The paper announcing the discovery of pulsars had five authors. Bell's thesis supervisor Antony Hewish was listed first, Bell second. Hewish was awarded the Nobel Prize, along with the astronomer Martin Ryle. At the time fellow astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle criticised Bell's omission. In 1977, Bell Burnell commented, "I believe it would demean Nobel Prizes if they were awarded to research students, except in very exceptional cases, and I do not believe this is one of them." The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, in its press release announcing the prize, cited Ryle and Hewish for their pioneering work in radio-astrophysics, with particular mention of Ryle's work on aperture-synthesis technique and Hewish's decisive role in the discovery of pulsars.
In 2021, Bell Burnell became the second female recipient (after Dorothy Hodgkin in 1976) of the Copley Medal.
Northern Ireland’s Ulster Bank has unveiled its new polymer £50 bank note, with Jocelyn Bell on the note, whom the bank describes as critical to advancing science. 
She grew up in Lurgan and attended the Preparatory Department[a] of Lurgan College from 1948 to 1956. At the time, boys could study technical subjects, but girls were expected to study subjects such as cooking and cross-stitching. Bell Burnell was able to study science only after her parents and others challenged the school's policies.
You do not have to learn lots and lots ... of facts; you just learn a few key things, and ... then you can apply and build and develop from those ... He was a really good teacher and showed me, actually, how easy physics was.
On 28 November 1967, she detected a "bit of scruff" on her chart-recorder papers that tracked across the sky with the stars. The signal had been visible in data taken in August, but as the papers had to be checked by hand, it took her three months to find it. She established that the signal was pulsing with great regularity, at a rate of about one pulse every one and a third seconds. Temporarily dubbed "Little Green Man 1" (LGM-1) the source (now known as PSR B1919+21) was identified after several years as a rapidly rotating neutron star. This was later documented by the BBC Horizon series. In a 2020 lecture at Harvard, she related how the media was covering the discovery of pulsars, with interviews taking a standard "disgusting" format: Hewish would be asked on the astrophysics, and she would be the "human interest" part, asked about vital statistics, how many boyfriends she had, what colour is her hair, and asked to undo some buttons for the photographs. The Daily Telegraph science reporter shortened "pulsating radio source" to pulsar.
In 2018, she was awarded the Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, worth three million dollars (£2.3 million), for her discovery of radio pulsars. The Special Prize, in contrast to the regular annual prize, is not restricted to recent discoveries. She donated all of the money "to fund women, under-represented ethnic minority and refugee students to become physics researchers", the funds to be administered by the Institute of Physics.
Nobel Prize controversyEdit
That Bell did not receive recognition in the 1974 Nobel Prize in Physics has been a point of controversy ever since. She helped build the Interplanetary Scintillation Array over two years and initially noticed the anomaly, sometimes reviewing as much as 96 feet (29 m) of paper data per night. Bell later said that she had to be persistent in reporting the anomaly in the face of skepticism from Hewish, who initially insisted it was due to interference and man-made. She spoke of meetings held by Hewish and Ryle to which she was not invited. In 1977, she commented on the issue:
First, demarcation disputes between supervisor and student are always difficult, probably impossible to resolve. Secondly, it is the supervisor who has the final responsibility for the success or failure of the project. We hear of cases where a supervisor blames his student for a failure, but we know that it is largely the fault of the supervisor. It seems only fair to me that he should benefit from the successes, too. Thirdly, I believe it would demean Nobel Prizes if they were awarded to research students, except in very exceptional cases, and I do not believe this is one of them. Finally, I am not myself upset about it – after all, I am in good company, am I not! 
In February 2014, she was elected President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the first woman to hold that office. She held the position from April 2014 to April 2018 when she was succeeded by Dame Anne Glover.
Bell Burnell is house patron of Burnell House at Cambridge House Grammar School in Ballymena. She has campaigned to improve the status and number of women in professional and academic posts in the fields of physics and astronomy.
