International 14

Summary

The International 14 is a 14-foot double-handed racing dinghy. The class originated in England in the early part of the 20th century. It is sailed and raced in many countries around the world and was one of the first true international racing dinghy classes recognised by International Sailing Federation. It is a development class, being controlled by a set of rules that allow for innovation and changes in hull and rig design as long as they fall within a set of specific limitations such as length, weight, beam, and sail area. The class has permitted its rules to be revised at various times in its history in order to keep the class at the forefront of dinghy racing development and can now best be described as an ultralight dual-trapeze sailing dinghy with large sail area. It is often raced with boats of similar design in one-design, or non-handicap races.

International 14
Int14 Logo black.svg
Class symbol
14 foot skiff - La Rochelle (2a).JPG
+
Development
DesignDevelopment class
Crew2
Boat
Crew2
Hull
Hull weight74.25 kg (163.7 lb)
72 kg (159 lb) (June 2011)
70 kg (150 lb) (June 2013)
LOA4,267 mm (14 ft 0 in)[1]
(excludes bowsprit and rudder)
Beam1,040 mm (3 ft 5 in) (min)
1,830 mm (6 ft 0 in) (max)
Rig
Mast length7,626 mm (25 ft 0.2 in)
Sails
Spinnaker areaUnlimited (typically 32 m2 (340 sq ft))
Upwind sail area18.58 m2 (200.0 sq ft)
Racing
RYA PN780[2]

HistoryEdit

There are essentially four periods in the class' history:

DisplacementEdit

The displacement style, is also known as the "Before Uffa Fox Era". Many of these were designed as a National 14 by designers such as Francis Morgan-Giles of Tynemouth and Hammersmith.

PlaningEdit

Planing, which started with Uffa Fox and his deep-chested hulls, (boats Avenger and Alarm were quintessential examples) which were broad aft with nearly straight buttocks, and narrow forward with a deep vee; another notable boat was Windsprite, designed and built in cold-moulded plywood by Austin Farrar at Woolverstone, Suffolk, in the early 1950s, whose distinctive hull shape was emulated later in the International 505 dinghy. One of the most famous International 14s was Thunder and Lightning, sail number 409. Built in 1938 by Uffa Fox, she was sailed to victory by John Winter and Peter Scott in the Prince of Wales Cup that year. The crew was helped considerably by the revolutionary use of an early form of trapeze, which was considered unsporting by the racing authorities of the day and promptly banned. Thunder and Lightning is now based at the National Maritime Museum Cornwall.

TrapezeEdit

Trapeze planing, which came about decades later, when the trapeze was finally legalised in the class (it had been tried by Uffa and others in the 1930s but was banned); during this evolutionary period larger ballast tanks were permitted by the class rules that greatly improved the ability of crews to recover from capsizes; the period also saw the introduction of multi-chined boats that were radically different in hull shape from the earlier carvel-built and molded-plywood designs;

Double-trapezeEdit

Hull shape Date Designer
Ovington 1 1995 Dave Ovington
Bieker 2 1996 Paul Bieker
Morrison 7e 1995 Phil Morrison
Morrison 8 1996 Phil Morrison
Ovington 2 1997 Dave Ovington
Bieker 2Z 1998 Paul Bieker
Bieker 3 1998 Paul Bieker
Morrison 9 1998 Phil Morrison
Ovington 3 1999 Dave Ovington
Morrison 10 2000 Phil Morrison
Bieker 4 2002 Paul Bieker
Bieker 5 2005 Paul Bieker
Beebe 2 2005 Jason Beebe
Benji 1 2005 Le Poisson
Hollom 1 2009 David Hollom
Bieker 6 2011 Paul Bieker
K3 2011 Steve Killing

Double-trapeze super-planing, which has gone through a number of evolutions. The concept was developed in Australia and New Zealand, and influenced the design of the high-powered but lightweight Australian 18. This form of the boat really started to take form in the early 80's (but with only one trapeze) as the minimum weight was lowered and upwind planing became possible.

