The International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) is a global organisation for researchers and professionals working in the field of computing to conduct research, develop standards and promote information sharing.
Established in 1960 under the auspices of UNESCO, IFIP is recognised by the United Nations and links some 50 national and international societies and academies of science with a total membership of over half a million professionals. IFIP is based in Laxenburg, Austria and is an international, non-governmental organisation that operates on a non-profit basis.
IFIP activities are coordinated by 13 Technical Committees (TCs) which are organised into more than 100 Working Groups (WGs), bringing together over 3,500 ICT professionals and researchers from around the world to conduct research, develop standards and promote information sharing. Each TC covers a particular aspect of computing and related disciplines, as detailed below.
IFIP actively promotes the principle of open access and proceedings for which IFIP holds the copyright are made available electronically via IFIP's Open Access Digital Library. Downloading articles from IFIP's Open Access Digital Library is free of charge.
Conference and workshop organizers who prefer publication with the IFIP publisher can take advantage of the agreement between IFIP and Springer and publish their proceedings as part of IFIP's Advances in Information and Communication Technology (AICT) series, the Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) series or the Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing (LNBIP) series. IFIP Proceedings published by Springer in IFIP's AICT, LNCS, and LNBIP series are accessible within IFIP's Open Access Digital Library after an embargo period of three years.
An important activity of the IFIP Technical Committees is to organise and sponsor high quality conferences and workshops in the field of ICT. Sponsoring is generally in the form of Best Paper Awards (BPA) and/or Student Travel Grants (STG). To assist conference and workshop organisers, IFIP has facilities to host conference websites and supports conference management systems such as JEMS, which include export functions that seamlessly integrate with IFIP's Open DL.
IFIP was established in 1960 under the auspices of UNESCO, originally under the name of the International Federation of Information Processing Societies (IFIPS). In preparation, UNESCO had organised the first International Conference on Information Processing, which took place in June 1959 in Paris, and is now considered the first IFIP Congress. Christopher Strachey gave a paper "Time Sharing in Large Fast Computers" at the conference where he envisaged a programmer debugging a program at a console (like a teletype) connected to the computer, while another program was running in the computer at the same time. At the conference, he passed the concept on to J. C. R. Licklider.
IFIP's activities are centered on its 13 Technical Committees, which are divided into Working Groups. These groups, (with names like "WG 2.4 Software Implementation Technology") organise conferences and workshops, distribute technical papers and promote discussion and research outcomes.
A full list of IFIP Technical Committees is listed below:
The current IFIP TC1, which focuses on Foundations of Computer Science, was established in 1997. There was an earlier TC1, covering Terminology, which was IFIP's first Technical Committee. Formed in 1961, it produced a multilingual dictionary of information-processing terminology but was later disbanded.
The working groups of the current TC1 are:
Established in 1962, IFIP TC2 explores Software Theory and Practice with the aim of improving software quality by studying all aspects of the software development process to better understand and enhance programming concepts.
The working groups of IFIP TC2 are:
The formation of TC3, to deal with computers and education, was announced in 1962. Richard Buckingham of the University of London was appointed its first chairman and TC3 held its initial meeting in Paris in February 1964.
The working groups of IFIP TC3 are:
Established in 1970, IFIP TC5 provides a focus for multi-disciplinary research into the application of information technologies and practices to facilitate information management. It encompasses work in product life-cycle management, digital modelling, virtual product creation, integrated manufacturing/production management and more.
The working groups of IFIP TC5 are:
Established in 1971, IFIP TC6 (Communication Systems) is one of the largest TCs within IFIP in terms of activities and revenues. TC6 has nine Working Groups (WGs) as well as a number of Special Interest Groups (SIGs), the majority of which are concerned either with specific aspects of communications systems themselves or with the application of communications systems. In addition, one WG focuses on communications in developing countries. TC6 meets twice a year, in spring and fall, usually co-locating its meetings with a related conference. Examples of TC6 conferences include IFIP Networking, DisCoTec, Middleware, WiOpt, CNSM, Integrated Network Management (IM) and Wireless Days (WD).
