Hypobranchial gland

Summary

The hypobranchial gland is a glandular structure which is part of the anatomy of many mollusks, including several different families of gastropods, and also many protobranch bivalves.[1] This gland produces mucus as well as biologically active compounds. The cephalopod ink sac is a modified hypobranchial gland.[2]

Anatomy and functionEdit

Gastropods

The hypobranchial gland is found in many sea snails, including those in the families Haliotidae, Buccinidae, Mitridae and Costellariidae. It usually presents itself as a thickening of the tissue located in the roof of the animal's mantle cavity.[3] This is in association with parts of the aquatic mollusk anatomy that perform sediment consolidation in these organisms.[4] However, this gland is absent in all terrestrial gastropods except the Neritacea.[4] Its morphology, however, is variable between different groups of snails.

Glands with similar functions are present in the Nuculidae, Solenomyidae, Monia, Patellacea, and Loritcata.[5]

In the Haliotidae, this gland has two lobes in the roof of the mantle cavity with the left larger than the right. It is deeply ridges and secretes mucus.[5] The purpose of the mucus is to trap, collect, and excrete sediment that collects as water flows over the gills of these organisms.[5]  

Aculifera

In the aculifera the hypobranchial glands are referred to as "mucus tracts" and occupy a posterior position in the body.

Bacterial CommunityEdit

In a study done on individuals from the species Dicathais orbita, a member of the Muricidae family, it was found that the bacterial community of the hypobranchial gland was highly specialized; The community was dominated by two genera: Mycoplasma and Vibrio, which are known to contain biosynthetic species.[6] These bacterial communities were compared to the foot of the individuals which had a larger variety of bacterial inhabitants.[6]

ToxinsEdit

Some extracts from the hypobranchial gland have shown some toxic effects on human granulosa cells, cells inside the ovaries of woman. These extracts can affect the hormone production of the reproductive system. As for all toxins, the effect is dependent on the dose and length of exposure to these extracts.[7]

Human useEdit

Tyrian Purple  Edit

There have been studies on some species within the family Muricidae, because in those species this gland secretes the precursor to the historically important natural dye, Tyrian purple.This dye has potential origins in history as early as 2000 BC in some areas of Europe and Asia. Due to the expensive process of dying fabrics with the hypobranchial grands of mollusks, Tyrian purple dyed fabrics were considered a symbol of wealth and royalty throughout much of history. It is synthesized from the dye precursor 6-6 dibromoindigo.[8]  

Medical ApplicationsEdit

There are some potential medical applications for the hypobranchial glands of mollusks ranging from anti-inflammatories, to anti-bacterials, to cancer.[9] Some of these uses were found by analyzing traditional medicine and therapeutic techniques from a variety of different cultures. In Ancient Greece, extracts from this gland were used as laxatives and diuretics with the potential for some side effects including increases in sweat and saliva productions.[9]

Anti-bacterial Uses  Edit

  • MeOH (Methanol) inhibited marine biofilm growth[9]
  • DCM (Dichloromethane) inhibited marine biofilm growth[9]  
  • (CH₃)₂CO (Acetone) inhibited marine biofilm growth[9]

Other extracts from the hemolymph of these mollusks have been shown to inhibit the growth of human pathogens.[9]  

Anti-inflammatory uses  Edit

  • In lab cell lines and various animal models, extracts from the hypobranchial gland have shown a variety of muscle relaxing properties including the ability to act as a neuromuscular block, an anticonvulsant, a pain killer, and a sedative.[9]  