Bell Burnell served on the Quaker Peace and Social WitnessTestimonies Committee, which produced Engaging with the Quaker Testimonies: a Toolkit in February 2007. In 2013 she gave a James Backhouse Lecture which was published in a book entitled A Quaker Astronomer Reflects: Can a Scientist Also Be Religious?, in which Burnell reflects about how cosmological knowledge can be related to what the Bible, Quakerism or Christian faith states.
In 1968, between the discovery of the second and third pulsar, Bell became engaged to Martin Burnell and they married soon after; the couple divorced in 1993 after separating in 1989. In a 2021 online lecture at the University of Bedfordshire, Bell Burnell reflected on her first experience returning to the observatory wearing an engagement ring. Though she was proud of her ring and wanted to share the good news with her colleagues, she instead received criticism as, at the time, it was shameful for women to work as it appeared that their partners were incapable of providing for the family. Her husband was a local government officer, and his career took them to various parts of Britain. She worked part-time for many years while raising their son, Gavin Burnell, who is a member of the condensed matter physics group at the University of Leeds.
^The Preparatory Department of Lurgan College closed in 2004, the college becoming a selective grammar school for ages 14–19.
^"... upon entering the faculty, each student was issued a set of tools: a pair of pliers, a pair of long-nose pliers, a wire cutter, and a screwdriver...", said during a public lecture in Montreal during the 40 Years of Pulsars conference, 14 August 2007
^Interplanetary scintillation allows compact sources to be distinguished from extended ones.
^Jocelyn Bell Burnell publications indexed by the Scopus bibliographic database. (subscription required)
Bakewell, Joan (9 November 2010). "Interview with Jocelyn Bell Burnell". Belief. BBC. Archived from the original on 9 November 2010.
"Beatrice M. Tinsley Prize". American Astronomical Society. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
"Beautiful Minds, Series 1". BBC Four. 25 April 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
"Beautiful Minds, Series 1, Jocelyn Bell Burnell (Part 1 of 3)". BBC Four. 24 April 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
"Bell Burnell, Dame (Susan) Jocelyn, (born 15 July 1943), astronomer; Visiting Professor of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, since 2004; President, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 2014–March 2018". Who's Who (UK). Oxford University Press. 1 December 2017. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.7157. ISBN 978-0-19-954088-4.
Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (26 October 1995). "The woman who discovered pulsars: An Interview with Jocelyn Bell Burnell at NRAO (National Radio Astronomy Observatory)" (Interview). Interviewed by Kate Marsh Weatherall & David G. Finley. Weatherall Technical Applications. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (21 May 2000). "Oral History Interviews: Jocelyn Bell Burnell" (Interview). Interviewed by David DeVorkin. College Park, MD: AIP.
Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (2007). "Pulsars 40 Years on". Science. 318 (5850): 579–581. doi:10.1126/science.1150039. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID17962545. S2CID 120774849.
Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (2013b). A Quaker Astronomer Reflects: Can a Scientist Also Be Religious?. James Backhouse Lecture. Australia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). p. 11. ISBN 978-0-646-59239-8.
Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (15 November 2013a). Pulsars and Extreme Physics. TU Wien. Retrieved 10 September 2019 – via YouTube.
Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (8 November 2019). 23rd Annual Katzenstein Distinguished Lecture. University of Connecticut. Retrieved 10 November 2019 – via YouTube.
Bell Burnell, Jocelyn (13 February 2020). "The Discovery Of Pulsars - A graduate student's tale" – via YouTube.
Bell Burnell, S.J. (2004). "So Few Pulsars, So Few Females". Science. 304 (5670): 426–89. doi:10.1126/science.304.5670.489. PMID15105461. S2CID 43369972.
Bell Burnell, S. Jocelyn (1977). "Petit Four – After Dinner Speech published in the Annals of the New York Academy of Science Dec 1977". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 302: 685–689. Bibcode:1977NYASA.302..685B. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1977.tb37085.x. S2CID 222086632.
