Housing

Summary

Housing, or more generally, living spaces, refers to the construction and assigned usage of houses or buildings individually or collectively, for the purpose of shelter.[1] Housing ensures that members of society have a place to live, whether it is a home or some other kind of dwelling, lodging or shelter.[2] Many governments have one or more housing authorities, sometimes also called a housing ministry or housing department.

Housing in many different areas consists of public, social and private housing. In the United States, it wasn't until the 19th and 20th century that there was a lot more government involvement in housing. It was mainly aimed at helping those who were poor in the community.[3] Public housing provides help and assistance to those who are poor and mainly low-income earners. A study report shows that there are many individuals living in public housing. There are over 1.2 million families or households.[4] These types of housing were built mainly to provide people, mainly those who are low-income and elderly, with safe, affordable, and good housing units. There are many people who are a part of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). When counting, there are over nine hundred thousand participants in this program.[5]

HistoryEdit

Relating to the topic of the history of housing, there has been studied that prove that government involvement began in 1937 and it was "under the United States Housing Act".[6] The goal was to improve many things such as all of the unsafe, unsanitary, and terrible housing conditions which connect to the issue of affordable housing. In 1940, there was development and there was an Office of Housing expenditures. Later on in the years another housing act took place in 1956 and in 1960, there was recognition in rights which was considered to be a "huge turning point for public housing".[7] Many of the policies created back then tend to still be active now a days. From that time until now, public housing does still increase and by the time it was 1980s, there were many public housing individuals/tenants who lived in many different areas relating to those areas which were segregated. Then years after a new program did go into place which told many people that they would be relocated, this is similar to what we have today. Now a days people are repositioned, the program back then was called Hope VI.[8]

Moving forward to the 2000s, the issue of finding affordable housing started to increase which led HUD to start taking action and helping out many homeowners, individuals, agencies, communities in order to find affordable housing. Throughout the years after there had been an increase in housing prices then they tend to go down after a year, this was occurring in 2005 and it sure is occurring today, now a days there are such high prices on houses. In 2008, an act did take place called the "Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008" and this act "strengthened and modernized the regulation of...(government sponsored enterprises) and the Federal Home Loan Banks" [9] From 2013 to 2017, there was contributions occurring; for example, there was the LIHTC which although is a source on he outside, it did help out with HUD and provide many different funds which helped out with public housing, especially with their capital needs. From 2000 until 2019, there has been a drop in inflation because of all of the public housing funds.[10] Now a days affordable housing is a huge problem fo so many families and this is up by about ten to fifteen percent since 2018 because of the increase in prices.  [11]

Macroeconomy and housing priceEdit

Previous research has shown that housing price is affected by the macroeconomy.[citation needed] Research from 2018 indicates that a 1% increase in the Consumer Price Index leads to a $3,559,715 increase in housing prices and raises the property price per square foot by $119.3387.[citation needed] Money Supply (M2) has a positive relationship with housing prices. As M2 increased by one unit, housing prices rose by 0.0618 in a study conducted in Hong Kong. When there is a 1% increase in the best lending rate, housing prices drop by between $18,237.26 and $28,681.17 in the HAC[which?] model. Mortgage repayments lead to a rise in the discount window base rate. A 1% rise in the rate leads to a $14,314.69 drop in housing prices, and an average selling price drop of $585,335.50. As the US real interest rate increases, the interest rates in Hong Kong must follow, increasing mortgage repayments. When there is a 1% increase in the US real interest rate, the property prices decrease from $9302.845 to $4957.274, and saleable area drops by $4.955206 and $14.01284. When there is a 1% rise in overnight Hong Kong Interbank Offered Rate, the housing prices drop to about 3455.529, and the price per ft2 will drop by $187.3119.[12][need quotation to verify]

