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In mathematics, an **isometry** (or **congruence**, or **congruent transformation**) is a distance-preserving transformation between metric spaces, usually assumed to be bijective.^{[1]}

Given a metric space (loosely, a set and a scheme for assigning distances between elements of the set), an isometry is a transformation which maps elements to the same or another metric space such that the distance between the image elements in the new metric space is equal to the distance between the elements in the original metric space.
In a two-dimensional or three-dimensional Euclidean space, two geometric figures are congruent if they are related by an isometry;^{[3]} the isometry that relates them is either a rigid motion (translation or rotation), or a composition of a rigid motion and a reflection.

Isometries are often used in constructions where one space is embedded in another space. For instance, the completion of a metric space *M* involves an isometry from *M* into *M'*, a quotient set of the space of Cauchy sequences on *M*.
The original space *M* is thus isometrically isomorphic to a subspace of a complete metric space, and it is usually identified with this subspace.
Other embedding constructions show that every metric space is isometrically isomorphic to a closed subset of some normed vector space and that every complete metric space is isometrically isomorphic to a closed subset of some Banach space.

An isometric surjective linear operator on a Hilbert space is called a unitary operator.

Let *X* and *Y* be metric spaces with metrics (e.g., distances) *d*_{X} and *d*_{Y}.
A map *f* : *X* → *Y* is called an **isometry** or **distance preserving** if for any *a*,*b* ∈ *X* one has

^{[4]}

An isometry is automatically injective;^{[1]} otherwise two distinct points, *a* and *b*, could be mapped to the same point, thereby contradicting the coincidence axiom of the metric *d*.
This proof is similar to the proof that an order embedding between partially ordered sets is injective. Clearly, every isometry between metric spaces is a topological embedding.

A **global isometry**, **isometric isomorphism** or **congruence mapping** is a bijective isometry. Like any other bijection, a global isometry has a function inverse.
The inverse of a global isometry is also a global isometry.

Two metric spaces *X* and *Y* are called **isometric** if there is a bijective isometry from *X* to *Y*.
The set of bijective isometries from a metric space to itself forms a group with respect to function composition, called the **isometry group**.

There is also the weaker notion of *path isometry* or *arcwise isometry*:

A **path isometry** or **arcwise isometry** is a map which preserves the lengths of curves; such a map is not necessarily an isometry in the distance preserving sense, and it need not necessarily be bijective, or even injective.
This term is often abridged to simply *isometry*, so one should take care to determine from context which type is intended.

- Examples

- Any reflection, translation and rotation is a global isometry on Euclidean spaces. See also Euclidean group and Euclidean space § Isometries.
- The map in is a path isometry but not an isometry. Note that unlike an isometry, it is not injective.

The following theorem is due to Mazur and Ulam.

**Definition**:^{[5]}The**midpoint**of two elements x and y in a vector space is the vector 1/2(*x*+*y*).

**Theorem ^{[5]}^{[6]}** — Let

Given two normed vector spaces and , a **linear isometry** is a linear map that preserves the norms:

for all .^{[7]}
Linear isometries are distance-preserving maps in the above sense.
They are global isometries if and only if they are surjective.

In an inner product space, the above definition reduces to

for all , which is equivalent to saying that . This also implies that isometries preserve inner products, as

Linear isometries are not always unitary operators, though, as those require additionally that and .

By the Mazur–Ulam theorem, any isometry of normed vector spaces over **R** is affine.

- Examples

- A linear map from
**C**^{n}to itself is an isometry (for the dot product) if and only if its matrix is unitary.^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]}

An isometry of a manifold is any (smooth) mapping of that manifold into itself, or into another manifold that preserves the notion of distance between points. The definition of an isometry requires the notion of a metric on the manifold; a manifold with a (positive-definite) metric is a Riemannian manifold, one with an indefinite metric is a pseudo-Riemannian manifold. Thus, isometries are studied in Riemannian geometry.

A **local isometry** from one (pseudo-)Riemannian manifold to another is a map which pulls back the metric tensor on the second manifold to the metric tensor on the first. When such a map is also a diffeomorphism, such a map is called an **isometry** (or **isometric isomorphism**), and provides a notion of isomorphism ("sameness") in the category **Rm** of Riemannian manifolds.

Let and be two (pseudo-)Riemannian manifolds, and let be a diffeomorphism. Then is called an **isometry** (or **isometric isomorphism**) if

where denotes the pullback of the rank (0, 2) metric tensor by . Equivalently, in terms of the pushforward , we have that for any two vector fields on (i.e. sections of the tangent bundle ),

If is a local diffeomorphism such that , then is called a **local isometry**.

