Khanate of Bukhara
The Khanate of Bukhara (green), c. 1600.
|Common languages||Persian (official, court, literature)|
|Religion||Islam (Sunni, Naqshbandi Sufism)|
|Baqi Muhammad Khan|
|Abu’l Ghazi Khan|
|Historical era||Early modern period|
• Establishment of Janid dynasty
• The khanate is conquered by Nader shah After Mohammad Hakim surrenders
• Manghit dynasty takes control after Nader shah dies and his empire breaks up
• Establishment of Emirate of Bukhara
The Khanate of Bukhara (or Khanate of Bukhoro) (Persian: خانات بخارا; Uzbek: Buxoro Xonligi) was an Uzbek state from the second quarter of the 16th century to the late 18th century in Central Asia. Bukhara became the capital of the short-lived Shaybanid empire during the reign of Ubaydallah Khan (1533–1540). The khanate reached its greatest extent and influence under its penultimate Shaybanid ruler, the scholarly Abdullah Khan II (r. 1577–1598).
In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Khanate was ruled by the Janid Dynasty (Astrakhanids or Hashtarkhanids). They were the last Genghisid descendants to rule Bukhara. In 1740, it was conquered by Nadir Shah, the Shah of Iran. After his death in 1747, the khanate was controlled by the non-Genghisid descendants of the Uzbek emir Khudayar Bi, through the prime ministerial position of ataliq. In 1785, his descendant, Shah Murad, formalized the family's dynastic rule (Manghit dynasty), and the khanate became the Emirate of Bukhara. The Manghits were non-Genghisid and took the Islamic title of Emir instead of Khan since their legitimacy was not based on descent from Genghis Khan.
New books on history and geography were written in this period, such as Haft iqlīm (Seven Climates) by Amin Ahmad Razi, a native of Iran. Bukhara of the 16th century attracted skilled craftsmen of calligraphy and miniature-paintings, such as Sultan Ah Maskhadi, Mahmud ibn Eshaq Shakibi, the theoretician in calligraphy and dervish Mahmud Buklian, Molana Mahmud Muzahheb, and Jelaleddin Yusuf. Among the famous poets and theologians who worked in Bukhara in that era were Mushfiki, Nizami Muamaya, and Mohammad Amin Zahed. Molana Abd-al Hakim was the most famous of the many physicians who practised in the Bukharan khanate in the 16th century.
Abd al-Aziz Khan (1540–1550) established a library "having no equal" the world over. The prominent scholar Sultan Mirak Munshi worked there from 1540. The gifted calligrapher Mir Abid Khusaini produced masterpieces of Nastaliq and Reihani script. He was a brilliant miniature-painter, master of encrustation, and was the librarian (kitabdar) of Bukhara's library.
The Shaybanids instituted a number of measures to improve the khanate's system of public education. Each neighborhood mahalla — unit of local self-government — of Bukhara had a hedge school, while prosperous families provided home education to their children. Children started elementary education at the age of six. After two years they could be taken to madrasah. The course of education in madrasah consisted of three steps of seven years each. Hence, the whole course of education in madrasah lasted twenty-one years. The pupils studied theology, arithmetic, jurisprudence, logic, music, and poetry. This educational system had a positive influence upon the development and wide circulation of the Persian and Uzbek languages, and on the development of literature, science, art, and skills.
The Janid Dynasty (descendants of Astrakhanids) ruled the Khanate from 1599 until 1747. Yar Muhammad and his family had escaped from Astrakhan after Astrakhan fell to Russians. He had a son named Jani Muhammad who had two sons named Baqi Muhammad and Vali Muhammad from his wife, who was the daughter of the last Shaybanid ruler.
List of rulers
- See Shaybanids.
- See Janids.
- Khanate of Bukhara breaks up into:
- See Manghits — (Emirate of Bukhara).
- See Yadigarids and later Qongirats — (Khanate of Khiva).
- See Mings — (Khanate of Kokand).
- Baqi Muhammad Khan (1599–1605)
- Vali Muhammad Khan (1605–1611)
- Imam Quli Khan (1611–1642)
- Nadir Muhammad Khan (1642–1645)
- Abdul Aziz Khan (1645–1680)
- Subhan Quli Khan (1680–1702)
- Ubaidullah Khan (1702–1711)
- Abu'l-Faiz Khan (1711–1747)
- Muhammad Abd al-Mumin (1747–1748)
- Muhammad Ubaidullah II (1748–1753, nominal)
- Muhammad Rahim (usurper), atalik (1753–1756), khan (1756–1758)
- Shir Ghazi (1758–?)
- Abu'l Ghazi Khan (1758–1785)
- Emirate of Bukhara
- Russian conquest of Central Asia
- List of Turkic dynasties and countries
- List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
- Uzbek Khanate
- Ulugbek Azizov (2015). "Freeing from the "Territorial Trap"". LIT Verlag Münster. p. 58. Retrieved 2017-07-22.
The Bukhara Khanate as a new administrative entity was founded in 1533 and was the continuation of the Shaybanid dynas- ty. The khanate occupied the territory from Kashgar (west of Chi- na) to the Aral Sea, from Turkestan to the east part of Chorasan. The official language was Persian as well as Uzbek was spoken widely.
- Ira Marvin Lapidus - 2002, A history of Islamic societies, p.374
- Vegetation Degradation in Central Asia Under the Impact of Human Activities, Nikolaĭ Gavrilovich Kharin, page 49, 2002
- Peter B.Golden (2011) Central Asia in World History, p.115
- Soucek, Svat. A History of Inner Asia (2000), p. 180.
- Khasan Nisari. Muzahir al-Ahbab
- László Karoly (14 November 2014). A Turkic Medical Treatise from Islamic Central Asia: A Critical Edition of a Seventeenth-Century Chagatay Work by Subḥān Qulï Khan. BRILL. pp. 5–. ISBN 978-90-04-28498-2.
- Orvostörténeti Közlemények: Communicationes de historia artis medicinae. Könyvtár. 2006. p. 52.
- Nil Sarı; International Society of the History of Medicine (2005). Otuz Sekizinci Uluslararası Tıp Tarihi Kongresi Bildiri Kitabı, 1-6 Eylül 2002. Türk Tarih Kurumu. p. 845.
- The Ashtarkhanid Rulers of Bukhara