Bell, Susan Jocelyn (1968). The Measurement of radio source diameters using a diffraction method. repository.cam.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. doi:10.17863/CAM.4926. OCLC 500382385. EThOS uk.bl.ethos.449485.
Bertsch McGrayne, Sharon (1998). Nobel Prize women in science: their lives, struggles, and momentous discoveries (Rev. ed.). Secaucus, N.J.: Carol Pub. Group. ISBN 978-0-8065-2025-4. OCLC 39633911 – via Internet Archive.
Brown, Mark (28 November 2020). "'It'll upset a few fellows': Royal Society adds Jocelyn Bell Burnell portrait". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
"Cosmic Search Vol. 1, No. 1 – Little Green Men, White Dwarfs or Pulsars?".
"Council". Institute of Physics. Archived from the original on 9 March 2011.
"Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell Appointed Chancellor of the University of Dundee". University of Dundee. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
"Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell becomes second woman to be awarded Copley Medal". The Irish News. 23 August 2021.
"Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell to be Royal Society's first female president". BBC Scotland. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
"Dame Jocelyn Bell-Burnell – 2018 AstroFest Keynote Speaker". Central West Astronomical Society. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
"Dame Jocelyn Bell-Burnell: NI scientist awarded Royal Society's highest prize". BBC News. 24 August 2021.
"The discovery of pulsars". Horizon. BBC. 1 September 2010. BBC Two.
"Dr Gavin Burnell: Associate Professor in Condensed Matter Physics". Condensed Matter Physics Group, University of Leeds. 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
Eisberg, Joann (1997). "Jocelyn Bell Burnell (1943–)". In Shearer, Benjamin F.; Shearer, Barbara (eds.). Notable Women in the Physical Sciences: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Press. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-0-313-29303-0 – via Internet Archive.
"The Franklin Institute Awards | the Franklin Institute Science Museum". Franklin Institute. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
"Franklin Laureate Database – Albert A. Michelson Medal Laureates". Franklin Institute. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
"German Astronomical Society 2021 Awards". German Astronomical Society/Astronomische Gesellschaft. 26 August 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021. With the highest award for astronomical research in Germany, the Astronomical Society honours Professor Bell Burnell as an eminent scientist whose work has not only created the field of pulsar astronomy - with diverse applications in a wide range of fundamental physics and astrophysics - but has had a great impact on the field of astrophysics as a whole.
Ghosh, Pallab (6 September 2018). "Fund to counter physics 'white male bias'". BBC News. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
Ghosh, Pallab (19 March 2019). "Fund to boost female and black physicist numbers". BBC News.
Gold, Lauren (6 July 2006). "Discoverer of pulsars (aka Little Green Men) reflects on the process of discovery and being a female pioneer". Cornell Chronicle.
Hargittai, István (2003). The road to Stockholm: Nobel Prizes, science, and scientists. Oxford University Press. p. 240. Bibcode:2002rost.book.....H. ISBN 978-0-19-860785-4.
"Hawking receives Einstein Award". Physics Today. 31 (4): 68. April 1978. Bibcode:1978PhT....31d..68.. doi:10.1063/1.2995004. Jocelyn Bell Burnell, researcher on the staff of the Mullard Space Science Laboratory of University College London, is the recipient of the 1978 J. Robert Oppenheimer Memorial Prize.
"Herschel Medal Winners" (PDF). Royal Astronomical Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
Hewish, A.; Bell, S. J.; Pilkington, J. D. H.; Scott, P. F.; Collins, R. A. (1968). "Observation of a Rapidly Pulsating Radio Source". Nature. 217 (5130): 709. Bibcode:1968Natur.217..709H. doi:10.1038/217709a0. S2CID 4277613. For the follow-up paper, see Pilkington et al. 1968.
