Incoloy

Summary

Incoloy refers to a range of superalloys now produced by the Special Metals Corporation (SMC) group of companies and created with a trademark by the Inco company in 1952.[1] Originally Inco protected these alloys by patent.[2] In 2000, the SMC published a 61-page document entitled "High-Performance Alloys for Resistance to Aqueous Corrosion" highlighting Incoloy, as well as Monel and Inconel products, and their use in fluid environments such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, other acids as well as freshwater environments.[3]

Incoloy products are mostly chromium-based and mostly nickel-based, and designed for corrosion resistance as well as strength at high temperatures.

Incoloy alloys belong to the category of super austenitic stainless steels.[4] One advantage is that Incoloy alloys do not have to be heat treated after welding to restore the corrosion resistance.[2]

There are specific alloys for resistance to particular chemical attacks. For example, alloy 020 is designed to be resistant to sulphuric acid, and the DS Incoloy is to be used in heat-treating furnaces with reactive atmospheres and many heat cycles.

Incoloy 020 "exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in chemical environments that contain sulphuric acid, chlorides, phosphoric acid and nitric acid."[5]

Incoloy 028 "is resistant to both acids and salts. The copper content makes it resistant to sulfuric acid."[6]

Incoloy 330 "exhibits good strength at high temperatures and good resistance to oxidation and reduction environments."[7]

Incoloy 800 "is capable of remaining stable and maintaining its austenitic structure even after long time exposures to high temperatures".[4]

Incoloy 803 is designed for sulphur-rich environments.[8]

Incoloy 825 is approved for use in heat exchanger tubes by ASTM B163, and approved for pressure vessel operating temperatures up to 525°C or up to 538°C. It "offers exceptional resistance to corrosion by sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid".[9]

Incoloy 908 "has high tensile strength, fatigue crack growth resistance, good weldability, metallurgical stability and ductility, high fracture and impact toughness, [and] low coefficient of thermal expansion... [Its] resistance to oxygen embrittlement... allows hot fabrication without cracking."[10]

Incoloy 907 "has high strength and low thermal expansion coefficient at temperatures up to 800°F."[11]

Incoloy 945X is designed for chlorine-rich environments.[12] Molybdenum adds crevice corrosion and pitting to Incoloy 945.[13]

Incoloy MA956 is made by a mechanical alloying rather than a bulk-melting process; it was studied for space reactor components in the JIMO project. It is difficult to weld and needs to be heated to 200C for forming processes.[14] A special friction welding process has been developed for it.[15]

Compositions (percentages)

Alloy name Fe Cr Al Ti C Y
2
O
3
Cu Mn Co Ni P Si S Mo Nb
020[5] 35 19-21 0 0 0 0 3-4 <2 0 32-38 0 <1 0 2-3 0
028[6] 29-40.4 26-28 0 0 0 0 ? <2.5 0 30-34 0 0 0 3-4 0
803[8] 29.435-42.64 25-29 0 0 0 0 0 <1.5 0 32-37 0 <1 0 0 0
945[13] balance 19.5-23 0.01-0.7 0.5-2.5 0.005-0.04 0 1.5-3 1 0 45-55 0.03 0.5 0.03 3-4 2.5-4.5
945X[12] balance 19.5-23 0.01-0.7 0.5-2.5 0.005-0.04 0 1.5-3 1 0 45-55 0.03 0.5 0.03 3-4 2.5-4.5
330[7] Fe 43 17-20 0 0 0 0 0 <2 0 34-37 0 * 0 0 0
825[9] Fe >22, ~33 19.5-23.5 <0.2 0.6-1.2 <0.05 0 1.5-3.0 <1.0 0 38-46 0 <0.5 <0.03 2.5-3.5 0
907[11] Fe 42 0 0.03 1.5 0 0 0 0 13 38 0 0.15 0 0 4.7
908[10] 35.588 - 44.6 3.75 - 4.5 0.75 - 1.25 1.2 - 1.8 <0.03 0 <0.5 <1 <0.5 47 - 51 <0.015 <0.5 <0.005 0 2.7-3.3
800[4] Fe >39.5 19-23 0 0 0 0 0 <1.5% 0 30-35 0 0 0 0 0
020 [16] Fe (~40%) 20 n/p n/p <0.07 n/p 3.5 <2.0 n/p 35 <0.045 <1.0 <0.035 2.5 about 1
DS [17] Fe (~40%) 18 n/p 0.2 0.1 nil 0.5 0.8-1.5 18 (Co+Ni 38) 18 (Co+Ni 38) n/p 2.3 0.03
MA956 [14] Fe (~75%) 20 4.75 0.4 <0.1 0.5 <0.15 <0.3 <0.3 <0.5 <0.02 n/p n/p

See also

References

  1. ^ "INCOLOY — 0242407". Government of Canada. Canadian Trademarks Database. Retrieved 3 April 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Trademarks and Alloys : Designations, Trade Names and Ordering Information for Alloys" (PDF) (Bulletin No.208). PARR INSTRUMENT COMPANY. 25 January 2006.
  3. ^ "High-Performance Alloys for Resistance to Aqueous Corrosion" (PDF) (SMC-026). Special Metals Corporation. 2000.
  4. ^ a b c "Super Alloy INCOLOY Alloy 800 (UNS N08800)". AZoNetwork. 3 July 2013.
  5. ^ a b "Super Alloy INCOLOY Alloy 020 (UNS N08020)". AZoNetwork. 4 July 2013.
  6. ^ a b "Super Alloy INCOLOY Alloy 028 (UNS N08028)". AZoNetwork. 4 July 2013.
  7. ^ a b "Super Alloy INCOLOY Alloy 330 (UNS N08330)". AZoNetwork. 3 July 2013.
  8. ^ a b "INCOLOY Alloy 803 (UNS S35045)". AZoNetwork. 3 July 2013.
  9. ^ a b "Incoloy 825 – Properties, Applications, Fabrication, Machinability and Weldability of Incoloy 825". AZoNetwork. 5 June 2008.
  10. ^ a b "INCOLOY Alloy 908 (UNS N09908)". AZoNetwork. 3 July 2013.
  11. ^ a b "Super Alloy Incoloy 907™ (UNS N19907)". AZoNetwork. 26 November 2012.
  12. ^ a b "INCOLOY Alloy 945X (UNS N09945)". AZoNetwork. 3 July 2013.
  13. ^ a b "INCOLOY Alloy 945 (UNS N09945)". AZoNetwork. 3 July 2013.
  14. ^ a b "Incoloy alloy MA956" (PDF). Special Metals Corporation. September 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2011.
  15. ^ Ambroziak, A. (2010). "Investigations of the friction welding of Incoloy MA 956 alloy". Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering. 10 (2): 5–13. doi:10.1016/S1644-9665(12)60047-8.
  16. ^ "Incoloy alloy 020" (PDF).
  17. ^ "Incoloy alloy DS" (PDF).