Hualong One


Primary coolant system showing reactor pressure vessel (red), steam generators (purple), pressurizer (blue), and pumps (green) in the three coolant loop Hualong One design

The Hualong One (Chinese: 华龙一号; pinyin: Huálóng yī hào; lit. 'China Dragon №1') is a Chinese Generation III[1] pressurized water nuclear reactor jointly developed by the China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN) and the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). The CGN version, and its derived export version, is called HPR1000.[2]

Unit 5 of the Fuqing Nuclear Power Plant was the first Hualong One to enter commercial service on 30 January 2021.[1][3][4]


Active and passive cooling systems of the HPR1000 (Hualong One)[5]
Red line − active systems
Green line − passive systems
IRWST − in-containment refuelling water storage tank

Hualong One is based on the three-loop ACPR1000 and ACP1000, which in turn are based on the French M310.[2] In early 2014 it was announced that the merged design was moving from preliminary design to detailed design. Power output will be 1170 MWe gross, 1090 MWe net, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment.[5]

Initially the merged design was to be called the ACC1000,[6][7][8] but ultimately it was named Hualong One.[9][5]

A the end of August 2014, Chinese regulators were satisfied that Hualong One was a Generation III design and that intellectual property rights were fully held in China.[10][11]

Chinese media reports that all core components are manufactured in China and that 17 universities and research institutions, 58 state-owned enterprises and over 140 private firms across China worked on Hualong One's development to ensure all core components were able to be produced domestically.[12]


The first units to be constructed will be Fuqing 5 and 6 (Fujian Province), followed by Fangchenggang 3 and 4 (Guangxi), Zhangzhou 1 and 2 (Fujian), Taipingling 1 and 2 (Guangdong), and San’Ao 1 and 2 (Zhejiang). Fuqing 5 began commercial operation on 30 January 2021.[13]

There are five[14] Hualong One reactors planned for Pakistan, four reactors are planned at Karachi Nuclear Power Complex[15][16][17] and one reactor at Chashma Nuclear Power Plant, out of which two are under construction at Karachi.[18] Construction of another Hualong One reactor was planned to start in 2020 in Argentina,[19][20][21] but was stalled during negotiation.[22] The project was reactivated in 2021 and expected to start construction in mid 2022, with completion date by 2028.[23]


Name Unit No. Status Construction start Grid connection
Changjiang 3 Under construction 31 March 2021
4 Under construction 28 December 2021
Fangchenggang 3 Under construction 24 December 2015
4 Under construction 23 December 2016
Fuqing 5 operational 7 May 2015 27 November 2020
6 operational 22 December 2015 1 January 2022
San'ao 1 Under construction 31 December 2020
2 Under construction 31 December 2021
Taipingling 1 Under construction 26 December 2019
2 Under construction 15 October 2020
Zhangzhou 1 Under construction 16 October 2019
2 Under construction 4 September 2020


Name Unit
Status Construction start Grid connection
Karachi 3 Operational 20 August 2015 18 March 2021
4 Under construction 31 May 2016

International marketing

In December 2015, CGN and CNNC agreed to create Hualong International Nuclear Power Technology Co as a joint venture to promote the Hualong One in overseas markets,[9] which was officially launched in March 2016.[24] On 19 January 2017, the United Kingdom Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) started their Generic Design Assessment process for the Hualong One, expected to be completed in 2021, in advance of possible deployment at the Bradwell nuclear power station site.[25] On 16 November 2017, the ONR and the Environment Agency announced they are progressing to the next phase of their Generic Design Assessment of the UK HPR1000 reactor. Step 2 formally commenced on this day and is planned to take about 12 months. The targeted timescale for the UK HPR1000 GDA process is about five years from the start of Step 1.[26]

See also


  1. ^ a b "China's first Hualong One nuclear reactor starts commercial operation". Reuters. 29 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  3. ^ China National Nuclear Corporation (30 January 2021). "World's first Hualong One reactor put into commercial operation". Cision - PR Newswire. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  4. ^ Conca, James. "China Will Lead The World In Nuclear Energy, Along With All Other Energy Sources, Sooner Than You Think". Forbes. Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  5. ^ a b c Ji Xing, Daiyong Song, Yuxiang Wu (March 2016). "HPR1000: Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor with Active and Passive Safety". Engineering. 2 (1): 79–87. doi:10.1016/J.ENG.2016.01.017.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ "CGN Chairman He Yu Makes Proposal for Promoting Export of China-designed Nuclear Power Technology ACC1000". CGN. 6 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  7. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  8. ^ Caroline Peachey (22 May 2014). "Chinese reactor design evolution". Nuclear Engineering International. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  9. ^ a b "Chinese firms join forces to market Hualong One abroad". World Nuclear News. 31 December 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  10. ^ "China's new nuclear baby". World Nuclear News. 2 September 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  11. ^ "Independent Gen-III Hualong-1 reactor technology passes national review". CGN. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  12. ^ "First nuclear unit with Hualong One reactor starts commercial operation". Xinhuanet. 30 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  13. ^ First Hualong One begins commercial operation
  14. ^ "中国为巴基斯坦建5座核反应堆 投150亿美元-新华网". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 4 July 2018.
  15. ^ China commits $6.5 billion for nuclear power project in Karachi
  16. ^ Local Fallout From Pakistan's Nuclear Energy Bet
  17. ^ Construction cleared for China's first Hualong One units
  18. ^ China ‘to build third Hualong One nuclear reactor’ in Pakistan
  19. ^ "Hualong One selected for Argentina". World Nuclear News. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  20. ^ Charlie Zhu and David Stanway (6 March 2015). "'Made in China' nuclear reactors a tough sell in global market". Reuters. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  21. ^ "Argentina and China sign contract for two reactors". World Nuclear News. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  22. ^ "Retoman negociaciones con China para la construcción de Atucha III". BAE Negocios (in European Spanish). Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  23. ^ "Argentina seeks new China-backed nuclear power plant". Dialogo Chino. 2021-08-20. Retrieved 2021-09-30.
  24. ^ "Hualong One joint venture officially launched". World Nuclear News. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  25. ^ "UK GDA reports good progress for AP1000 and UK ABWR". Nuclear Engineering International. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  26. ^ "Regulators start technical assessment of UK HPR 1000". Retrieved 2017-11-17.