K2-138

Summary

K2-138
PIA23002 K2-138 6 Planets Artwork (Artist's Illustration).jpg
Artist’s impression of the K2-138 exoplanetary system
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Aquarius
Right ascension 23h 15m 47.77s[1]
Declination −10° 50′ 58.91″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 12.21[1]
Characteristics
Evolutionary stage Main sequence
Spectral type K1V[1]
Astrometry
Radial velocity (Rv)2.7 ± 1.5[1] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: −1.018±0.084[2] mas/yr
Dec.: −10.522±0.082[2] mas/yr
Distance597 ± 55 ly
(183 ± 17[1] pc)
Details
Mass0.93 ± 0.06[1] M
Radius0.86 ± 0.08[1] R
Luminosity~0.554[3] L
Surface gravity (log g)4.59 ± 0.07[1] cgs
Temperature5378 ± 60[1] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]+0.16 ± 0.04[1] dex
Age2.3+0.44
−0.36
[4] Gyr
Other designations
EE-1, EPIC 245950175, 2MASS J23154776-1050590
Database references
SIMBADdata

K2-138, also designated EPIC 245950175 or EE-1,[5] is a large early K-type main sequence star with a system of up to 6 planets discovered by citizen scientists. Four were found in the first two days of the Exoplanet Explorers project on Zooniverse in early April 2017, while up to two more were revealed in further analysis. The system is almost 600 light years away in the constellation Aquarius, within K2 Campaign 12.

Planetary system

K2-138 is notable for its large number of planets, all found through the efforts of citizen scientists. They are designated K2-138b, c, d, e, f, and g in order from their host star. The first five were validated by Christiansen et al., while K2-138g was noted as being a likely candidate. However, since there were only two transits of it, K2-138g could not be validated. There is a possibility that the two transits for this candidate are from two individual long-period planets.[1]

All six planets are within the Super-Earth and Mini-Neptune categories, with radii between about 1.6 REarth to 3.3 REarth. The outer five, including the unconfirmed K2-138g, are likely small gaseous worlds with no solid surface. However, the smaller K2-138b could be rocky. The masses of the planets remain unknown, as the data for K2-138 does not have a high enough signal-to-noise ratio for transit-timing variation (TTV) analysis. However, the Spitzer space telescope could be able to accurately detect TTVs and lead to the masses of the planets being calculated. Planets b through f are predicted to cause TTVs on the order of 2.5 to 7.1 minutes, for predicted masses between 4 MEarth and 7 MEarth.[1]

The five validated planets of K2-138 are very close to the parent star and form an unbroken chain of near-3:2 resonances. Their orbital periods range from 2.35 to 12.76 days, with the unconfirmed sixth planet orbiting much further out with a period of about 41 days. K2-138b, c, d, e, and f are locked in several chains of three-body resonances, a feat shared by only a handful of systems, including TRAPPIST-1 and Kepler-80. Like the former, K2-138 could show the end result of slow, inward disk migration.[1]

Spitzer observations of K2-138g were announced on the AAS Meeting #233. The iPoster shows an updated radius of K2-138g of 3.7 REarth, making it the largest planet in the system. This result was preliminary [6][7] until being confirmed in February 2021.[8]

A team of astronomers collected 215 spectra over 79 nights with the instrument HARPS mounted on the ESO 3.6 m Telescope. With a Bayesian analysis of the K2 photometry and HARPS radial-velocities (RVs) the team were able to constrain the mass of planet b to e. The bulk densities of the planets range from earth-like density for planet b to Neptune-like density for planet e. The masses and densities constrain the composition of the planets. They have likely rocky cores and a substantial atmospheric layer, composed of volatiles. For planet f and g this team was able to constrain the upper limit of the mass to 8.7 and 25.5 earth masses.[4]

K2-138 was selected as a target by ESA in the first Announcement of Opportunity (AO-1) Program of the CHEOPS mission, which was launched in December 2019. For 87.6 orbits the spacecraft will record the transits to measure TTVs of the planets.[9] K2-138 could become a benchmark system to compare RV and TTV masses. The system is also a good candidate to search for co-orbital bodies, which are predicted to exist and to be stable in resonant chain systems like K2-138.[4]

