Icelandic Coast Guard

Summary

Icelandic Coast Guard
LHG skjöldur opinber 2005.svg
Icelandic Coast Guard emblem
Active1926
CountryIceland
TypeCoast guard
RoleCoastal defence, maritime law enforcement
Size200 officers
Motto(s)Always Prepared
Websitewww.lhg.is/english/
Commanders
Director GeneralRADM Georg Kr. Lárusson
Chief of OperationsCDRE Ásgrímur L. Ásgrímsson
Chief of Maritime DivisionCAPT Auðunn F Kristinsson
Chief of Aeronautical DivisionCDR sg Sindri Steingrímsson
Chief of Defence DivisionCAPT Jón B Guðnason
Insignia
EnsignFlag of Iceland (state).svg
Racing stripeIcelandic Coast Guard racing stripe.svg
Aircraft flown
HelicopterAirbus H225
AS332 Super Puma
PatrolBombardier Dash 8

The Icelandic Coast Guard (Icelandic: Landhelgisgæsla Íslands, Landhelgisgæslan or simply Gæslan) is the service responsible for Iceland's coastal defence and maritime and aeronautical search and rescue. Its origins can be traced to 1859, when the corvette Ørnen started patrolling Icelandic waters. In 1906, Iceland's first purposely built guard-ship, Islands Falk, began operation. Iceland's own defense of its territorial waters began around 1920 and the Icelandic Coast Guard was formally founded on 1 July 1926.[1] The first cannon was put on the trawler Thor in 1924 and on 23 June 1926 the first ship built for the Coast Guard, named Óðinn, arrived in Iceland. Three years later, on 14 July 1929 the coastal defence ship Ægir was added to the Coast Guard fleet.

The Icelandic Coast Guard played its largest role during the Cod Wars between 1972 and 1975, when the Coast Guard ships would cut the trawl wires of British and West German trawlers and engaged in confrontations with Royal Navy warships, in order to enforce a disputed expansion of Iceland's exclusive economic zone.

The Coast Guard also maintains the Iceland Air Defence System which conducts ground surveillance of Iceland's air space.[2][3]

The Icelandic Coast Guard is responsible for hydrographic surveying and nautical charting.

Operations

From left to right: Captain of Thor Cdr. s.g. Sigurður Steinar Ketilsson, Director of the Icelandic Coast Guard R.Adm. Georg Kr. Lárusson, President of Iceland Mr. Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson, and former Minister of the Interior Ögmundur Jónasson

The Icelandic Coast Guard's (ICG) primary mission is the defending the Icelandic sovereignty, integrity of the territorial waters, maintaining Icelandic law and order inside the 200-nautical-mile (370 km; 230 mi)-wide economic zone as well as other vital missions such as Search and Rescue. The Coast Guard operates JRCC-Iceland which is responsible for search and rescue of vessels and aircraft in Iceland's search and rescue region (SRR) according to International Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue (IAMSAR) Manual. Additionally the ICG is in the charge of defusing naval mines, most of which were laid during the Second World War, and monitoring fisheries in international waters outside of the Icelandic economic zone in order to blacklist any vessel partaking in unregulated fishing and thus bar them from receiving services from any member of the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission[4] in order to make unregulated fishing unprofitable. The Icelandic Coast Guard also occasionally operates within Greenlandic and Faeroese waters, following a bilateral agreement with Denmark regarding mutual aid in security, rescue and defence matters.

The Coast Guard accomplishes these tasks with the use of offshore patrol vessels (OPV), helicopters, surveillance aircraft, satellites and a network of land based surface scanning radar.

The Icelandic Coast Guard is also in charge of the Iceland Air Defence System, which operates four ground-based AN-FPS(V)5 air surveillance radars and a control and command centre.

In the 1990s the Coast Guard started hosting exercises such as "Northern Challenge" which had military units from Norway, Denmark, Sweden and the United Kingdom, among others, participating along with the Icelandic Coast Guard. The Coast Guard has also taken part in peacekeeping operations on behalf of the Icelandic Crisis Response Unit, although while usually using their own rank insignia, uniforms and weapons.

