Year

Recipient

Country of Birth

Rationale

Reference

1975

Lyman Spitzer

United States

"For his pioneering investigations of the behavior of plasma and guiding and inspiring a generation of plasma physicists through his research and leadership in the controlled thermonuclear program."

^{[2]}^{[3]}

1976

Marshall Nicholas Rosenbluth

United States

"For his pioneering analyses of the behavior of plasma in its various manifestations. His wide ranging work has had a strong impact on important facets of plasma theory, particularly stability but also including transport processes, interactions of radiation with plasma, fluctuations, wave phenomena, and other fundamental processes."

^{[4]}

1977

John M. Dawson

United States

"For his outstanding contributions to plasma physics and controlled fusion as both as innovative theorist and a prolific inventor, whose ideas have provided the basis for several current fusion configurations. He initiated the use of computer simulation as a new and powerful tool for the study of plasmas. He inspired and trained a cadre of younger theorists to continue the development of the field he initiated."

^{[5]}^{[6]}

1978

Richard F. Post

United States

"For many original contributions to both fundamental plasma physics and the design of Fusion Reactors. In particular for his unswerving dedication to all aspects of the study of magnetic mirror plasma confinement."

^{[7]}^{[8]}

1979

Tihiro Ohkawa

Japan

"For his development of multicurrent or doublet approach to the design of tokamaks with noncircular cross sections and for investigation of plasma confinement in toroidal multipoles."

^{[9]}^{[10]}

1980

Thomas H. Stix

United States

"For his contributions to the development and formalization of the theory of wave propagation in plasmas and for his pioneering research on radio frequency plasma heating. His work has played the guiding role in the understanding of waves in space plasmas and in the development of advanced plasma heating methods for controlled fusion devices."

^{[11]}^{[12]}

1981

John H. Nuckolls

United States

"For his contributions to the genesis and progress of inertial confinement fusion. His insight into the fundamental physics issues has served to guide and inspire the technical evolution of the field."

^{[13]}

1982

Ira B. Bernstein

United States

"For his pioneering contributions to the theory of plasmas. His incisive studies of the physics of waves, stability, and transport have provided essential guidance to a generation of colleagues and disciples."

^{[14]}^{[15]}

1983

Harold P. Furth

Austria/United States

"For his extraordinary scientific and intellectual leadership of research on toroidal magnetic confinement fusion. His outstanding technical contributions range from his pioneering investigations of resistive instabilities to his mastery of magnetic topology which has led to new configurations of confinement."

^{[16]}

1984

Donald W. Kerst

United States

"For his pathbreaking contributions to plasma physics, including the invention of the levitated toroidal multipole, the elucidation of classical and anomalous transport mechanisms, and the demonstration of high beta plasma confinement; for his seminal ideas on particle accelerators; and for the inspired guidance of a generation of productive experimentalists."

^{[17]}

1985

John H. Malmberg

United States

"For his outstanding experimental studies which expanded out understanding of waveparticle interactions in neutral plasmas and increased our confidence in plasma theory; and for his pioneering studies of the confinement and transport of pure electron plasmas."

^{[18]}^{[19]}

1986

Harold Grad

United States

"For outstanding contributions to magnetofluid dynamics, plasma physics and Magnetic Fusion Energy. His investigations, using rigorous mathematical methods with advanced analytical and computational techniques, include seminal research on the Boltzmann equations, collisionless shocks, guiding center plasmas, and equilibrium, stability and transport theory. His work expresses a scientific philosophy that serves as a model for a new generation of theoretical physicists and mathematicians."

^{[20]}

1987

Bruno Coppi

Italy

"For outstanding contributions to fundamental theory, experimental interpretation and engineering design in fusion research. Among his theoretical discoveries are the ion mixing, impurity gradient, and ubiquitous modes and his work on m=1 tearing has recently been extended to explain anomalous loss of fast particles. His experimental interpretations include confinement scalings, slideaway electrons, detailed transport laws, and the principle of profile consistency. He has pioneered in the conceptual and engineering design of high field tokamaks, many of which now operate successfully, and which serve as the basis for proposals for low cost fusion ignition devices such as Ignitor."

^{[21]}^{[22]}

1988

Norman Rostoker

Canada

"In recognition of his pioneering theoretical contributions to the statistical mechanics of particles with Coulomb interactions; to the treatment of inhomogeneities, fluctuations and Larmor radius effects in plasmas; and his outstanding leadership in both experimental and theoretical research on the acceleration of electron and ion beams and their interactions with plasmas."

