Hospital pharmacy

Summary

A hospital pharmacy is a department within a hospital that prepares, compounds, stocks and dispenses inpatient medications. Hospital pharmacies usually stock a larger range of medications, including more specialized and investigational medications (medicines that are being studied, but have not yet been approved), than would be feasible in the community setting. Hospital pharmacies may also dispense over-the-counter and prescription medications to outpatients.

A hospital pharmacist checking a liquid solution.
Electric track vehicle system for hospitals, type Telelift

Hospital pharmacies may provide a huge quantity of medications per day which is allocated to the wards and to intensive care units according to a patient's medication schedule. Larger hospitals may use automated transport systems to aid in the efficient distribution of medications.

Hospital pharmacists and trained pharmacy technicians compound sterile products for patients such as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and other medications given intravenously such as neonatal antibiotics and chemotherapy. Some hospital pharmacies may outsource high-risk preparations and some other compounding functions to companies that specialize in compounding.

Hospital pharmacists often report an interest in undertaking research, although identify barriers to doing so during routine practice.[1][2] Many hospital pharmacists actively participating in research also have university affiliations.[3]

Hospital pharmacists provide services to people admitted to hospitals as in-patients. The services provided include ensuring appropriate therapies are identified[4] and in reducing medication errors.[5] These services may be pharmacist-led interventions[6] or part of interdisciplinary teams.[7] They may further organise for medication reviews post-discharge.[8] These services may be provided in person or via telehealth.[9]

In the United States, hospital pharmacy was not a significant practice until the 1920s. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the medicine and pharmacy were commonly one practice, in which a medical apprentice would be responsible for the drug preparation.[10][vague].

Hospital pharmacists often require additional education support and professional development to develop advanced skills and specialisation.[11] As sany health services require junior pharmacists to undertake pharmacy residencies for skill development.[12]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Reali, Savannah; Lee, Teresa; Bishop, Jaclyn; Mirkov, Sanja; Johnson, Jacinta; McCourt, Elizabeth; Hughes, Jeffery; Pont, Lisa; Page, Amy Theresa; Penm, Jonathan (June 2021). "Attitudes, barriers and facilitators of hospital pharmacists conducting practice‐based research: a systematic review". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 51 (3): 192–202. doi:10.1002/jppr.1741. ISSN 1445-937X.
  2. ^ Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 2022. doi:10.1002/jppr.1809. {{cite journal}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ Penm, Jonathan; Narayan, Sujita; Alffenaar, Jan‐Willem; Johnson, Jacinta L.; Mirkov, Sanja; Page, Amy T.; Pont, Lisa G.; Patanwala, Asad E. (23 May 2022). "A benchmarking scoping review of research output from hospital pharmacy departments in Australia". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research: jppr.1809. doi:10.1002/jppr.1809. ISSN 1445-937X.
  4. ^ Hopkins, Ria E.; Warner, Victoria; Sztal‐Mazer, Shoshana; Poole, Susan; Page, Amy (December 2020). "The assessment and pharmacological management of osteoporosis after admission for minimal‐trauma fracture at a major metropolitan centre". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 50 (6): 481–489. doi:10.1002/jppr.1674. ISSN 1445-937X.
  5. ^ Mill, Deanna; Bakker, Michael; Corre, Lauren; Page, Amy; Johnson, Jacinta (1 December 2020). "A comparison between Parkinson's medication errors identified through retrospective case note review versus via an incident reporting system during hospital admission". International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 28 (6): 663–666. doi:10.1111/ijpp.12668.
  6. ^ . doi:10.1002/jppr.1699. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ . doi:10.1111/imj.14187. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ Deirdre Criddle; Manya Angley; Horst Thiele; Joy Gailer; Katie Phillips; Carly Pauw (4 July 2020). "Hospital-initiated medication review – time to deliver on a decade of promises". Journal of Pharmacy Practice & Research. 50 (3): 288–289. doi:10.1002/jppr.1665.
  9. ^ . doi:10.1002/jppr.1695. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ Holdford, David (2017). Introduction to Acute and Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Practice (2nd ed.). pp. 21–26. ISBN 1585285455.
  11. ^ Khumra, Sharmila; Mahony, Andrew A.; Bergen, Phillip J.; Page, Amy T.; Elliott, Rohan A. (2021-04-23). "Exploring the practice, confidence and educational needs of hospital pharmacists in reviewing antimicrobial prescribing: a cross-sectional, nationwide survey". BMC Medical Education. 21 (1): 235. doi:10.1186/s12909-021-02664-1. ISSN 1472-6920. PMC 8066433. PMID 33892686.
  12. ^ Al‐Diery, Tarik; Page, Amy Theresa; Johnson, Jacinta Lee; Walker, Steven; Sandulache, Diana; Wilby, Kyle John (22 March 2022). "Evidence for the development of skills for education, leadership and innovation through experiential‐based foundational pharmacy residency programs: a narrative review". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research: jppr.1804. doi:10.1002/jppr.1804.