The fleet also takes part in Frontex operations, and in that role ICGV Týr played a major part in the rescue of over 300 Syrian refugees in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in January 2015.[5]

Fleet

Currently the Icelandic Coast Guard fleet consists of three OPVs, one coastal hydrographic and patrol vessel and an independent fast rigid-hulled inflatable boat (RHIB), as well as numerous smaller boats assigned to the larger units. In 2011 the Coast Guard received ICGV Thor, built by the Asmar shipyard in Talcahuano, Chile.[6][7]

ICGV Týr, an Ægir-class offshore patrol vessel, the second youngest, built by Århus Flydedok a/s and launched in 1975. ICGV Ægir, lead ship of the Ægir class, is ICGV Týr's sister ship, built by Ålborg Værft a/s and launched in 1968. Each ship is equipped with two or more RHIBs of various sizes and armed with a 40 mm Bofors cannon. Various kinds of small arms as well as other man portable weapons are also carried onboard each of the ships. Týr and Thor are also equipped with sonar systems and the Ægir-class vessels have flight decks and a hangar for a small helicopter. While the Coast Guard currently doesn't operate small enough helicopters to use the hangars, the flight decks are often used by the helicopters of the Aeronautical Division on various missions.

The coastguard has as well a 73-ton patrol and hydrographic survey vessel, named Baldur, built by Vélsmiðja Seyðisfjarðar shipyard in 1991. This vessel has no mounted weaponry but it has nonetheless been used for port security and fishery inspection.

Aeronautical division

The Coast Guard's Aeronautical Division was founded on 10 December 1955 when a Consolidated PBY-6A Catalina flying boat was acquired. It was originally from the Iceland Defense Force but was damaged near Langanes in 1954. It was registered as TF-RAN and nicknamed Rán.

Until 2019, the Icelandic Coast Guard operated three Aerospatiale AS-332L1 Super Puma helicopters, which were registered as TF-LIF, TF-SYN and TF-GNA. As a response to the withdrawal of the Iceland Defense Force in 2006, the Coast Guard operated four helicopters, including a leased Aérospatiale SA-365N-1 Dauphin 2 TF-EIR, but this number was reduced to the three Super Pumas as of 2015. In 2019 the Icelandic Coast Guard received two Airbus Helicopters H225 helicopters, leased from Norwegian company Knut Axel Ugland Holding AS, to replace the three AS332L1 Super Pumas until permanent replacement helicopters are purchased in 2022.[8]

The Coast Guard also operates a single Bombardier DHC-8-Q314, registered as TF-SIF, modified for maritime surveillance and reconnaissance. This plane has been extensively modified by FIELD to carry a modern Mission Management System and suite of surveillance sensors, air operable door and communications/navigation equipment. It is occasionally also used for surveillance of volcanic eruptions, such as the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull.

Unlike the fleet, aircraft of the Icelandic Coast Guard have standard Icelandic civilian registers, as the Althing (parliament) has never agreed on laws for military or government aircraft. Over the time since the division was formed the regulations for standard civilian aircraft have become more restrictive. As a result, the Coast Guard can no longer operate military aircraft like it did in the past. Nevertheless, current helicopters are outfitted with the latest generation U.S. night vision equipment, reserved for U.S. armed forces and the armies of their allies and thus the only civilian registered aircraft in the world, so equipped.[citation needed]

Ships and aircraft

All major vehicles of the Icelandic Coast Guard are currently named after beings from Norse mythology.

Currently operated vessels

Ship name Type Class Note Photo
ICGV Þór Offshore patrol vessel UT 512L Type Chilean-built UT 512L Type (enlarged UT 512 Type) offshore patrol vessel commissioned in late 2011 and the flagship of the service. Named after Thor, the god of thunder, lightning and troll slaying. 2 Arrival of Thor - Icelandic Coast Guard 2011-10-27 Reykjavik.jpg
ICGV Týr Offshore patrol vessel Ægir class Danish-built Ægir-class offshore patrol vessel named after Týr, the god of combat and heroism. Iceland Coast Guard vessel types.jpg
ICGV Ægir Offshore patrol vessel Ægir class Danish-built Ægir-class offshore patrol vessel named after Ægir, the king of the sea.
ICGV Baldur Hydrographic survey and patrol vessel Baldur class Icelandic-built Baldur-class hydrographic survey and patrol vessel named after Baldur, god of beauty and more. Icelandic coast guard ships in harbour (cropped).jpg