Contemporary boats weigh as little as 165 lb, and have as typical equipment a retractable spinnaker pole, unlimited asymmetric spinnaker size, 200sq ft mainsail and jib area, a fully battened mainsail, an adjustable carbon rig, and a hydrofoil rudder that allows the boat to be trimmed fore and aft for different conditions, and as a drag reduction device.

Since this is a development class, older boats have been obsoleted through rules changes. Many of the older boats still race in fleets of similar boats. Penultimates, also known as 'Pennies' are boats that feature much of the same technology as modern boats but are from prior to the 1996 merger between the International 14 and Aussie 14 classes. Classic boats are boats prior to 1984 and feature a symmetric spinnaker, single trapeze, and many feature cold molded wooden hulls.

EventsEdit

Fleet Racing World ChampionshipEdit

Gold Silver Bronze
1979   United States
Long Beach
  United States
John Gallagher
Dave Gallagher
1981   United States
Annapolis
  Canada
Frank McLaughlin
John Millen
1983   Great Britain
Itchenor
  Canada
James Kidd
Hugh Kidd
1985   Canada
Kingston
  Canada
James Kidd
Hugh Kidd
1987   Japan
Inawashiro
  Great Britain
James Hartley
Ian Tillett
1989   United States
San Francisco
  Great Britain
Neal McDonald
Duncan McDonald
1991   Great Britain
Torbay
  Great Britain
Martin Jones
Duncan McDonald
1993   Canada
Kingston
GBR
  Ian Walker (GBR)
Chris Fox
1995   Denmark
Vallensbæk
  Great Britain
Roddy Bridge
Adam Goodchild
1997 Richmond   Great Britain
Charles Stanley
Mo Gray
  Great Britain
Roddy Bridge
Adam Goodchild
  Australia
Grant Geddes
Craig Watkin
1999   Australia
Sandringham
130 Boats[3]
AUS 577
Grant Geddes
Craig Watkin
GBR 1406
Charles Stanley
Mo Gray
USA 1137
Zach Berkowitz
Karl Baldauf
2000   Great Britain
Beer
116 Boats[4]
USA 1127
Kris Bundy
Jamie Hanseler
GBR 1451
Colin Goodman
James Storey
GBR 1440
Zeb Elliott
Dan Johnson
2001   Australia
Hamilton
54 Boats
  United States
Zach Berkowitz
Trevor Baylis
  Great Britain
Zeb Elliott
Tim Hancock
  United States
Kris Bundy
Jamie Hanseler
2003   Japan
Wakayama
56 Boats[5][6]
GBR 1482
  Robert Greenhalgh (GBR)
  Dan Johnson (GBR)
USA 1137
  Zach Berkowitz (USA)
  Mike Martin (USA)
GBR 1476
  Archie Massey (GBR)
  George Nurton (GBR)
2005   New Zealand
Auckland
83 Boats[7]
  Australia
Lindsey Irwin
Andrew Perry
  Great Britain
Stevie Morrison
Ben Rhodes
  Great Britain
James Fawcett
Dave Dobrijevic
2006   United States
Long Beach
71 Boats
USA 1168
  Howard Hamlin (USA)
Euan McNicol
CAN 600
  Tina Baylis (CAN)
  Trevor Baylis (CAN)
USA 1173
  Samuel Kahn (USA)
Paul Allen
2008   Germany
Warnemünde
86 Boats
GBR 1519
  Archie Massey (GBR)
  Matt Noble (GBR)
GBR 1536
  Jarrod Simpson (GBR)
  Grant Rollerson (AUS)
AUS 653
  Alexander Dave (AUS)
  Cameron McDonald (AUS)
2010   Australia
Sydney
65 Boats[8]
AUS 1519
  Archie Massey (GBR)
  Dan Wilsdon (GBR)
GBR 1541
  Roger Gilbert (GBR)
  Ben McGrane (GBR)
AUS 656
  Mark Krstic (GBR)
  Andrew Wilson (GBR)
2011   Great Britain
Weymouth[9]
GBR 1519
  Archie Massey (GBR)
  Dan Wilsdon (GBR)
GBR 1541
  Roger Gilbert (GBR)
  Ben McGrane (GBR)
GBR 1520
  Katie Nurton (GBR)
  Nigel Ash (GBR)
2013   Canada
Toronto[10]
GBR 1519
  Archie Massey (GBR)
  Dan Wilsdon (GBR)
GBR 1543
  Sam Pascoe (GBR)
  Alex Knight (GBR)
GBR 1530
  Andy FitzGerald (GBR)
  Richard Dobson (GBR)
2015   Australia
Geelong[11]
GBR 1543
  Glen Truswell (GBR)
  Sam Pascoe (GBR)
GBR 1517
  Ben McGrane (GBR)
  James Hughes (GBR)
AUS 661
  Brad Devine (AUS)
  Ian Furlong (AUS)
2016   France
Carnac[12]
GBR 1553
  Glen Truswell (GBR)
  Sam Pascoe (GBR)
GBR
  Roger Gilbert (GBR)
  Ben McGrane (GBR)
GBR
  Archie Massey (GBR)
  Harvey Hillary (GBR)
2018   United States
Richmond CA
60 Boats[13]
GBR 1559 - Penguin Dance
  Andy Partington (GBR)
  Tom Partington (GBR)
GBR 1553 - Scrumpet
  Neale Jones (GBR)
  Edward FitzGerald (GBR)
GER 28 - just in time
  Georg Borkenstein (GER)
  Eike Dietrich (GER)
2020   Australia
Perth
65 Boats[14]
GBR 1565
  Archie Massey (GBR)
  Harvey Hillary (GBR)
GBR 1556
  Daniel Holman (GBR)
  Alex Knight (GBR)
GBR 1553
  Neale Jones (GBR)
  Edward Fitzgerald (GBR)