Membership of a TC6 WG or SIG is open to leading researchers within the field, independent of the national society within the country of origin. Well-known (past) TC6 members include: Vint Cerf, André Danthine, Donald Davies, Roger Scantlebury, Peter Kirstein, Robert (Bob) Metcalfe, Louis Pouzin, Otto Spaniol and Hubert Zimmermann. Many were members of the International Networking Working Group. Each WG or SIG elects a chair and vice-chair for a period of three years. WG and SIG (vice-)chairs are, next to the national representatives and some key researchers, automatically members of TC6.
TC6 is a strong proponent of open access and the driving force behind the IFIP TC6 Open Digital Library (DL). The IFIP TC6 Open DL is currently operated by TC6 and eventually will move to the INRIA HAL system. To ensure maximum accessibility of accepted papers, several TC6 conferences publish their proceedings not only in the IFIP TC6 Open DL, but also in other online systems, such as IEEE Xplore, ACM DL, ResearchGate and arXiv.
TC6 supports conferences by providing Best Paper Awards (usually 500 Euro each) as well as Student Travel Grants (usually 750 Euro). Conference organisers who intend to obtain IFIP sponsorship are encouraged to fill-in the online Event Request Form (ERF). Depending on the category and type of event, IFIP may charge fees to conferences to cover the costs of (future) awards as well as the IFIP secretariat.
The working groups of IFIP TC6 are:
In November 2015, a new Special Interest Group on "Internet of People" (IoP) was created.
IFIP TC7 was founded in 1972 by A.V. Balakrishnan, J.L. Lions and M. Marchuk. The aims of this Technical Committee are
The working groups of IFIP TC7 are:
IFIP TC8 was established in 1976 and focuses on Information Systems. This committee aims to promote and encourage the advancement of research and practice of concepts, methods, techniques and issues related to information systems in organisations. It currently includes the following working groups:
IFIP TC9 on ICT and Society was formed in 1976 to develop greater understanding of how ICT innovation is associated with changes in society and to influence the shaping of socially responsible and ethical policies and professional practices. The main work of the TC9 is conducted through its working groups, which organise regular conferences and events, including the Human Choice and Computers (HCC) conference series. This is a well established forum for the study of ICT and Society - the first HCC conference took place in Vienna in 1974, while the last one took place in Finland in 2014.
The working groups of IFIP TC9 are:
IFIP TC10 was founded in 1976 and revised in 1987. It aims to promote State-of-the-Art concepts, methodologies and tools in the life cycle of computer systems and to coordinate the exchange of information around these practices.
TC10 currently has four working groups:
IFIP TC11 on Security and Privacy Protection in Information Processing Systems was founded in 1984 and revised in 2006 and 2009. It focuses on increasing the trustworthiness of, and general confidence in, information processing and providing a forum for security and privacy protection experts and others professionally active in the field to share information and advance standards.
IFIP TC11 currently has the following working groups:
IFIP TC12 on Artificial Intelligence was established in 1984 and revised in 1991 and 2004. It aims to foster the development and understanding of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its applications worldwide and to promote interdisciplinary exchanges between AI and other fields of information processing.
IFIP TC12 currently includes the following working groups:
IFIP TC 13 on Human-Computer Interaction was founded in 1989. It aims to encourage empirical research (using valid and reliable methodology, with studies of the methods themselves where necessary); to promote the use of knowledge and methods from the human sciences in both design and evaluation of computer systems; to promote better understanding of the relation between formal design methods and system usability and acceptability; to develop guidelines, models and methods by which designers may be able to provide better human-oriented computer systems; and to co-operate with other groups, inside and outside IFIP, so as to promote user-orientation and "humani-zation" in system design.
TC 13 currently has nine working groups:
Created in 2002 as SG16, on August 28, 2006, the General Assembly of IFIP decided to establish this new Technical Committee. To encourage computer applications for entertainment and to enhance computer utilization in the home, the technical committee will pursue the following aims: to enhance algorithmic research on board and card games; to promote a new type of entertainment using information technologies; to encourage hardware technology research and development to facilitate implementing entertainment systems, and; to encourage non-traditional human interface technologies for entertainment.
List of full members as of 20 November 2018[update]:
List of associate members as of 2015, June 22:
What Strachey proposed in his concept of time-sharing was an arrangement that would preserve the direct contact between programmer and machine, while still achieving the economy of multiprogramming.
In 1959 Christopher Strachey in the United Kingdom and John McCarthy in the United States independently described something they called time-sharing.