Joint Photographic Experts Group

Summary

Logo of Joint Photographic Experts Group

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is the joint committee between ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 and ITU-T Study Group 16 that created and maintains the JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, JPEG XT, JPEG XS, JPEG XL, and related digital image standards. It also has the responsibility for maintenance of the JBIG and JBIG2 standards that were developed by the former Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group.[1][2] Within ISO/IEC JTC 1, JPEG is Working Group 1 (WG 1) of Subcommittee 29 (SC 29) and has the formal title JPEG Coding of digital representations of images, where it is one of eight working groups in SC 29.[3] In the ITU-T (formerly called the CCITT), its work falls in the domain of the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG), which is Question 6 of Study Group 16.[4] The JPEG group has typically held meetings three or four times annually in North America, Asia and Europe (with meetings held virtually during the COVID-19 pandemic). The chairman of JPEG (termed its Convenor in ISO/IEC terminology) is Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi of École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne,[3][5][6] who previously had led JPEG 2000 development within the JPEG committee[7] and also had a leading role in MPEG-4 standardization.[8]

History

In April 1983, ISO started to work to add photo quality graphics to text terminals. In the mid-1980s, both the CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group VIII (SG8) – Telematic Services and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 – Coding of Audio and Picture Information.[9][10] They were historically targeted on image communication. The JPEG committee was created in 1986[11][12] and the Joint (CCITT/ISO) Bi-level Image Group (JBIG) was created in 1988.[11]

Former chairs of JPEG include Greg Wallace of Digital Equipment Corporation and Daniel Lee of Yahoo. Fumitaka Ono of Tokyo Polytechnic University was chair of the former JBIG group that has since been merged into JPEG.

Standards published and under development

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is Working Group 1 of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29, entitled JPEG Coding of digital representations of images (working as a joint team with ITU-T SG 16). It has developed various standards, which have been published by ITU-T and/or ISO/IEC. The standards developed by the JPEG (and former JBIG) sub-groups are referred to as a joint development of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 and ITU-T SG16. The JPEG standards typically consist of different Parts in ISO/IEC terminology. Each Part is a separate document that covers a certain aspect of a suite of standards that share a project number, and the Parts can be adopted separately as individual standards or used together. For the JPEG standards that are published jointly with ITU-T, each ISO/IEC Part corresponds to a separate ITU-T Recommendation (i.e., a separate standard). Once published, JPEG standards have also often been revised by later amendments and/or new editions – e.g., to add optional extended capabilities or improve the editorial quality of the specifications. Standards developed and under development by JPEG are shown in the table below.[3][13]

