Jammu and Kashmir, officially known as the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu, was a princely state during the British East India Company rule as well as the British Raj in India from 1846 to 1952. The princely state was created after the First Anglo-Sikh War, from the territories that had earlier been in the Sikh Empire.
Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu
Coat of Arms
|Official languages||Persian (1846–1889)|
|Common languages||Kashmiri (Koshur), Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Dogri, Ladakhi, Balti, Shina, and others|
|Religion||Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism|
• 16 March 1846 – 30 June 1857
|Gulab Singh (first)|
• 23 September 1925 – 17 November 1952
|Hari Singh (last)|
• Princely state established
|22 October 1947|
• Accession to the Indian Union
|26–27 October 1947|
|1 January 1949|
• Constitutional state of India
|17 November 1952|
|85,885 sq mi (222,440 km2)|
|Today part of||India (Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh) |
Pakistan (Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan)
China (Aksai Chin, Trans-Karakoram Tract)
At the time of the partition of India and the political integration of India, Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, delayed making a decision about the future of his state. However, an uprising in the western districts of the state followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan, forced his hand. On 26 October 1947, Hari Singh acceded to India in return for the Indian military being airlifted to Kashmir to engage the Pakistan-supported forces, starting the Kashmir conflict The western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory remained under Indian control as the Indian-administered union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
16 March 1846
20 February 1856
|Founder of Dogra dynasty and the first Maharaja of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir, one of the largest princely states under the British Raj, which was created after the defeat of the Sikh Empire in the First Anglo-Sikh War. The Treaty of Amritsar (1846) formalised the sale by the British to Gulab Singh for 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees of all the lands in Jammu and Kashmir that were ceded to them by the Sikhs by the Treaty of Lahore.|
20 February 1856
12 September 1885
|Ascended the throne in 1856 after Gulab Singh's abdication due to poor health. He allied with the British during the Sepoy Mutiny. He also sent his troops to help the British to besiege Delhi. He was subsequently rewarded for his behaviour during the mutiny. He went on to annex Gilgit which had previously witnessed a rebellion against the state.|
12 September 1885
23 September 1925
|Reigned for 40 years from 1885 to 1925, the longest of all the Dogra rulers. He established local self governing bodies, democratic processes, educational systems, health care and hygiene and infrastructure development during his reign.|
23 September 1925
17 November 1952
|Ascended the throne following the death of his uncle, Maharaja Pratap Singh in 1925. He signed the Instrument of Accession of Jammu and Kashmir to the Dominion of India on 26 October 1947. He remained the titular Maharaja of the state until 1952, when the monarchy was abolished by Government of India.|
20 June 1949
17 November 1952
|Appointed as Prince Regent of Jammu and Kashmir in 1949, at age of eighteen and served till the monarchy's abolition in 1952. He was appointed 'Sadr-e-Riyasat' ('Head of State') in 1952 and Governor of the State in 1964.|
The area of the state extended from 32° 17' to 36° 58' N and from 73° 26' to 80° 30' E. Jammu was the southernmost part of the state and was adjacent to the Punjab districts of Jhelum, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Gurdaspur. There is a fringe of level land along the Punjab frontier, bordered by a plinth of low hilly country sparsely wooded, broken, and irregular. This is known as the Kandi, the home of the Dogras. To travel north, a range of mountains 8,000 feet (2,400 m) high must be climbed.
This is a temperate country with forests of oak, rhododendron, chestnut, and higher up, of deodar and pine, a country of uplands, such as Bhadarwah and Kishtwar, drained by the deep gorge of the Chenab river. The steps of the Himalayan range, known as the Pir Panjal, lead to the second story, on which rests the valley of Kashmir, drained by the Jhelum river.
Steeper parts of the Himalayas lead to Astore and Baltistan on the north and to Ladakh on the east, a tract drained by the river Indus. To the northwest, lies Gilgit, west and north of the Indus. The whole area is shadowed by a wall of giant mountains that run east from the Kilik or Mintaka passes of the Hindu Kush, leading to the Pamirs and the Chinese dominions past Rakaposhi (25,561 ft), along the Muztagh range past K2 (Godwin-Austen Glacier, 28,265 feet), Gasherbrum and Masherbrum (28,100 and 28,561 feet (8,705 m) respectively) to the Karakoram range which merges in the Kunlun Mountains. Westward of the northern angle above Hunza and Nagar, the maze of mountains and glaciers trends a little south of east along the Hindu Kush range bordering Chitral and so on into the limits of Kafiristan and Afghan territory.
There used to be a route from Kohala to Leh; it was possible to travel from Rawalpindi via Kohala and over the Kohala Bridge into Kashmir. The route from Kohala to Srinagar was a cart-road 132 miles (212 km) in length. From Kohala to Baramulla the road was close to the River Jhelum. At Muzaffarabad the Kishenganga River joins the Jhelum and at this point the road from Abbottabad and Garhi Habibullah meet the Kashmir route. The road carried heavy traffic and required expensive maintenance by the authorities to repair.
In 1893, after 52 hours of continuous rain, very serious flooding took place in the Jhelum valley and much damage was done to Srinagar. Then later on, in 1903, much more severe floods took place.
In the 1941 census, further details of the frontier districts were given:
|#||Name||Took Office||Left Office|
|1||Raja Sir Daljit Singh||1917||1921|
|2||Raja Hari Singh||1925||1927|
|3||Sir Albion Banerjee||January 1927||March 1929|
|4||G. E. C. Wakefield||1929||1931|
|5||Hari Krishan Kaul||1931||1932|
|6||Elliot James Dowell Colvin||1932||1936|
|7||Sir Barjor J. Dalal||1936||1936|
|8||Sir N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar||1937||July 1943|
|9||Kailash Narain Haksar||July 1943||February 1944|
|10||Sir B. N. Rau||February 1944||28 June 1945|
|11||Ram Chandra Kak||28 June 1945||11 August 1947|
|12||Janak Singh||11 August 1947||15 October 1947|
|13||Mehr Chand Mahajan||15 October 1947||5 March 1948|
|14||Sheikh Abdullah||5 March 1948||8 August 1953|