"IOP and Professor Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell launch new fund to encourage greater diversity in physics". Institute of Physics. 2019.
Ouellette, Jennifer (6 September 2018). "Jocelyn Bell Burnell wins $3 million prize for discovering pulsars". Ars Technica. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
Pilkington, J. D. H.; Hewish, A.; Bell, S. J.; Cole, T. W. (1968). "Observations of some further Pulsed Radio Sources". Nature. 218 (5137): 126. Bibcode:1968Natur.218..126P. doi:10.1038/218126a0. S2CID 4253103. For the first paper (announcing the discovery), see Hewish et al. 1968.
"President's medal recipients: Professor Dame Jocelyn Bell Burnell (full citation)". Institute of Physics. 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
"Press Release: The 1974 Nobel Prize in Physics". Nobel Foundation. 15 October 1974. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
"Professor Jocelyn Bell Burnell FRS – Spectrum of astronomy". The Royal Society. n.d. Archived from the original on 14 October 2006.
Proudfoot, Ben (27 July 2021). "She Changed Astronomy Forever. He Won the Nobel Prize For It". Opinion. The New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2021. (includes 16-minute video)
Sample, Ian (6 September 2018). "British astrophysicist overlooked by Nobels wins $3m award for pulsar work". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
Schilling, Govert (1 August 2017). "50 Years of Pulsars". BBC Sky at Night Magazine. Retrieved 27 January 2015 – via Alles over sterrenkunde.
Shearing, Hazel (6 February 2020). "Seven female scientists you may not have heard of – but should know all about". BBC News. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
"Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics Awarded to Jocelyn Bell Burnell for Discovery of Pulsars" (Press release). Breakthrough Prize. 6 September 2018. A Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics can be awarded by the Selection Committee at any time, and in addition to the regular Breakthrough Prize awarded through the ordinary annual nomination process. Unlike the annual Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, the Special Prize is not limited to recent discoveries.
Tesh, Sarah; Wade, Jess (2017). "Look happy dear, you've just made a discovery". Physics World. 30 (9): 31–33. Bibcode:2017PhyW...30i..31T. doi:10.1088/2058-7058/30/9/35. ISSN 0953-8585.
"Visiting star at college". Lurgan Mail. 13 February 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
Walter, Claire (1982). Winners, the blue ribbon encyclopedia of awards. Facts on File. p. 438. ISBN 978-0-87196-386-4 – via Internet Archive.
Warren, Andrew; Thackray, Lucy (25 July 2018). "The pioneer of pulsars pops into Parkes". CSIROscope. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
Westly, Erica (6 October 2008). "No Nobel for You: Top 10 Nobel Snubs". Scientific American.
"Woman's Hour – the Power List 2013". BBC. 1 January 1970. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
"Women of the Year Prudential Lifetime Achievement Award". Womenoftheyear.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
Coroniti, Ferdinand V.; Williams, Gary A. (2006). "Jocelyn Bell Burnell". In Byers, Nina; Williams, Gary (eds.). Out of the Shadows: Contributions of Twentieth-Century Women to Physics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82197-1 – via Internet Archive.
"Jocelyn Bell Burnell". Quakers In The World. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
"Jocelyn Bell: the true star". Belfast Telegraph. 13 June 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
Jocelyn Bell Burnellat Wikipedia's sister projects
Media from Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Data from Wikidata
Freeview video "Tick, Tick, Pulsating Star: How I Wonder What You Are?" A Royal Institution Discourse by the Vega Science Trust (accessed 24 December 2007).
Counterbalance Library: Bell Burnell talk "Science and the Spiritual Quest" (24 Minutes) (Accessed 7 April 2010).
University of Manchester – Jodcast Interview with Jocelyn Bell-Burnell
Biographical article, indicating Bell Burnell's beliefs and personal life, from California State Polytechnic University NOVA project. (Accessed 24 December 2007).
Irishwoman who discovered the "lighthouses of the universe" Irish Times profile.