Team Racing World ChampionshipEdit

Gold Silver Bronze
1981 Annapolis   United States East Coast   Canada
2006 Alamitos Bay   Great Britain   Canada   United States
2008 Warnemünde   Great Britain   Germany Deutschland Nord   Great Britain UK
2010 Sydney   Australia 1   Great Britain
2011 Weymouth cancelled due to adverse weather
2013 Toronto   Great Britain 1   Australia   Canada 1
2015 Geelong[15]   Australia 1   Australia 2 North America
2016 Carnac[16]   Great Britain   United States   Australia

POW CupEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "International 14 Class Association".
  2. ^ "Portsmouth Number List 2012". Royal Yachting Association. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  3. ^ http://www.99worlds.org/download.htm
  4. ^ http://worlds.i14.org/i14worldos.html
  5. ^ https://www.yachtsandyachting.com/news/10934/14-Worlds-Day-6
  6. ^ http://www.i14.jp/wakayama/overall.html
  7. ^ http://www.takapunaboating.org.nz/SMLogo/SW190205.htm
  8. ^ http://international14.org/images/pastworlds/2010/2010gold2.pdf
  9. ^ http://international14.org/images/pastworlds/2011/2011%20worlds%20results.pdf
  10. ^ http://i14.ca/worlds/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/2013-I14-World-Championships_Results_RaceFive-Finals.pdf
  11. ^ http://www.i14worlds2015.com/
  12. ^ http://www.yccarnac.com/International-14-World-Championships-results.html/
  13. ^ https://www.regattanetwork.com/event/15519#_newsroom+results
  14. ^ https://www.i14worlds2020.com/regatta/results/
  15. ^ http://www.i14worlds2015.com/
  16. ^ http://www.yccarnac.com/International-14-World-Championships-results.html

External linksEdit

  • International 14 Class website
  • The Class History
  • ISAF International 14 Microsite
  • International 14 US Class
  • Canadian i14 Fleet Website
  • National Maritime Museum Cornwall website