Cancer Treatments  Edit

  • Chloroform extracts can inhibit the growth of lymphoma (cancer of the lung), reproductive system cancers, and colon cancer.[9]  
  • A pigment in Tyrian purple, 6-dibromoindirubin, may slow the spread of a variety of cancers including lung, stomach, colon, abdominal, and leukaemia cancers.[9]
  • Extracts from the glands of Hexaplex trunculus showed possible adhesion inhibition of cervical and glioblastoma cells, which can decrease the frequency of tumor formation.[10]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Fretter & Graham, 1962, p. 88
  2. ^ Nair, J.R., D. Pillai, S.M. Joseph, P. Gomathi, P.V. Senan & P.M. Sherief (2011). "Cephalopod research and bioactive substances" (PDF). Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 40(1): 13–27.
  3. ^ Pontarotti, 2010, p.260
  4. ^ a b Yonge, C. M. (1947). "The Pallial Organs in the Aspidobranch Gastropoda and their Evolution throughout the Mollusca". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 232 (591): 443–518. Bibcode:1947RSPTB.232..443Y. doi:10.1098/rstb.1947.0003. ISSN 0080-4622. JSTOR 92345. PMID 20296045. S2CID 44609586.
  5. ^ a b c Yonge, C. M. (1947). "The Pallial Organs in the Aspidobranch Gastropoda and their Evolution throughout the Mollusca". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 232 (591): 443–518. Bibcode:1947RSPTB.232..443Y. doi:10.1098/rstb.1947.0003. ISSN 0080-4622. JSTOR 92345. PMID 20296045. S2CID 44609586.
  6. ^ a b Ngangbam, Ajit Kumar; Baten, Abdul; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Whalan, Steve; Benkendorff, Kirsten (2015-10-21). Balcazar, Jose Luis (ed.). "Characterization of Bacterial Communities Associated with the Tyrian Purple Producing Gland in a Marine Gastropod". PLOS ONE. 10 (10): e0140725. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1040725N. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140725. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4619447. PMID 26488885.
  7. ^ Benkendorff, Kirsten; Rudd, David; Nongmaithem, Bijayalakshmi; Liu, Lei; Young, Fiona; Edwards, Vicki; Avila, Cathy; Abbott, Catherine (2015-08-18). "Are the Traditional Medical Uses of Muricidae Molluscs Substantiated by Their Pharmacological Properties and Bioactive Compounds?". Marine Drugs. 13 (8): 5237–5275. doi:10.3390/md13085237. ISSN 1660-3397. PMC 4557022. PMID 26295242.
  8. ^ Cooksey, Chris (2013). "Tyrian Purple: The First Four Thousand Years". Science Progress. 96 (2): 171–186. doi:10.3184/003685013X13680345111425. ISSN 0036-8504. PMID 23901634. S2CID 1250423.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Benkendorff, Kirsten; Rudd, David; Nongmaithem, Bijayalakshmi; Liu, Lei; Young, Fiona; Edwards, Vicki; Avila, Cathy; Abbott, Catherine (2015-08-18). "Are the Traditional Medical Uses of Muricidae Molluscs Substantiated by Their Pharmacological Properties and Bioactive Compounds?". Marine Drugs. 13 (8): 5237–5275. doi:10.3390/md13085237. ISSN 1660-3397. PMC 4557022. PMID 26295242.
  10. ^ Ben Mabrouk, Hazem; Nejia, Sayari; Maram, Morjen; Naziha, Marrakchi; Soufia, Chabchoub-Ellouze (2017-10-03). "A New Protein Extract Inhibitor from Hypobranchial Purple Gland of Hexaplex trunculus, a Mediterranean Mollusk, Impairs the Motility of Human Glioblastoma U87 and the HeLa Cell Line of Cervical Carcinoma Cells". Nutrition and Cancer. 69 (7): 1028–1035. doi:10.1080/01635581.2017.1359315. ISSN 0163-5581. PMID 29083237. S2CID 41072897.

Literature citedEdit

  • Fretter, V. & Graham, A. 1962. British Prosobranch Molluscs. 1st ed. London: The Ray Society, 755 pp.
  • Westley, C., Lewis, M. C. and Benkendorff, K. 2010. Histomorphology of the hypobranchial gland in Dicanthais orbita (Gmelin, 1791) (Neogastropoda: Muricidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies 76(2): 186–195.
  • The hypobranchial gland from the purple snail Plicopurpura pansa (Gould, 1853) (Prosobranchia: Murididae). Journal of Shellfish Research, August 1, 2006 [1]
  • Pontarotti, P. 2010. Evolutionary Biology: Concepts, Molecular and Morphological Evolution [2]. Springer, 363 pp.