Indonesian military ranks

Summary

The Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) uses a simplified ranking system for the three branches of Indonesian Army, Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Air Force. Most of the ranks are similar with differences for the rank titles of the high-ranking officers. Exception exists, however, in the ranks of the service members of the Indonesian Marine Corps. While Indonesian Marine Corps is a branch of the Navy, the rank titles of the Marine Corps are the same as those of the Army, but it still uses the Navy's style insignia (for lower-ranking enlisted men, blue replaces the red colour).

As said above, all services maintain the same rank insignia and title, with the main difference for officers are that high-ranking officers use their special titles, while officers below that rank use the similar title but followed by their respective branch/corps abbreviation. For example, an Army colonel with Infantry branch use the title "Kolonel INF.", which "INF" means "Infanteri" or "Infantry"; A Navy colonel with Supply Corps background use the title "Kolonel Laut (S)", in which "S" means "Suplai" or "Supply". Also, an Air Force Colonel with Electronical Engineering Corps background use the title "Kolonel (Lek)", in which "Lek" means "Elektronika" or "Electronics". There are no differences with enlisted personnel's title for Army and Air Force, but the Navy still use the personnel's branch/corps abbreviation behind the title.[1]

High-ranking officers use stars as their insignia, middle-rank officers use jasmine buds and lower-rank officer use bars. High-rank NCOs use wavy bars, NCOs use yellow chevrons, high-rank enlisted men use red chevrons (blue for Navy and Marine Corps) and lower-rank enlisted men use red bars (blue for Navy and Marine Corps).

Rank titleEdit

Ranks before 1957Edit

The following ranks were used at the beginning of the establishment of the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR, People's Security Armed Forces) in late 1945, the basis of the present day Indonesian National Armed Forces. This first rank system, with insignia following the former Imperial Japanese practice, was used until 1957.[2]

The TKR's Ground, Air and Naval Forces, later the Indonesian Army, Air Force, and Navy, used these ranks. (The same Army ranks were also used by the nascent Indonesian Marine Corps.)

Commissioned officer ranksEdit

The rank insignia of commissioned officers.

Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Army &
Marine Corps
                   
Djenderal Letnan djenderal Djenderal major Kolonel Letnan kolonel Major Kapten Letnan I Letnan II Letnan muda
Navy                    
Laksamana I Laksamana II Laksamana III Kolonel laut Letnan kolonel laut Major laut Kapten laut Letnan laut Letnan muda laut Adjudan
Air Force                    
Laksamana udara Laksamana muda udara Komodor udara Komodor muda udara Opsir udara I Opsir udara II Opsir udara III Opsir muda udara I Opsir muda udara II Opsir muda udara II
Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet

Other ranksEdit

The rank insignia of non-commissioned officers and enlisted personnel.

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
Army &
Marine Corps
         
Sersan major Sersan Kopral Pradjurit I Pradjurit II
Navy          
Sersan major Sersan Kopral Kelasi I Kelasi II
Air Force          
Sersan major Sersan Kopral Pradjurit I Pradjurit II
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted

Ranks between 1957–73Edit

The rank system was updated by yet another Government Regulation on 22 June 1957.[3] The Army received the Brigadier General rank, the Navy flag officer ranks were replaced by new ones (Admiral, Vice Admiral, Rear Admiral and Commodore replacing Admiral 1st Class, Admiral 2nd Class and Admiral 3rd Class) and the Air Force flag officer ranks replaced to be similar with Navy (with special title "Udara"). The ranks remained Army-style in the Army and Navy and army-style ranks were formally introduced into the air force. NCOs and Enlisted ranks and ratings became different per service branch. Although the government regulation did not specifically mention rank to be used in the Naval Commando Corps, the rank system of Army was begun to be used in the Naval Commando Corps (Marine Corps today).