A collection of isometries typically form a group, the isometry group. When the group is a continuous group, the infinitesimal generators of the group are the Killing vector fields.

The Myers–Steenrod theorem states that every isometry between two connected Riemannian manifolds is smooth (differentiable). A second form of this theorem states that the isometry group of a Riemannian manifold is a Lie group.

Riemannian manifolds that have isometries defined at every point are called symmetric spaces.

- Given a positive real number ε, an
**ε-isometry**or**almost isometry**(also called a**Hausdorff approximation**) is a map between metric spaces such that- for one has , and
- for any point there exists a point with

- That is, an ε-isometry preserves distances to within ε and leaves no element of the codomain further than ε away from the image of an element of the domain. Note that ε-isometries are not assumed to be continuous.

- The
**restricted isometry property**characterizes nearly isometric matrices for sparse vectors. **Quasi-isometry**is yet another useful generalization.- One may also define an element in an abstract unital C*-algebra to be an isometry:
- is an isometry if and only if .

- Note that as mentioned in the introduction this is not necessarily a unitary element because one does not in general have that left inverse is a right inverse.

- On a pseudo-Euclidean space, the term
*isometry*means a linear bijection preserving magnitude. See also Quadratic spaces.

- Beckman–Quarles theorem
- Conformal map – Mathematical function which preserves angles
- The second dual of a Banach space as an isometric isomorphism
- Euclidean plane isometry
- Flat (geometry)
- Homeomorphism group
- Involution
- Isometry group
- Motion (geometry)
- Myers–Steenrod theorem
- 3D isometries that leave the origin fixed
- Partial isometry
- Scaling (geometry)
- Semidefinite embedding
- Space group
- Symmetry in mathematics

- ^
^{a}^{b}Coxeter 1969, p. 29"We shall find it convenient to use the word

*transformation*in the special sense of a one-to-one correspondence among all points in the plane (or in space), that is, a rule for associating pairs of points, with the understanding that each pair has a first member P and a second member P' and that every point occurs as the first member of just one pair and also as the second member of just one pair...In particular, an

*isometry*(or "congruent transformation," or "congruence") is a transformation which preserves length..." **^**Coxeter 1969, p. 46**3.51***Any direct isometry is either a translation or a rotation. Any opposite isometry is either a reflection or a glide reflection.***^**Coxeter 1969, p. 39**3.11***Any two congruent triangles are related by a unique isometry.***^**Beckman, F. S.; Quarles, D. A., Jr. (1953). "On isometries of Euclidean spaces" (PDF).*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*.**4**(5): 810–815. doi:10.2307/2032415. JSTOR 2032415. MR 0058193.

Let T be a transformation (possibly many-valued) of () into itself.

Let be the distance between points p and q of , and let Tp, Tq be any images of p and q, respectively.

If there is a length a > 0 such that whenever , then T is a Euclidean transformation of onto itself.- ^
^{a}^{b}Narici & Beckenstein 2011, pp. 275–339. **^**Wilansky 2013, pp. 21–26.**^**Thomsen, Jesper Funch (2017).*Lineær algebra*[*Linear algebra*] (in Danish). Århus: Department of Mathematics, Aarhus University. p. 125.**^**Roweis, S. T.; Saul, L. K. (2000). "Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction by Locally Linear Embedding".*Science*.**290**(5500): 2323–2326. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.111.3313. doi:10.1126/science.290.5500.2323. PMID 11125150.**^**Saul, Lawrence K.; Roweis, Sam T. (2003). "Think globally, fit locally: Unsupervised learning of nonlinear manifolds".*Journal of Machine Learning Research*.**4**(June): 119–155.Quadratic optimisation of (page 135) such that

**^**Zhang, Zhenyue; Zha, Hongyuan (2004). "Principal Manifolds and Nonlinear Dimension Reduction via Local Tangent Space Alignment".*SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing*.**26**(1): 313–338. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.211.9957. doi:10.1137/s1064827502419154.**^**Zhang, Zhenyue; Wang, Jing (2006). "MLLE: Modified Locally Linear Embedding Using Multiple Weights".*Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems*.**19**.It can retrieve the ideal embedding if MLLE is applied on data points sampled from an isometric manifold.

- Rudin, Walter (1991).
*Functional Analysis*. International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics. Vol. 8 (Second ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math. ISBN 978-0-07-054236-5. OCLC 21163277. - Narici, Lawrence; Beckenstein, Edward (2011).
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*Topological Vector Spaces*. GTM. Vol. 8 (Second ed.). New York, NY: Springer New York Imprint Springer. ISBN 978-1-4612-7155-0. OCLC 840278135. - Trèves, François (2006) [1967].
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