Currently operated aircraft/helicopters

Currently operated leased aircraft

  • TF-EIR and TF-GRO are Eurocopter EC225 Super Pumas on long-term lease from Knut Axel Ugland Holding of Norway and were brought into service to augment the Coast Guard-owned TF-LIF.[citation needed]

Decommissioned vessels

  • ICGV Óðinn (I)
  • ICGV Gautur, originally named Óðinn (II) but renamed when a new Óðinn (III) arrived, Gautur is one of Óðinn's pseudonyms.
  • ICGV Óðinn (III) an offshore Patrol Vessel named after Óðinn the all-seeing father of the gods.
  • ICGV Baldur (I), a fast patrol boat used for less than a year and returned because of bad characteristics in rough seas.
  • ICGV Baldur (II), an armed trawler.
  • ICGV Bragi, named after Bragi the god of poetry. A fast patrol boat used for less than a year and returned because of bad characteristics in rough seas.
  • ICGV Njörður, named after Njörðr the god of wind, fertile land along the seacoast, as well as seamanship, sailing and fishing. A fast patrol boat used for less than a year and returned because of bad characteristics in rough seas.
  • ICGV Týr (I), a whaler (Hvalur 9) borrowed during the second Cod War usually called Hval-Týr.
  • ICGV Thor (I)
  • ICGV Thor (II)
  • ICGV Thor (III) (is)
  • ICGV Ægir (I)
  • ICGV Albert, patrol and rescue vessel. Joint ownership by the ICG and the National Life-saving Association of Iceland, now ICE-SAR. Operated by the ICG. Decommissioned in the mid 1970s.
  • ICGV Árvakur, a lighthouse tender and patrol ship decommissioned in the 1980s.
  • ICGV María Júlía, patrol and rescue vessel, named after one of those who financed her construction. Joint ownership by the ICG and the National Life-saving Association of Iceland. Operated by the ICG. Decommissioned in the late 1960s.
  • ICGV Sæbjörg, a patrol and rescue ship owned by the National Life-saving Association of Iceland but operated by the ICG. Decommissioned in the mid 1960s.
  • ICGV Ver, an armed trawler. Operated by the ICG in the last Cod War in 1975-1976.

In addition the Coast Guard has rented or borrowed a number of civilian vessels and aircraft for shorter periods, which are not listed.

De-commissioned aircraft

Former Icelandic Coast Guard helicopter

Radars

Iceland Air Defense System radar stations
Orange pog.svg Radar station with AN/FPS-117(V)5
Lightgreen pog.svg Control and Reporting Centre

The Iceland Air Defense System monitors Iceland's airspace. Air Defense is provided by fighter jets from NATO allies, which rotate units for the Icelandic Air Policing mission to Keflavik Air Base. The Iceland Air Defense System's Control and Reporting Centre is at Keflavik Air Base and reports to NATO's Integrated Air Defense System CAOC Uedem in Germany.

Weaponry

The Icelandic Coast Guard possess 207 firearms, 111 of which are in storage.[12][13][14]

Currently in use

Model Image Calibre Type Origin Quantity Details
Bofors 40 mm L/70 Bofors 40mm L70 gun aboard the Frigate ROCN Si Ning (PFG-1203) 20150316b.jpg 40mm Autocannon  Sweden 4 Purchased from Norway and refurbished.
Bofors 40 mm L/60 40mm-twin-naval.jpg 40mm Autocannon  Sweden 4 Model year 1936. Gift from Denmark.
Glock 17 Glock 17 MOD 45154998.jpg 9mm Pistol  Austria 20 Model years 1990, 2006 and 2012. Bought from a dealership in Reykjavík.
H&K MP5A2N MP5.jpg 9mm Submachine gun  West Germany
 Norway
50 Model year 1990. Gift from Norway 2011.
Rheinmetall MG 3 BundeswehrMG3.jpg 7.62mm General-purpose machine gun  West Germany
 Norway
10 Model year 1990. Gift from Norway 2013.
Steyr SSG 69 Steyr SSG 69.jpg 7.62mm Sniper rifle  Austria 8 Model year 1989. Bought from a dealership in Reykjavík.