Rank Category Indonesian Army,
Naval Commando Corps
Indonesian Navy Indonesian Air Force
Generals,
flag officers,
air marshals
Jenderal
(General)
Laksamana
(Admiral)
Laksamana Udara
(Air Admiral)
Letnan Jenderal
(Lieutenant General)
Laksamana Madya
(Vice Admiral)
Laksamana Madya Udara
(Air Vice Admiral)
Jenderal Mayor
(Major General)
Laksamana Muda
(Rear Admiral)
Laksamana Muda Udara
(Air Rear Admiral)
Brigadir Jenderal
(Brigadier General)
Komodor
(Commodore)
Komodor Udara
(Air Commodore)
Field officers Kolonel
(Colonel)
Kolonel Laut
(Captain)
Kolonel Udara
(Colonel)
Letnan Kolonel
(Lieutenant Colonel)
Letnan Kolonel Laut
(Commander)
Letnan Kolonel Udara
(Lieutenant Colonel)
Mayor
(Major)
Mayor
(Lieutenant Commander)
Mayor Udara
(Major)
Junior grade officers Kapten
(Captain)
Kapten
(Lieutenant)
Kapten Udara
(Captain)
Letnan I
(First Lieutenant)
Letnan
(Lieutenant junior grade)
Letnan Udara I
(First Lieutenant)
Letnan II
(Second Lieutenant)
Letnan Muda
(Ensign)
Letnan Udara II
(Second Lieutenant)
Warrant officers and non-commissioned personnel Pembantu Letnan I
(Chief Warrant Officer)
Pembantu Letnan
(Warrant Officer)
Letnan Muda Udara I
(Warrant Officer First Class)
Pembantu Letnan Calon Perwira
(Warrant Officer First Class)
Pembantu Letnan II
(Warrant Officer Second Class)
Ajudan
(Adjutant)
Letnan Muda Udara II
(Warrant Officer Second Class)
Sersan Major
(Sergeant Major)
Sersan Major I
(Master Chief Petty Officer)
Sersan Major Udara
(Sergeant Major)
Sersan Mayor II
(Senior Chief Petty Officer)
Sersan Kepala
(Staff Sergeant)
Sersan I (Chief Petty Officer) Sersan Udara I (Flight Sergeant)
Sersan I
(Sergeant First Class)
Sersan II
(Sergeant)
Sersan II
(Petty Officer First Class)
Sersan Udara II
(Sergeant)
Enlisted personnel,
ratings
Kopral Kepala (Master Corporal) Kopral
(Petty Officer Second Class)
Kopral Udara I
(Corporal)
Kopral I
(Corporal)
Kopral II
(Lance Corporal)
Kopral Udara II
(Lance Corporal)
Prajurit Kader
(Specialist)
Kelasi I (Seaman) Prajurit Udara I
(Airman First Class)
Prajurit I
(Private First Class)
Prajurit II
(Private)
Kelasi II
(Seaman Apprentice)
Prajurit Udara II
(Airman)
Kelasi III
(Seaman Recruit)

Changes between 1973–90Edit

Government Regulation No. 24/ 1973,[4] updated the rank system once again, the changes were as follows:

  • Perwira Tinggi (PATI) (General Officers, Flag Officers, and Air Officers)
    • Ranks of General, Lieutenant General, Major General, Brigadier General are used in the Army, the Naval Commando Corps (Marine Corps today), and the Police.
    • Ranks of Admiral, Vice Admiral, and Rear Admiral are to be maintained in the Navy and the rank of Commodore (lit. 'First Admiral') reintroduced
    • Air Chief Marshal, Air Marshal, Air Vice Marshal, and Air Commodore are to be used in the Air Force
  • Perwira Menengah (PAMEN) (Field Officers), used same rank system in all branches of armed forces.
  • Perwira Pertama (PAMA) (Subaltern Officers), used same rank system in all branches of armed forces.
  • Bintara Tinggi (BATI) (Warrant Officers), used same Army rank system in all branches of armed forces.
  • Bintara (NCOs), used same rank system in all branches of armed forces.
  • Tamtama (Higher Enlisted Rank or Corporal), used Navy and Air Force rank system in all branches of the armed forces.
  • Tamtama (Lower Enlisted Rank or Privates)
    • Private is used in the Army, the Naval Commando Corps (Marine Corps today), and the Air Force (equivalent to Airman)
    • Seaman is used in the Navy
    • Agent is used in the Police (later restricted to the Mobile Brigade and Water Police, all policemen in the other branches would later start directly as Sergeants)

Changes between 1990–97Edit

During this period, there are minor changes of rank system in all branch of the armed forces, which are removal of rank of senior warrant officer and new enlisted ranks introduced (Master Corporal and Petty Officer 1st Class and Master Private, Seaman and Senior Airman). Those changes are based on Government Regulation No.6/ 1990.[5]

Changes between 1997–2010Edit

Government Regulation No. 32/ 1997 regarding the rank system of armed forces[6] was issued. The primary difference with previous regulation are new five-star honorary rank for all branches of the armed forces was introduced and warrant officers rank was re-introduced.

In 2000, with the Indonesian National Police having regained its independence from the armed forces, the TNI rank system ceased to be used.

Current ranks 2010–presentEdit

Five-star honorary rank for all branches of the armed forces are no longer regulated on the latest regulation.[1]

The ranks and rank insignia used today come from the Armed Forces rank regulations of 1990 and 1997, themselves revisions of the first rank regulations published in 1973 to use the current system. All three branches have the same rank titles at the same paygrades, except for the Perwira Tinggi (General Officers, Flag Officers, and Air Officers) and the Tamtama (Lower Rank Enlisted) of the Navy and Air Force.