Effect on healthEdit

Housing is recognized as a social determinant of health. Lack of housing or poor-quality housing can negatively affect an individual's physical and mental health. Housing attributes that negatively affect physical health include dampness, mold, inadequate heating, and overcrowding. Mental health is also affected by inadequate heating, overcrowding, dampness, and mold, as well as lack of personal space.[13] Instability in housing can negatively affect mental health.[14] Housing can affect the health of children through exposure to asthma triggers or lead, and through injuries due to structural deficiencies (e.g. lack of window guards or radiator covers).[15]

In addition to the negative effects that affordable housing has on health, there are many other negative effects that come with it. For example, the lack of affordable housing can lead many people to not be able to find housing which causes them to become homeless.[16] Within the issue of people not being able to find affordable housing, there are two groups of individuals in the community;  those who are able to afford it and have the choice to do so and those who are not able to afford it.[17] Those who are unable to afford it are more likely to become homeless but a huge amount of people will be out of this issue of homelessness if there was more affordable housing available. In California, in the HUD’s report, it has proven that “California had about 134,000 homeless individuals, which represented about 24 percent of the total homeless population in the nation”.[18] This is such a high amount of people who are homeless without housing. It’s a terrible thing for people to go through the process of being homeless, it has some serious mental illnesses. Many homeless people tend to get addicted to drugs, many become alcoholics, and many go through trauma and have mental illnesses. Homelessness is proven to increase because of the issue of affordable housing.[19]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "housing". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ Gwendolyn Wright, Building the Dream: A Social History of Housing in America (MIT press, 1983)
  3. ^ "Public housing", Wikipedia, 2022-05-26, retrieved 2022-05-29
  4. ^ "Public Housing". HUD.gov / U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  5. ^ "HUD's Public Housing Program". HUD.gov / U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). 2017-09-20. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  6. ^ Pappas, Allison (2013-02-04). "The History of Public Housing: Started over 70 Years Ago, yet Still Evolving…". SWHELPER. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  7. ^ Pappas, Allison (2013-02-04). "The History of Public Housing: Started over 70 Years Ago, yet Still Evolving…". SWHELPER. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  8. ^ "Public Housing History". National Low Income Housing Coalition. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  9. ^ "THE 2000 -2009 | HUD USER". www.huduser.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  10. ^ "An Agenda for the Future of Public Housing". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  11. ^ Schaeffer, Katherine. "A growing share of Americans say affordable housing is a major problem where they live". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  12. ^ Li, R.Y.M. (2018). "Have Housing Prices Gone with the Smelly Wind? Big Data Analysis on Landfill in Hong Kong". Sustainability. 10 (2): 341. doi:10.3390/su10020341. S2CID 158813714.
  13. ^ Rolfe, Steve; Garnham, Lisa; Godwin, Jon; Anderson, Isobel; Seaman, Pete; Donaldson, Cam (2020). "Housing as a social determinant of health and wellbeing: Developing an empirically-informed realist theoretical framework". BMC Public Health. 20 (1): 1138. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09224-0. PMC 7370492. PMID 32689966.
  14. ^ Li, Ang; Baker, Emma; Bentley, Rebecca (2022). "Understanding the mental health effects of instability in the private rental sector: A longitudinal analysis of a national cohort". Social Science & Medicine. 296: 114778. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.114778. PMID 35151148. S2CID 246614891.
  15. ^ Dunn, James R. (2020). "Housing and Healthy Child Development: Known and Potential Impacts of Interventions". Annual Review of Public Health. 41: 381–396. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040119-094050. PMID 31874071.
  16. ^ "Homelessness - Wikiquote". en.wikiquote.org. Retrieved 2022-05-29.
  17. ^ "Affordable housing", Wikipedia, 2022-05-29, retrieved 2022-05-29
  18. ^ "Homelessness in California", Wikipedia, 2022-04-30, retrieved 2022-05-29
  19. ^ "Homelessness and mental health", Wikipedia, 2022-05-20, retrieved 2022-05-29

External linksEdit

  The dictionary definition of housing at Wiktionary

  •   Media related to Housing at Wikimedia Commons
  •   Media related to Housing at Wikimedia Commons house for sale in toronot
  • Shadwell, Arthur (1911). "Housing" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 13 (11th ed.). pp. 814–827.