|35th United States Secretary of State|
March 6, 1897 – April 27, 1898
|Preceded by||Richard Olney|
|Succeeded by||William R. Day|
|Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference|
September 2, 1884 – December 1885
|Preceded by||Henry B. Anthony|
|Succeeded by||George F. Edmunds|
December 1891 – March 4, 1897
|Preceded by||George F. Edmunds|
|Succeeded by||William B. Allison|
|President pro tempore of the United States Senate|
December 7, 1885 – February 26, 1887
|Preceded by||George F. Edmunds|
|Succeeded by||John James Ingalls|
|United States Senator|
March 4, 1881 – March 4, 1897
|Preceded by||Allen G. Thurman|
|Succeeded by||Mark Hanna|
March 21, 1861 – March 8, 1877
|Preceded by||Salmon P. Chase|
|Succeeded by||Stanley Matthews|
|32nd United States Secretary of the Treasury|
March 10, 1877 – March 3, 1881
|President||Rutherford B. Hayes|
|Preceded by||Lot M. Morrill|
|Succeeded by||William Windom|
|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Ohio's 13th district
March 4, 1855 – March 21, 1861
|Preceded by||William D. Lindsley|
|Succeeded by||Samuel T. Worcester|
|Born||May 10, 1823|
Lancaster, Ohio, U.S.
|Died||October 22, 1900 (aged 77)|
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Political party||Whig (Before 1854)|
John Sherman (May 10, 1823 – October 22, 1900) was a politician from the U.S. state of Ohio during the American Civil War and into the late nineteenth century. A member of the Republican Party, he served in both houses of the U.S. Congress. He also served as Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of State. Sherman sought the Republican presidential nomination three times, coming closest in 1888, but was never chosen by the party. His brothers included General William Tecumseh Sherman; Charles Taylor Sherman, a federal judge in Ohio; and Hoyt Sherman, an Iowa banker.
Born in Lancaster, Ohio, Sherman later moved to Mansfield, where he began a law career before entering politics. Initially a Whig, Sherman was among those anti-slavery activists who formed what became the Republican Party. He served three terms in the House of Representatives. As a member of the House, Sherman traveled to Kansas to investigate the unrest between pro- and anti-slavery partisans there. He rose in party leadership and was nearly elected Speaker in 1859. Sherman was elevated to the Senate in 1861. As a senator, he was a leader in financial matters, helping to redesign the United States' monetary system to meet the needs of a nation torn apart by civil war. After the war, he worked to produce legislation that would restore the nation's credit abroad and produce a stable, gold-backed currency at home.
Serving as Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of Rutherford B. Hayes, Sherman continued his efforts for financial stability and solvency, overseeing an end to wartime inflationary measures and a return to gold-backed money. He returned to the Senate after his term expired, serving there for a further sixteen years. During that time he continued his work on financial legislation, as well as writing and debating laws on immigration, business competition law, and the regulation of interstate commerce. Sherman was the principal author of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, which was signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison. In 1897, President William McKinley appointed him Secretary of State. Failing health and declining faculties made him unable to handle the burdens of the job, and he retired in 1898 at the start of the Spanish–American War. Sherman died at his home in Washington, D.C. in 1900.
Early life and education
Sherman was born in Lancaster, Ohio to Charles Robert Sherman and his wife, Mary Hoyt Sherman, the eighth of their 11 children. John Sherman's grandfather, Taylor Sherman, a Connecticut lawyer and judge, first visited Ohio in the early nineteenth century, gaining title to several parcels of land before returning to Connecticut. After Taylor's death in 1815, his son Charles, newly married to Mary Hoyt, moved the family west to Ohio. Several other Sherman relatives soon followed, and Charles became established as a lawyer in Lancaster. By the time of John Sherman's birth, Charles had just been appointed a justice of the Supreme Court of Ohio.
Sherman's father died suddenly in 1829, leaving his mother to care for 11 children. Several of the oldest children, including Sherman's older brother William, were fostered with nearby relatives, but John and his brother Hoyt stayed with their mother in Lancaster until 1831. In that year, Sherman's father's cousin (also named John Sherman)