Joint Photographic Experts Group – standards published and under development
Common Name Part First public release date (First edition) ISO/IEC Number ITU Number Formal Title
JPEG Part 1 1992 ISO/IEC 10918-1 ITU-T Rec. T.81 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images – Requirements and guidelines
Part 2 1994 ISO/IEC 10918-2 ITU-T Rec. T.83 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images – Compliance testing
Part 3 1996 ISO/IEC 10918-3 ITU-T Rec. T.84 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Extensions
Part 4 1998 ISO/IEC 10918-4 ITU-T Rec. T.86 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Registration of JPEG profiles, SPIFF profiles, SPIFF tags, SPIFF colour spaces, APPn markers, SPIFF compression types and Registration Authorities (REGAUT)
Part 5 2013 ISO/IEC 10918-5 ITU-T Rec. T.871 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF)[14]
Part 6 2013 ISO/IEC 10918-6 ITU-T Rec. T.872 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Application to printing systems
Part 7 2019 ISO/IEC 10918-7 ITU-T Rec. T.873 Information technology – Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images: Reference software[15]
JPEG-LS Part 1 1998 ISO/IEC 14495-1 ITU-T Rec. T.87 Information technology – Lossless and near-lossless compression of continuous-tone still images: Baseline
Part 2 2002 ISO/IEC 14495-2 ITU-T Rec. T.870 Information technology – Lossless and near-lossless compression of continuous-tone still images: Extensions
JPEG 2000 Part 1 2000 ISO/IEC 15444-1 ITU-T Rec. T.800 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Core coding system
Part 2 2004 ISO/IEC 15444-2 ITU-T Rec. T.801 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Extensions
Part 3 2002 ISO/IEC 15444-3 ITU-T Rec. T.802 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Motion JPEG 2000
Part 4 2002 ISO/IEC 15444-4 ITU-T Rec. T.803 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Conformance testing
Part 5 2003 ISO/IEC 15444-5 ITU-T Rec. T.804 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Reference software
Part 6 2003 ISO/IEC 15444-6 ITU-T Rec. T.805 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Compound image file format
Part 8 2007 ISO/IEC 15444-8 ITU-T Rec. T.807 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Secure JPEG 2000
Part 9 2005 ISO/IEC 15444-9 ITU-T Rec. T.808 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Interactivity tools, APIs and protocols
Part 10 2008 ISO/IEC 15444-10 ITU-T Rec. T.809 Information technology –JPEG 2000 image coding system: Extensions for three-dimensional data
Part 11 2007 ISO/IEC 15444-11 ITU-T Rec. T.810 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: Wireless
Part 12 2004 ISO/IEC 15444-12 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system – Part 12: ISO base media file format
Part 13 2008 ISO/IEC 15444-13 ITU-T Rec. T.812 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: An entry level JPEG 2000 encoder
Part 14 2013 ISO/IEC 15444-14 ITU-T Rec. T.813 Information technology – JPEG 2000 image coding system: XML structural representation and reference
MRC 1999 ISO/IEC 16485 ITU-T Rec. T.44 Information technology – Mixed Raster Content (MRC)
JPSearch Part 1 2007 ISO/IEC TR 24800-1 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 1: System framework and components
Part 2 2011 ISO/IEC 24800-2 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 2: Registration, identification and management of schema and ontology
Part 3 2010 ISO/IEC 24800-3 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 3: Query format
Part 4 2010 ISO/IEC 24800-4 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 4: File format for metadata embedded in image data (JPEG and JPEG 2000)
Part 5 2011 ISO/IEC 24800-5 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 5: Data interchange format between image repositories
Part 6 2012 ISO/IEC 24800-6 Information technology – JPSearch – Part 6: Reference software
JPEG XR Part 1 2011 ISO/IEC TR 29199-1 T.Sup2 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 1: System architecture
Part 2 2009 ISO/IEC 29199-2 ITU-T Rec. T.832 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 2: Image coding specification
Part 3 2010 ISO/IEC 29199-3 ITU-T Rec. T.833 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 3: Motion JPEG XR
Part 4 2010 ISO/IEC 29199-4 ITU-T Rec. T.834 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 4: Conformance testing
Part 5 2010 ISO/IEC 29199-5 ITU-T Rec. T.835 Information technology – JPEG XR image coding system – Part 5: Reference software
AIC Part 1 2017 ISO/IEC TR 29170-1 Information technology – Advanced image coding and evaluation methodologies – Part 1: Guidelines for codec evaluation
Part 2 2015 ISO/IEC 29170-2 Information technology – Advanced image coding and evaluation – Part 2: Evaluation procedure for nearly lossless coding
JPEG XT Part 1 2015 ISO/IEC 18477-1 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 1: Core Coding System Specification
Part 2 2016 ISO/IEC 18477-2 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 2: Coding of High Dynamic Range Images
Part 3 2015 ISO/IEC 18477-3 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 3: Box file format
Part 4 2017 ISO/IEC 18477-4 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 4: Conformance Testing
Part 5 2018 ISO/IEC 18477-5 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 5: Reference software
Part 6 2016 ISO/IEC 18477-6 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 6: IDR Integer coding
Part 7 2017 ISO/IEC 18477-7 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 7: HDR Floating-Point Coding
Part 8 2016 ISO/IEC 18477-8 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 8: Lossless and Near-lossless Coding
Part 9 2016 ISO/IEC 18477-9 Information technology – Scalable Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images – Part 9: Alpha channel coding
JPEG XS Part 1 2019 ISO/IEC 21122-1 Information technology — JPEG XS low-latency lightweight image coding system — Part 1: Core coding system
Part 2 2019 ISO/IEC 21122-2 Information technology — JPEG XS low-latency lightweight image coding system — Part 2: Profiles and buffer models
Part 3 2019 ISO/IEC 21122-3 Information technology — JPEG XS low-latency lightweight image coding system — Part 3: Transport and container formats
Part 4 2020 ISO/IEC 21122-4 Information technology — JPEG XS low-latency lightweight image coding system — Part 4: Conformance testing
Part 5 2020 ISO/IEC 21122-5 Information technology — JPEG XS low-latency lightweight image coding system — Part 5: Reference software
JPEG XL Part 1 planned 2022 ISO/IEC 18181-1

Information technology — JPEG XL Image Coding System — Part 1: Core coding system

Part 2 2021 ISO/IEC 18181-2 Information technology — JPEG XL Image Coding System — Part 2: File format
Part 3 planned 2022 ISO/IEC 18181-3 Information technology — JPEG XL Image Coding System — Part 3: Conformance testing
Part 4 planned 2022 ISO/IEC 18181-4 Information technology — JPEG XL Image Coding System — Part 4: Reference software

See also

References

  1. ^ ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-05-07). "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1 - Coding of Still Pictures (SC 29/WG 1 Structure)". Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  2. ^ JPEG, JBIG (2007). "About our committee". Archived from the original on 2009-10-17. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  3. ^ a b c ISO. "ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2021-11-18.
  4. ^ "Question 6 – Visual, audio and signal coding". ITU. Retrieved 2010-03-07.
  5. ^ Pessina, Laure-Anne (12 December 2014). "JPEG changed our world". EPFL News. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  6. ^ "JPEG changed our world". Phys.org. 12 December 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  7. ^ Taubman, David; Marcellin, Michael (2012). JPEG2000 Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice: Image Compression Fundamentals, Standards and Practice. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781461507994.
  8. ^ Ebrahimi, Touradj; Pereira, Fernando (2002). The MPEG-4 Book. Prentice Hall Professional. ISBN 9780130616210.
  9. ^ ITU-T. "ITU-T extensions to JPEG-1". Retrieved 2010-03-07.
  10. ^ chiariglione.org (2009-09-06). "Riding the Media Bits, The Faultline". Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-09.
  11. ^ a b Sebestyen, Istvan; Mitchell, Joan L.; Ono, Fumitaka (2005-07-23), "The First Joint ITU ISO/IEC Still Image Compression Standards" (PDF), ITU-T VICA Workshop, ITU-T, p. 3, retrieved 2009-11-12
  12. ^ JPEG. "Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEG Homepage". Retrieved 2009-11-08.
  13. ^ ISO. "JTC 1/SC 29 – Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information". Retrieved 2009-11-07.
  14. ^ JPEG (2009-04-24). "Press Release - 48th WG1 meeting, Maui, USA - JPEG XR enters FDIS status, JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF) to be standardized as JPEG Part 5". Archived from the original on 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
  15. ^ Press Release of the 78th JPEG Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

External links

  • Official website