Hexamminecobalt(III) chloride

Summary

Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride
chloride
Hexamminecobalt(III)Chloride.jpg
Names
IUPAC name
Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride
Other names
Cobalt hexammine chloride, hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride
Identifiers
  • 10534-89-1 checkY
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
ChemSpider
  • 140101
ECHA InfoCard 100.030.991 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 234-103-9
  • 159295
UNII
  • 240056WZHT checkY
  • DTXSID1044358 Edit this at Wikidata
  • InChI=1S/3ClH.Co.6H3N/h3*1H;;6*1H3/q;;;+3;;;;;;/p-3
    Key: JXBGZYGSWFSYFI-UHFFFAOYSA-K
  • [Cl-].[NH3+][Co-3]([NH3+])([NH3+])([NH3+])([NH3+])[NH3+].[Cl-].[Cl-]
Properties
H18N6Cl3Co
Molar mass 267.48 g/mol
Appearance yellow or orange crystals
Density 1.71 g/cm3,
Melting point decomposes
0.26 M (20 °C)
tribromide: 0.04 M (18 °C)
Solubility soluble in NH3
Structure
octahedral
0 D
Hazards
Main hazards poison
GHS pictograms GHS07: Exclamation mark
GHS Signal word Warning
H315, H319, H335
P261, P264, P271, P280, P302+P352, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P321, P332+P313, P337+P313, P362, P403+P233, P405, P501
Related compounds
Other anions
[Co(NH3)6]Br3
[Co(NH3)6](OAc)3
Other cations
[Cr(NH3)6]Cl3
[Ni(NH3)6]Cl2
Related compounds
[Co(H2NCH2CH2NH2)3]Cl3

[Co(NH3)5(H2O)]Cl3
[Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
Infobox references

Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula [Co(NH3)6]Cl3. It is the chloride salt of the coordination complex [Co(NH3)6]3+, which is considered an archetypal "Werner complex", named after the pioneer of coordination chemistry, Alfred Werner. The cation itself is a metal ammine complex with six ammonia ligands attached to the cobalt(III) ion.

Originally salts of [Co(NH3)6]3+ were described as the luteo (Latin: yellow) complex of cobalt. This name has been discarded as modern chemistry considers color less important than molecular structure. Other similar complexes also had color names, such as purpureo (Latin: purple) for a cobalt pentammine complex, and praseo (Greek: green) and violeo (Latin: violet) for two isomeric tetrammine complexes.[1]

Properties and structure

[Co(NH3)6]3+ is diamagnetic, with a low-spin 3d6 octahedral Co(III) center. The cation obeys the 18-electron rule and is considered to be a classic example of an exchange inert metal complex. As a manifestation of its inertness, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 can be recrystallized unchanged from concentrated hydrochloric acid: the NH3 is so tightly bound to the Co(III) centers that it does not dissociate to allow its protonation. In contrast, labile metal ammine complexes, such as [Ni(NH3)6]Cl2, react rapidly with acids, reflecting the lability of the Ni(II)–NH3 bonds. Upon heating, hexamminecobalt(III) begins to lose some of its ammine ligands, eventually producing a stronger oxidant.

The chloride ions in [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 can be exchanged with a variety of other anions such as nitrate, bromide, iodide, sulfamate to afford the corresponding [Co(NH3)6]X3 derivative. Such salts are orange or bright yellow and display varying degrees of water solubility. The chloride ion can be also exchanged with more complex anions such as the hexathiocyanatochromate(III), yielding a pink compound with formula [Co(NH3)6][Cr(SCN)6], or the ferricyanide ion.

Preparation

[Co(NH3)6]Cl3 is prepared by treating cobalt(II) chloride with ammonia and ammonium chloride followed by oxidation. Oxidants include hydrogen peroxide or oxygen in the presence of charcoal catalyst.[2] This salt appears to have been first reported by Fremy.[3]

The acetate salt can be prepared by aerobic oxidation of cobalt(II) acetate, ammonium acetate, and ammonia in methanol.[4] The acetate salt is highly water-soluble to the level of 1.9 M (20 °C), versus 0.26 M for the trichloride.

Uses

[Co(NH3)6]3+ is a component of some structural biology methods (especially for DNA or RNA, where positive ions stabilize tertiary structure of the phosphate backbone), to help solve their structures by X-ray crystallography[5] or by nuclear magnetic resonance.[6] In the biological system, the counterions would more probably be Mg2+, but the heavy atoms of cobalt (or sometimes iridium, as in PDB: 2GIS​) provide anomalous scattering to solve the phase problem and produce an electron-density map of the structure.[7]

[Co(NH3)6]3+ is an unusual example of a water-soluble trivalent metal complex and is of utility for charge-shielding applications such as the stabilization of highly negatively charged complexes, such as interactions with and between nucleic acids.

References

  1. ^ Huheey, James E. (1983). Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed.). p. 360.
  2. ^ Bjerrum, J.; McReynolds, J. P. (1946). Hexamminecobalt(III) Salts. Inorg. Synth. Inorganic Syntheses. 2. pp. 216–221. doi:10.1002/9780470132333.ch69. ISBN 9780470132333.
  3. ^ Fremy, M. E. (1852). "Recherches sur le cobalt". Ann. Chim. Phys. 35: 257–312.
  4. ^ Lindholm, R. D.; Bause, Daniel E. (1978). Complexes of Cobalt Containing Ammonia or Ethylene Diamine: Hexaamminecobalt(III) Salts. Inorg. Synth. Inorganic Syntheses. 18. pp. 67–69. doi:10.1002/9780470132494.ch14. ISBN 9780470132494.
  5. ^ Ramakrishnan, B.; Sekharudu, C.; Pan, B.; Sundaralingam, M. (2003). "Near-atomic resolution crystal structure of an A-DNA decamer d(CCCGATCGGG): cobalt hexammine interaction with A-DNA". Acta Crystallogr. D59 (Pt 1): 67–72. doi:10.1107/s0907444902018917. PMID 12499541.
  6. ^ Rudisser, S.; Tinoco, I., Jr. (2000). "Solution structure of Cobalt(III)hexammine complexed to the GAAA tetraloop, and metal-ion binding to G.A mismatches". J. Mol. Biol. 295 (5): 1211–1232. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1999.3421. PMID 10653698.
  7. ^ McPherson, Alexander (2002). Introduction to Macromolecular Crystallography. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-25122-4.