The K2-138 planetary system[1][4]
Companion
(in order from star)
Mass Semimajor axis
(AU)
Orbital period
(days)
Eccentricity Inclination Radius
b 3.1+1.1
−1.1
 M🜨
0.03380±0.00024 2.35322±0.00036 <0.403 86.9+2.2
−4.6
°
1.57+0.28
−0.17
 R🜨
c 6.3+1.1
−1.2
 M🜨
0.04454±0.00032 3.55987+0.00023
−0.00022
<0.296 87.5+1.8
−3.3
°
2.52+0.34
−0.16
 R🜨
d 7.9+1.4
−1.3
 M🜨
0.05883±0.00042 5.40478+0.00048
−0.00046
<0.348 87.9+1.5
−2.8
°
2.66+0.39
−0.18
 R🜨
e 13.0+2.0
−2.0
 M🜨
0.07807±0.00056 8.26144+0.00045
−0.00044
<0.315 88.70+0.93
−1.66
°
3.29+0.35
−0.18
 R🜨
f <8.7 M🜨 0.10430+0.00074
−0.00075
12.75759±0.00092 <0.364 89.03+0.70
−1.22
°
2.81+0.36
−0.19
 R🜨
g[8] 8.94+12.89
−5.91
 M🜨
41.966±0.006 3.44+0.32
−0.31
 R🜨
K2-138 exoplanetary system (artist concept)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Christiansen, Jessie L.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Barentsen, Geert; Lintott, Chris J.; Barclay, Thomas; Simmons, Brooke D.; Petigura, Erik; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Dressing, Courtney D.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Ciardi, David R.; Allen, Campbell; McMaster, Adam; Miller, Grant; Veldthuis, Martin; Allen, Sarah; Wolfenbarger, Zach; Cox, Brian; Zemiro, Julia; Howard, Andrew W.; Livingston, John; Sinukoff, Evan; Catron, Timothy; Grey, Andrew; Kusch, Joshua J. E.; Terentev, Ivan; Vales, Martin; Kristiansen, Martti H. (2018-01-11). "The K2-138 System: A Near-resonant Chain of Five Sub-Neptune Planets Discovered by Citizen Scientists". The Astronomical Journal. 155 (2): 57. arXiv:1801.03874. Bibcode:2018AJ....155...57C. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa9be0. ISSN 1538-3881. S2CID 52971376.
  2. ^ a b "K2-138". SIMBAD. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
  3. ^ "HEC: Exoplanets Calculator - Planetary Habitability Laboratory @ UPR Arecibo".
  4. ^ a b c d Lopez, T. A.; Barros, S. C. C.; Santerne, A.; Deleuil, M.; Adibekyan, V.; Almenara, J.-M.; Armstrong, D. J.; Brugger, B.; Barrado, D.; Bayliss, D.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A.; Carli, E.; Demangeon, O.; Dumusque, X.; Díaz, R. F.; Faria, J. P.; Figueira, P.; Foxell, E.; Giles, H.; Hébrard, G.; Hojjatpanah, S.; Kirk, J.; Lillo-Box, J.; Lovis, C.; Mousis, O.; da Nóbrega, H. J.; Nielsen, L. D.; Neal, J. J.; Osborn, H. P.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S. G.; Udry, S.; Vigan, A.; Wheatley, P. J. (2019-11-01). "Exoplanet characterisation in the longest known resonant chain: the K2-138 system seen by HARPS". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 631: A90. arXiv:1909.13527. Bibcode:2019A&A...631A..90L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201936267. ISSN 0004-6361. S2CID 203593804.
  5. ^ https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/ianc2/exoplanet-explorers/about/results
  6. ^ Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Christiansen, Jessie (January 2019). "K2-138 g: Spitzer Spots a Sixth Sub-Neptune for the Citizen Science System". American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #233. 233: 164.07. Bibcode:2019AAS...23316407H.
  7. ^ "AAS - iPosterSessions.com". aas233-aas.ipostersessions.com. Retrieved 2019-11-16.
  8. ^ a b Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ciardi, David R.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Dressing, Courtney D.; Livingston, John H.; Volk, Kathryn; Agol, Eric; Barclay, Thomas; Barentsen, Geert; Benneke, Björn; Gorjian, Varoujan; Kristiansen, Martti H. (2021), "K2-138 g: Spitzer Spots a Sixth Planet for the Citizen Science System", The Astronomical Journal, 161 (5): 219, arXiv:2102.08978, Bibcode:2021AJ....161..219H, doi:10.3847/1538-3881/abeab0, S2CID 231951815
  9. ^ "AO-1 Programmes - CHEOPS Guest Observers Programme - Cosmos". www.cosmos.esa.int. Retrieved 2019-11-11.