire, 1847, Princeton University Art Museum
Relief map

Much of the west – and much more in the east – have richly diverse countryside.[13] These range from beech woods of the Chilterns, clayland buffer zone countryside of Braughing and the Hadhams across to ancient hornbeam coppices west of the upper Lea valley.[13] The county has sweeping panoramas of chalklands near Royston, Baldock, Hexton and Tring.[13]

Large parts of the county are used for agriculture.

Some quarrying of sand and gravel occurs around St Albans. In the past, clay has supplied local brick-making and still does in Bovingdon, just south-west of Hemel Hempstead. The chalk that is the bedrock of much of the county provides an aquifer that feeds streams and is also exploited to provide water supplies for much of the county and beyond. Chalk has also been used as a building material and, once fired, the resultant lime was spread on agricultural land to improve fertility. The mining of chalk since the early 18th century has left unrecorded underground galleries that occasionally collapse unexpectedly and endanger buildings.[14]

Fresh water is supplied to London from Ware, using the New River built by Hugh Myddleton and opened in 1613. Local rivers, although small, supported developing industries such as paper production at Nash Mills.[15]

Hertfordshire affords habitat for a variety of flora and fauna. A bird once common in the shire is the Hooded Crow, the old name of which is the eponymous name of the regional newspaper, the Royston Crow published in Royston. A product, now largely defunct, was watercress, based in Hemel Hempstead and Berkhamsted supported by reliable, clean chalk rivers.[16]

Urban areas

Economy

View of one of the buildings at Hatfield Business Park, currently the headquarters of EE

This is a table of trends of regional gross value added of Hertfordshire at current basic prices with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.[17]

Year Regional Gross Value Added[n 1] Agriculture[n 2] Industry[n 3] Services[n 4]
1995 11,742 96 3,292 8,354
2000 18,370 77 4,138 14,155
2003 20,937 82 4,348 16,507

Hertfordshire has the main operational and/or headquarters UK site of some very large employers. Clockwise from north:

In Stevenage (a subsidiary of: BAE Systems, Airbus and Finmeccanica) MBDA, develops missiles. In the same town, Airbus (Defence & Space Division) produces satellites.

Hatfield was where de Havilland developed the first commercial jet liner, the Comet. Now the site is a business park and new campus for the University of Hertfordshire. This major employment site notably hosts EE, Computacenter and Ocado groceries and other goods e-commerce.

Welwyn Garden City hosts Tesco's UK base, hosts the UK Cereal Partners factory and in pharmaceuticals it hosts Roche UK's headquarters (subsidiary of the Swiss Hoffman-La Roche). GlaxoSmithKline has plants in Ware and Stevenage.

Hemel Hempstead has large premises of Dixons Carphone.

The National Pharmacy Association (NPA), the trade association for UK pharmacies, is based in St Albans.

Kings Langley has the plant-office of Pure, making DAB digital radios.

Watford hosts national companies such as J D Wetherspoon, Camelot Group, Bathstore, and Caversham Finance (BrightHouse). It is also the UK base of multi-nationals Hilton Worldwide, Total Oil, TK Maxx, Costco, JJ Kavanagh and Sons, Vinci and Beko. The 2006 World Golf Championship and the 2013 Bilderberg Conference, took place at The Grove hotel.[18] Warner Bros. owns and runs its main UK base since the 2000s, Warner Studios, in Leavesden, Watford.

Rickmansworth hosts Skanska.

Sport

In 2012, the canoe and kayak slalom events of the 2012 Summer Olympics took place in Waltham Cross, Broxbourne.

Football

Vicarage Road stadium in Watford

As of the 2021–22 season, there are four professional football teams in Hertfordshire: Watford F.C., Stevenage F.C., Arsenal W.F.C. and Boreham Wood F.C..

