IPHWR-220

Summary

IPHWR-220 Reactor Class
GenerationGeneration II reactor
Reactor conceptpressurized heavy-water reactor
Reactor lineIPHWR (Indian Pressurized Heavy-water Reactor)
Designed byBhabha Atomic Research Centre
Manufactured byPPED, DAE (now part of NPCIL)
Status14 Operational
Main parameters of the reactor core
Fuel (fissile material)235U (NU/SEU/LEU)
Fuel stateSolid
Neutron energy spectrumThermal
Primary control methodcontrol rods
Primary moderatorHeavy water
Primary coolantHeavy water
Reactor usage
Primary useGeneration of electricity
Power (thermal)754.5 MWth
Power (electric)220 MWe

The IPHWR-220 (Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor-220) is an Indian pressurized heavy-water reactor designed by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre.[1] It is a Generation II reactor developed from earlier CANDU based RAPS-1 and RAPS-2 reactors built at Rawatbhata, Rajasthan. The design was later expanded into 540 MW and 700 MW designs. It can generate 220 MW of electricity. Currently there are 14 units operational at various locations in India.

Reactor fleet

IPHWR-220 Reactor fleet
Power station Location Operation start Status
MAPS-1 Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 27 January 1984 Operational
MAPS-2 21 March 1986
NAPS-1 Narora, Uttar Pradesh 1 January 1991
NAPS-2 1 July 1992
KAPS-1 Kakrapar, Gujarat 6 May 1993
KAPS-2 1 September 1995
RAPS-3 Rawatbhata, Rajasthan 1 June 2000
RAPS-4 23 December 2000
RAPS-5 4 February 2010
RAPS-6 31 March 2010
KGS-1 Kaiga, Karnataka 6 November 2000
KGS-2 6 May 2000
KGS-3 6 May 2007
KGS-4 27 November 2010

Technical specifications

Specifications IPHWR-220[2] IPHWR-540[3][4][5][6] IPHWR-700[7]
Thermal output, MWth 754.5 1730 2166
Active power, MWe 220 540 700
Efficiency, net % 27.8 28.08 29.08
Coolant temperature, °C: ?
     core coolant inlet 249 266
     core coolant outlet 293.4 310
Primary coolant material Heavy Water
Secondary coolant material Light Water
Moderator material Heavy Water
Reactor operating pressure, kg/cm2 (g) 87 100
Active core height, cm 508.5 594 594
Equivalent core diameter, cm 451 - 638.4
Average fuel power density 9.24 KW/KgU 235 MW/m3
Average core power density, MW/m3 10.13 12.1
Fuel Sintered Natural UO2 pellets
Cladding tube material Zircaloy-2 Zircaloy-4
Fuel assemblies 3672 5096 4704 fuel bundles in 392 channels
Number of fuel rods in assembly 19 elements in 3 rings 37 37 elements in 4 rings
Enrichment of reload fuel 0.7% U-235
Fuel cycle length, Months 24 12
Average fuel burnup, MW · day / ton 6700 7500 7050
Control rods SS/Co Cadmium/SS
Neutron absorber Boric Anhydride Boron
Residual heat removal system Active: Shutdown cooling system

Passive: Natural circulation through steam generators

Active: Shutdown cooling system

Passive: Natural circulation through steam generators

and Passive Decay heat removal system

Safety injection system Emergency core cooling system

See also

References

  1. ^ "ANU SHAKTI: Atomic Energy In India". BARC.
  2. ^ "Status report 74 - Indian 220 MWe PHWR (IPHWR-220)" (PDF). International Automic Energy Agency. 2011-04-04. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
  3. ^ Soni, Rakesh; Prasad, PN. "Fuel technology evolution for Indian PHWRs" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. S. Vijayakumar, A.G. Chhatre, K.P.Dwivedi.
  4. ^ Muktibodh, U.C (2011). "Design, Safety and Operability performances of 220 MWe, 540 MWe and 700 MWe PHWRs in India". Inter-Regional Workshop on Advanced Nuclear Reactor Technology for Near-term Deployment.
  5. ^ Bajaj, S.S; Gore, A.R (2006). "The Indian PHWR". Nuclear Engineering and Design. 236 (7–8): 701–722. doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2005.09.028.
  6. ^ Singh, Baitej (July 2006). "Physics design and Safety assessment of 540 MWe PHWR" (PDF). BARC Newsletter. 270.
  7. ^ "Status report 105 - Indian 700 MWe PHWR (IPHWR-700)" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 2011-08-01. Retrieved 2021-03-20.