Julang-1 (JL-1), NATO : CSS-N-3
JL-1 and JL-2.PNG
JL-1 and JL-2.
Service history
Used byChina
Production history
DesignerHuang Weilu
ManufacturerFactory 307 (Nanjing Dawn Group)
Mass14,700 kilograms (32,400 lb)
Length10.7 metres (35 ft)
Width1.4 metres (4.6 ft)
Blast yield250-500Kt

PropellantSolid fuel
1,770 km (JL-1), 2,500 km (JL-1A)
Xia class submarine

The Julang-1 (Chinese: 巨浪-1; pinyin: Jù Làng Yī; lit. 'Huge Wave-1', also known as the JL-1; NATO reporting name CSS-N-3) was China's first generation nuclear submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). According to a US Department of Defense report in 2011, the operational status of the JL-1 was "questionable".[1]


Research and development began in 1967 and detailed design in the early 1970s, with a first land launch 30 April 1982 and a sea launch from a Project 629A (Golf) class submarine on 12 October 1982. The general designer of the missile was Huang Weilu,[2] and Chen Deren (Chinese: 陈德仁, 1922 – 21 December 2007) served as his deputy. The missile was assembled at Factory 307 (now Nanjing Dawn Group [南京晨光集团]).[citation needed]

The JL-1 was deployed on Xia class submarine in 1986. The Type 092 Xia class nuclear submarines have 12 launch tubes.[citation needed]

The JL-1 was initially tested and deployed on the PLAN's modified Golf class SSB. The Golf has since been modified again for further testing of other missiles, such as the JL-2, which has test-launched multiple times with varying levels of success.[citation needed]

The DF-21 appears to be a land-based version of the JL-1. As of 2018, the JL-1 and its warheads are believed to have been retired and dismantled.[3]

See also


  1. ^ Taylor, Marcus; Tamerlani, Eric; Farnsworth, Timothy (June 2013). "Pentagon Sees China Progressing on SLBM". Arms Control Today. Arms Control Association. 43 (5): 31–32. JSTOR 23629520.
  2. ^ military.cntv.cn
  3. ^ Kristensen, Hans M.; Norris, Robert S. (2018). "Chinese nuclear forces, 2018". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 74 (4). doi:10.1080/00963402.2018.1486620.
  • Norris, Robert, Burrows, Andrew, Fieldhouse, Richard "Nuclear Weapons Databook, Volume V, British, French and Chinese Nuclear Weapons, San Francisco, Westview Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8133-1612-X
  • Lewis, John Wilson and Xue Litai, "China's Strategic Seapower: The Politics of Force Modernization in the Nuclear Age," Stanford, 1994.