Since 1922, Watford play their home games at Vicarage Road.[19] The club joined the Football League in 1920 as a founding member of the Third Division[20] and first played in the First Division of English football in 1982, finishing as runners-up to champions Liverpool.[20] Watford currently play in the Premier League following a recent promotion from the Championship at the end of the 2020-2021 season.

Stevenage F.C. was formed in 1976 as Stevenage Borough and have played at Broadhall Way since 1980.[21] Stevenage was the first club to win a competitive match at the new Wembley Stadium, beating Kidderminster Harriers 3–2 in the 2007 FA Trophy Final.[22] The club currently play in the EFL League Two and have been managed by former player Alex Revell since February 2020.[23]

Arsenal F.C., whilst based at the Emirates Stadium in the London Borough of Islington, has long held a training ground in the county. Until 1999, it held the London Colney University of London facility, until it built a new purpose-built compound adjacent to it. Watford FC currently utilises the old Arsenal training area as its training facility.

Arsenal W.F.C. play at Meadow Park in Borehamwood.[24] The club was formed in 1987 and have played in the FA Women's Super League since its inaugural season in 2011.[25]

Hertfordshire has many semi-professional and amateur clubs. The highest placed are Hemel Hempstead Town and St Albans City, who play one division lower in the National League South.

Rugby

Rugby league

Hemel Stags are a rugby league team based in Hemel Hempstead.[26] Hemel Stags have played at Pennine Way Stadium since the club's founding in 1981.[27][28] Until 2018, the club played in league 1, the third tier of the British rugby league system, and now compete in the Conference League South.[29]

Rugby union

The Hertfordshire Rugby Football Union is the governing body for rugby union in Hertfordshire and is responsible for any interested parties involved in rugby.[30]

Tring Rugby play matches at Cow Lane, Tring.[31] The first XV currently play in the London & South East Premier,[32] a level 4 league.

Landmarks

Cedars Park
St Albans Abbey
Bluebells in Dockey Wood
The Warner Bros. Making of Harry Potter Studio Tour at Leavesden

Below is a list of notable visitor attractions in Hertfordshire:

Main footpaths

Transport

Junction of the M1 and M25 near Hemel Hempstead
Govia Thameslink Railway provide frequent train services through Hertfordshire on the Midland Main Line and East Coast Main Line
Bridge 168 on the Grand Union Canal

Hertfordshire is a home county with many towns forming part of the London commuter belt and has some of the principal roads in England including the A1, A1(M), A41, A414, M1, M11, and the M25.

Four principal national railway lines pass through the county:

A number of other local rail routes also cross Hertfordshire:

Three commuter lines operated by Transport for London enter the county:

Stansted Airport and Luton Airport are both within 10 miles (16 km) of the county's borders. The commercial airfield at Elstree is for light aircraft.

The Grand Union Canal passes through Rickmansworth, Watford, Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted and Tring.

Education

Hertfordshire has 26 independent schools and 73 state secondary schools. The state secondary schools are entirely comprehensive, although 7 schools in the south and southwest of the county are partially selective (see Education in Watford). All state schools have sixth forms, and there are no sixth form colleges. The tertiary colleges, each with multiple campuses, are Hertford Regional College, North Hertfordshire College, Oaklands College and West Herts College. The University of Hertfordshire is a modern university based largely in Hatfield. It has more than 23,000 students.

Literature

Hertfordshire is the location of Jack Worthing's country house in Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest.

Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice is primarily set in Hertfordshire.[33]

The location of Mr Jarndyce's Bleak House in Charles Dickens's Bleak House is near St Albans.[34]

The eponymous residence in E. M. Forster's novel Howards End was based on Rooks Nest House just outside Stevenage.[35]

George Orwell based Animal Farm on Wallington, Hertfordshire, where he lived between 1936 and 1940. Manor Farm and The Great Barn both feature in the novel.[36][37][38]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  2. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  3. ^ includes energy and construction
  4. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