Rank insigniaEdit

All branches of the armed forces maintain the same rank insignia, with minor color difference in insignia background. Since, all services have at least three type of uniform (Service dress uniform (Pakaian Dinas Harian / PDH), Full dress uniform (Pakaian Dinas Upacara}} / PDU), and Field uniform (Pakaian Dinas Lapangan / PDL)), there are three different insignia style corresponding to type of uniform. Aside from type of the uniform above, The Navy has uniform for wear in oversea service, officially known as Black Navy. When wearing such uniform, officers wear their ranks as gold stripes on their lower sleeves. The number and width of the stripes for each rank is similar to that of the United States Navy.

The rank insignia for same services are also differentiated by red piping (command) or no piping (staff) at the sides of the boards.

Note: Indonesia is not a member of NATO, so there is no official equivalence between the Indonesian military ranks and those defined by NATO. The displayed parallel is approximate and for illustration purposes only.

Commissioned officersEdit

The following are the rank insignia for commissioned officers for the army, navy and air force respectively.[7][8][9]

Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
  Indonesian Army[10]
                     
Jenderal besar Jenderal Letnan jenderal Mayor jenderal Brigadir jenderal Kolonel Letnan kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan satu Letnan dua
Army rank insginia
on PDU
                     
Army rank insginia
on PDL
                     
  Indonesian Navy[10]
                     
Laksamana besar Laksamana Laksamana madya Laksamana muda Laksamana pertama Kolonel Letnan kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan satu Letnan dua
Navy rank insginia
on PDU
                     
Navy rank insginia
on PDL
                     
Navy sleeve rank
on Black Navy uniform
No insignia                    
  Indonesian Air Force[10]
                     
Marsekal besar Marsekal Marsekal madya Marsekal muda Marsekal pertama Kolonel Letnan kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan satu Letnan dua
Air Force rank insginia
on PDU
                     
Air Force rank insginia
on PDL
                     
Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet

EnlistedEdit

The rank insignia for enlisted personnel for the army, navy and air force respectively.[7][8][9]

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
  Indonesian Army[10]
                       
Pembantu letnan satu Pembantu letnan dua Sersan mayor Sersan kepala Sersan satu Sersan dua Kopral kepala Kopral satu Kopral dua Prajurit kepala Prajurit satu Prajurit dua
Army rank insginia
on PDU
                       
Army rank insginia
on PDL
                       
  Indonesian Navy[10]
                       
Pembantu letnan satu Pembantu letnan dua Sersan mayor Sersan kepala Sersan satu Sersan dua Kopral kepala Kopral satu Kopral dua Kelasi kepala Kelasi satu Kelasi dua
Navy rank insginia
on PDU
                       
Navy rank insginia
on PDL
                       
  Indonesian Air Force[10]
                       
Pembantu letnan satu Pembantu letnan dua Sersan mayor Sersan kepala Sersan satu Sersan dua Kopral kepala Kopral satu Kopral dua Prajurit kepala Prajurit satu Prajurit dua
Air Force rank insginia
for PDU
                       
Air Force rank insginia
on PDL
                       
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Peraturan Pemerintah RI Nomor 39 Tahun 2010 tentang Administrasi Prajurit Tentara Nasional Indonesia" [Government Regulation No 39 Year 2010 Regarding Administration of Armed Forces Personnel].  No. 39 of 2010 (PDF) (in Indonesian).
  2. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah RI tentang Peraturan Gaji Militer 1949 , Lampiran A". Government Regulation No. 21 of 1949 (in Indonesian).
  3. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah No.24 Tahun 1957 tentang Peraturan Pangkat-pangkat Militer dalam Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia". Government Regulation No. 24 of 1957 (in Indonesian).
  4. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah No.24 Tahun 1973 Tentang Kepangkatan Militer/Polisi Dalam Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia". Government Regulation No. 24 of 1973 (in Indonesian).
  5. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah No.6 Tahun 1990 Tentang Administrasi Prajurit Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia". Government Regulation No. 6 of 1990 (in Indonesian).
  6. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah No.32 Tahun 1997 Tentang Administrasi Prajurit Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia". Government Regulation No. 32 of 1997 (in Indonesian).
  7. ^ a b "Pangkat Harian". tni.mil.id. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Pangkat Upacara". tni.mil.id. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Pangkat Lapangan". tni.mil.id. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Pangkat Harian". tni.mil.id (in Indonesian). Indonesian National Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2021.

External linksEdit