Currently in storage

Model Image Calibre Type Origin Quantity Details
Browning M2 M2 Browning, Musée de l'Armée.jpg .50 BMG Heavy machine gun  United States 3 Model year 1939. Came with a seaplane which the ICG had in operation.
H&K G3 DCB Shooting G3 pictures.jpg 7.62mm Battle rifle  West Germany 20 Model year 1959. Gift from Denmark 2006.
Cannon 37 mm N/A 37mm Cannon N/A 3 Model year 1898. Gift from Denmark.
Cannon 47 mm N/A 47mm Cannon N/A 3 Model year 1909. Gift from Denmark.
Cannon 57 mm N/A 57mm Cannon N/A 5 Model year 1892. Gift from Denmark.
M1 carbine M1 Carbine Mk I - USA - Armémuseum.jpg 7.62mm Carbine  United States 30 Model year 1940. Lent to the Reykjavík Police 1986.
M2 carbine M2 Carbine SPAR1288 FEB. 17. 2005.jpg 7.62mm Carbine  United States 20 Model year 1940. Lent to the Reykjavík Police 1986.
QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss Flickr - El coleccionista de instantes - Fotos La Fragata A.R.A. "Libertad" de la armada argentina en Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (28).jpg 47mm Cannon  France 1 Model year 1912. At a museum in Ísafjörður.
Remington Model 870 Remington 870 Wmaster.jpg 12-gauge Shotgun  United States 4 Model year 2000. Bought from a dealership in Reykjavík.
SMLE Lee-Enfield Short Magazine Lee-Enfield Mk 1 (1903) - UK - cal 303 British - Armémuseum.jpg .303 Bolt-action Repeating rifle  United Kingdom 10 Model year 1910. Unknown origin.
S&W .38 Police Special Smith and Wesson Regulation Police .38 S&W.jpg .38 Special Pistol  United States 12 Model year 1940. Marshall aid.

Ranks

Officers

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Iceland Iceland(Edit) No equivalent
Generic-Navy-O9.svg Generic-Navy-O8.svg Generic-Navy-O7.svg Generic-Navy-O6.svg Generic-Navy-O5.svg Generic-Navy-O4.svg Generic-Navy-O3.svg Generic-Navy-O2.svg Generic-Navy-O1.svg No equivalent
Rear Admiral
General Director
Commodore
Chief of Operations
Captain
Deputy Chief of Operations, head of divisions
Commander sg.
1° CO of department, vessel or aircraft
Commander
2° CO of department, vessel or aircraft
Lieutenant Commander
Commanding Officer
Lieutenant
Officer
(after 6 years of service)
Lieutenant jg.
Officer
(after 2 years of service)
Sub-Lieutenant
Officer
(first 2 years of service)

Enlisted

NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Iceland Iceland(Edit) Iceland-Navy-OR-9.svg No equivalent Iceland-Navy-OR-7.svg No equivalent Iceland-Navy-OR-5.svg No equivalent Iceland-Navy-OR-3.svg Iceland-Navy-OR-2b.svg Iceland-Navy-OR-2a.svg Iceland-Navy-OR-1.svg
Petty officer/specialist
(after 12 years service)
Petty officer/specialist
(after 6 years service)
Petty officer/specialist Enlisted
(after 6 years service)
Enlisted
(after 3 years service)
Enlisted
(after 1 year service)
Enlisted

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Icelandic Coast Guard" (PDF). Retrieved 18 May 2020.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "NATO Air Policing". Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  4. ^ "North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission". Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  5. ^ USA Today-Arizona RepublicJan 4, 2015, Section B page2
  6. ^ "Til hamingju með daginn! Þór kominn til Íslands". Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  7. ^ "Nýtt varðskip Þór". Archived from the original on 7 March 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  8. ^ https://www.janes.com/article/87583/iceland-coastguard-receives-new-helos
  9. ^ "TF-LIF". Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  10. ^ "All Articles".
  11. ^ "Iceland Air Defense System". Icelandic Coast Guard. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  12. ^ "Landhelgisgæslan á 212 vopn - Vísir".
  13. ^ "869/144 svar: vopnaöflun og vopnaeign Landhelgisgæslunnar". Alþingi.
  14. ^ "Fallbyssur á Sæbraut: Vegfarendur ráku upp stór augu - DV". Archived from the original on 2 January 2018.

External links

  • Official Site in English
  • Landhelgisgæsla Íslands in Icelandic.
  • Coast Guard laws in Icelandic.
  • Info on Icelandic Coast Guard
  • Randburg discussion on Icelandic Coast Guard
  • Ranks of the Icelandic Coast Guard