^{[23]}

1989

Ravindra N. Sudan

India

"For wideranging contributions to the theory of plasma stability and turbulence, and pioneering work on the generation and propagation of ion beams; his penetrating analytic and computational studies, often done with his numerous students, have had considerable impact on ionospheric and magnetospheric physics, on confinement and heating in field reversed ion rings, and on lightionbeam drivers for inertial confinement fusion."

^{[24]}^{[25]}

1990

William L. Kruer

United States

"For outstanding and seminal contributions to the theoretical and experimental understanding of the intense electromagnetic waves with plasmas and for numerous contributions to the understanding of basic plasma phenomena via numerical simulation."

^{[26]}

1991

Hans R. Griem

United States

"For his numerous contributions to experimental plasma physics and spectroscopy, particularly in the area of improved diagnostic methods for high temperature plasmas, and for his books on plasma spectroscopy and spectral line broadening in plasmas that have become standard references in the field."

^{[27]}

1992

John M. Greene

United States

"For outstanding contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovery of the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations, and for invention of the residue methods of determining the transition to global chaos."

^{[28]}

1993

Russell M. Kulsrud

United States

"For his pioneering contributions to basic plasma theory, to the physics of magnetically confined plasmas, and to plasma astrophysics. His important work encompasses plasma equilibria and stability, adiabatic invariance, ballooning modes, runaway electrons, colliding beams, spinpolarized plasmas, and cosmicray instabilities."

^{[29]}^{[30]}

1994

Roy W. Gould

United States

"For outstanding contributions to the knowledge of plasma physics, pioneering research in beamplasma interactions, plasma waves, cyclotron and plasma wave echoes, resonance cones, and for the dissemination of knowledge about plasmas through more than thirty years of teaching."

^{[31]}

1995

Francis F. Chen

United States

"For his rare combination of physical insight, theoretical ability and skill for performing careful, clear and definitive experiments. He has made fundamental contributions to plasma physics in such diverse areas as magnetic confinement devices, laser plasma interactions, novel plasma based accelerators and sources for plasma processing. Of particular note are his pioneering works on: electrostatic probes, low frequency fluctuations in magnetized plasma, parametric instabilities in laser plasma interactions, and helicon plasma sources. In addition, his classic text book Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion has helped educate a generation of plasma physicists."

^{[32]}

1996

Thomas Michael O'Neil

United States

"For seminal contributions to plasma theory, including extension of Landau damping to the nonlinear regime and demonstration of the importance of particle trapping; discovery of the plasmawave echo; and pioneering studies of the confinement, transport, and thermal equilibria of nonneutral plasmas, liquids and crystals. His theoretical work and active guidance of experiments with trapped, nonneutral plasmas provide much of the foundation for this branch of plasma physics."

^{[33]}

1997

Charles F. Kennel

United States

"For his fundamental contributions to the basic plasma physics of collisionless shocks, magnetic reconnection and quasilinear theory, and to plasma astrophysics  including the Van Allen radiation belt and the Crab Nebula."

^{[34]}

1998

Boris B. Kadomtsev

Russia

"For fundamental contributions to plasma turbulence theory, stability and nonlinear theory of MHD and kinetic instabilities in plasmas, and for international leadership in research and teaching of plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion physics."

^{[35]}^{[36]}

1999

John Bryan Taylor

United Kingdom

"For ground breaking research, distinguished by its ingenuity and clarity, in such topics as: relaxation theory, transport, finite Larmor radius effects, the minimumB concept, adiabatic invariance, the standard map, bootstrap currents, the ballooning representation, and confinement scaling laws."

^{[37]}

2000

Akira Hasegawa

Japan

"For innovative discoveries and seminal contributions to the theories of nonlinear drift wave turbulence, Alfven wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas, and optical solitons and their application to high speed communication."

^{[38]}

2001

Roald Sagdeev

Russia

"For an unmatched set of contributions to modern plasma theory including: collisionless shocks, stochastic magnetic fields, ion temperature gradient instabilities, quasilinear theory, neoclassical transport, and weak turbulence theory."

^{[39]}

2002

Edward A. Frieman

United States

"For contributions to the theory of magnetically confined plasmas, including fundamental work on the formulation of the MHD Energy Principle and on the foundations of linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic theory essential to the analysis of microinstabilities and transport."

^{[40]}

2003

Eugene N. Parker

United States

"For seminal contributions in plasma astrophysics, including predicting the solar wind, explaining the solar dynamo, formulating the theory of magnetic reconnection, and the instability which predicts the escape of the magnetic fields from the galaxy."