References

  1. ^ "No. 62943". The London Gazette. 13 March 2020. p. 5161.
  2. ^ "Resident Population". Hertfordshire Local Information System. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  3. ^ "Area Measurements". Hertfordshire Local Information System. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  4. ^ "Zeppelin Raids - Herts at War". hertsatwar.co.uk. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  5. ^ "Leavesden Studios". Film London. Archived from the original on 7 August 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  6. ^ "Hatfield train crash remembered". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  7. ^ Lewis, Katy (11 December 2015). "I thought a plane had landed on us". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  8. ^ Staff and agencies (11 December 2005). "Fuel depot blaze 'will last for days'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  9. ^ "Buncefield blast companies sentenced to pay £9m". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  10. ^ "The East of England". East of England Local Government Association. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
  11. ^ Bathurst, David (2012). Walking the county high points of England. Chichester: Summersdale. pp. 105–110. ISBN 978-1-84-953239-6.
  12. ^ "Wild Plants: Pasqueflower" Archived 26 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine Plantlife. Retrieved 26 February 2015
  13. ^ a b c Hertfordshire A Landscape History Anne Rowe, Tom Williamson (2013), University of Hertfordshire Press at Introduction, e-page 18 https://www.google.co.uk/books/edition/Hertfordshire/rBleCUlsT_oC?hl=en&gbpv=1&pg=PT18
  14. ^ "About the chalk mines". Dacorum Borough Council. 2008. Archived from the original on 12 December 2008. Retrieved 7 February 2009.
  15. ^ "Sir Hugh Myddleton New River". Intriguing History. 25 April 2015. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
  16. ^ "Parishes: Hemel Hempstead". A History of the County of Hertford. Originally published by Victoria County History, London. Volume 2. British History Online. 1908. |volume= has extra text (help)
  17. ^ Regional Gross Value Added Archived 1 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Office for National Statistics, pp. 240–253.
  18. ^ Charlie Skelton (2 June 2013). "The week ahead: Bilderberg 2013 comes to ... the Grove hotel, Watford". The Guardian.
  19. ^ "Vicarage Road - Watford - The Stadium Guide". stadiumguide.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  20. ^ a b "Watford Football Club archive 1881-2017". watfordfcarchive.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  21. ^ "The Lamex Stadium - Stevenage Football Club". stevenagefc.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  22. ^ "Kidderminster 2-3 Stevenage". 12 May 2007. Archived from the original on 13 September 2007. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  23. ^ "Managerial change". Stevenage F.C. 16 February 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  24. ^ "Meadow Park, home to Boreham Wood, Arsenal Ladies". footballgroundmap.com. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  25. ^ Conn, David (7 April 2011). "Women's Super League aims to step out of men's shadow | David Conn". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  26. ^ "Hertfordshire Rugby League Clubs". rugbyclubs.info. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  27. ^ "Find Us - Hemel Stags - Rugby League Team". Hemel Stags. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  28. ^ "World famous Bradford Bulls are on their way to Pennine Way this Sunday". Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  29. ^ "National League Division One Table - Rugby Union". BBC Sport. Archived from the original on 2 September 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  30. ^ "Hertfordshire Rugby Football Union - News - Fullerians RFC". fullerians.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  31. ^ Caminsky, Spencer. "Area Guide: Scenery, culture and a manageable commute, Tring has it all". Herts Advertiser. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  32. ^ "London & SE Division". Rugby Football Union. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  33. ^ "Pride and Prejudice - the Hertford connection". Our Hertford and Ware. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  34. ^ "Charles Dickens". Herts Memories. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  35. ^ Forster, E. M. (Edward Morgan) (1 November 2001). "Howards End" – via Project Gutenberg.
  36. ^ "At the gates of Animal Farm". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  37. ^ "Over the road from Animal Farm". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  38. ^ "All villages are equal". The Guardian. 24 May 1999. Archived from the original on 2 August 2018. Retrieved 2 August 2018.

External links

  • Hertfordshire at Curlie
  • Hertfordshire County Council website