^{[41]}

2004

Noah Hershkowitz

United States

"For fundamental contributions to the physics of low temperature plasmas, including radio frequency wave heating, sheath physics, potential profiles, diagnostic probes, and the industrial applications of plasmas."

^{[42]}

Valery Godyak

Russia

^{[43]}

2005

Nathaniel Fisch

United States

"For theoretical development of efficient rfdriven current in plasmas and for greatly expanding our ability to understand, to analyze, and to utilize waveplasma interactions."

^{[44]}

2006

Chandrashekhar J. Joshi

India

"For his insight and leadership in applying plasma concepts to high energy electron and positron acceleration, and for his creative exploration of related aspects of plasma physics."

^{[45]}

2007

John Lindl

United States

"For 30 years of continuous plasma physics contributions in high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion research and scientific management."

^{[46]}

2008

Ronald C. Davidson

Canada

"For pioneering contributions to the physics of onecomponent nonneutral plasmas, intense charge particle beams, and collective nonlinear interaction processes in hightemperature plasmas."

^{[47]}

2009

Miklos Porkolab

Hungary

"For pioneering investigations of linear and nonlinear plasma waves and waveparticle interactions; fundamental contributions to the development of plasma heating, current drive and diagnostics; and leadership in promoting plasma science education and domestic and international collaborations."

^{[48]}

2010

James Drake

United States

"For pioneering investigations of plasma instabilities in magnetically confined, astrophysical and laserdriven plasmas; in particular, explication of the fundamental mechanism of fast reconnection of magnetic fields in plasmas; and leadership in promoting plasma science."

^{[49]}

2011

Gregor Morfill

Germany

"For pioneering, and seminal contributions to, the field of dusty plasmas, including work leading to the discovery of plasma crystals, to an explanation for the complicated structure of Saturn's rings, and to microgravity dusty plasma experiments conducted first on parabolictrajectory flights and then on the International Space Station."

^{[50]}

2012

Liu Chen

United States

"For seminal contributions to plasma theory, including geomagnetic pulsation, kinetic Alfvén wave, toroidal Alfvén eigenmode, fishbone oscillation and energetic particle mode, nonlinear dynamics of drift wave, and nonlinear gyrokinetic equation."

^{[51]}^{[52]}

2013

Phillip A. Sprangle

United States

"For pioneering contributions to the physics of high intensity laser interactions with plasmas, and to the development of plasma accelerators, freeelectron lasers, gyrotrons and high current electron accelerators"

^{[53]}^{[54]}

2014

Clifford Surko

United States

"For the invention of and development of techniques to accumulate, confine, and utilize positron plasmas, and for seminal experimental studies of waves and turbulence in tokamak plasmas."

^{[55]}

2015

Masaaki Yamada

Japan

"For fundamental experimental studies of magnetic reconnection relevant to space, astrophysical and fusion plasmas, and for pioneering contributions to the field of laboratory plasma astrophysics."

^{[56]}^{[57]}

2016

Ellen G. Zweibel

United States

"For seminal research on the energetics, stability, and dynamics of astrophysical plasmas, including those related to stars and galaxies, and for leadership in linking plasma and other astrophysical phenomena."

^{[58]}^{[59]}

2017

Dmitri Ryutov

Russia

"For many outstanding contributions to the theoretical plasma physics of low and high energy density plasmas, open and closed magnetic configurations, and laboratory and astrophysical systems."

^{[60]}

2018

Keith H. Burrell

United States

"For pioneering research, including key experimental advances and diagnostic development, that established the links between sheared plasma flow and turbulent transport, leading to improved confinement regimes for magnetized plasmas through turbulent transport reduction by sheared flow."

^{[61]}^{[62]}

2019

William Matthaeus

United States

"For pioneering research into the nature of turbulence in space and astrophysical plasmas, which has led to major advances in understanding particle transport, dissipation of turbulent energy, and magnetic reconnection."

^{[63]}^{[64]}

2020

Warren B. Mori

United States

"For leadership in and pioneering contributions to the theory and kinetic simulations of nonlinear processes in plasmabased acceleration, and relativistically intense laser and beam plasma interactions."

^{[65]}^{[66]}

2021

Margaret G. Kivelson

United States

"For groundbreaking discoveries in space plasma physics and for seminal theoretical contributions to understanding space plasma processes and magnetohydrodynamics."

^{[67]}^{[68]}
