The Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) established in 1989, is the aeronautics and space agency of South Korea. Its main laboratories are located in Daejeon, in the Daedeok Science Town. KARI's vision is to continue building upon indigenous launch capabilities, strengthen national safety and public service, industrialize satellite information and applications technology, explore the moon, and develop environmentally-friendly and highly-efficient cutting-edge aircraft and core aerospace technology. Current projects include the KSLV-2 launcher. Past projects include the 1999 Arirang-1satellite. The agency was founded in 1989. Prior to South Korea's entry into the IAE in 1992, it focused primarily on aerospace technology.
KARI began on October 10, 1989 as a national aerospace research institute with the purpose of contributing to sound development of the national economy and enhancement of people's lives through a new exploration, technological advancement, development, and dissemination in the field of aerospace science and technology.
KARI began in 1989 to develop its own rockets. It produced the KSR-I and KSR-II, one and two-stage rockets in the early 1990s.
In December 1997 it began development of a LOX/kerosene rocket engine. KARI wished to develop satellite launch capability. A test launch of the KSR-III took place in 2002.
1989.10 Establishment of KARI affiliated to Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM)
1990.12 Cornerstone – Laying ceremony for the building of the institute
1992.07 Authorized as the Inspection Agency, designated by the AIDP Law
1992.10 Completion of construction of the research building complex
1993.04 Experimental Aircraft Kachi Development
1993.06.09 Launch of Single-stage Sounding Rocket (KSR-I)
1993.09 EXPO Unmanned Airship Development
1995. Korea launched its first communications satellite named Koreasat * 1996.11 Independent organization as KARI, an Incorporated Foundation
1997.03 Twin-engine composite Aircraft Development
1997.04 Authorized as the Type Certification Agency, designated by the Aviation Law
1998.06 Launch of Two-stage Sounding Rocket (KSR-II)
1999.01 Change of Type Certification Agency
1999.12 Launch of Korea Multiple Purpose Satellite (KOMPSAT I) also known as Arirang I
2001.01 Change of name to Korea Aerospace Research Institute
2001.09 Canard Aircraft Development
2002.11 Launch of Liquid-propellant Rocket (KSR-III)
2003.05 Cornerstone – laying ceremony for the Aircraft Flight Test Center
2003.08 Cornerstone – laying ceremony for the NARO Space Center
2003.09 Launch of STSAT (Science and Technology Satellite)-1
2003.10 Multi-Purpose Stratosphere unmanned-airship Development
KARI is also developing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, high-altitude airships, a next-generation multi-purpose helicopter project, next- generation medium satellite, and a lunar exploration project. In addition, several satellites, including the KOMPSAT (also known as Arirang) Series, the COMS (Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite), and the STSAT (Science and Technology Satellite), are developed, operated, or under development by KARI. On January 30, 2013, they launched a satellite into space from their own soil for the first time.
Mission and Major Functions
Perform basic and applied studies in aerospace technology
Development of leading-edge technology aircraft, aircraft evaluation and testing, and support of national development projects
Research and development of comprehensive system and core technology of aircraft, satellite, and space launch vehicle
Support national aerospace development policy establishment, distribution, and diffusion of aerospace technology information
Development and KSLV(Korea Launching of Space Launch Vehicles) and Operation of Space Center
Perform government-delegated tasks and support policy development
Development of technology for assuring aerospace safety and quality, and maintenance of legal quality certification and internationally recognized certification systems
Establishment and support of the National Aerospace Development Policy and dissemination of knowledge on aerospace technology
Support industries and transfer technology
Joint utilization of testing facilities and equipment with industries and academia, and training of scientists and engineers
Transfer of technology from research and development and provisions for commercialization support
Space Launch Vehicles
KSLV-1 and KSLV-2
KSLV-1 launched on August 25, 2009. It was originally a cluster indigenous liquid KSR-III rockets with a solid propellant to form a multistage launcher. However, KARI experienced more difficulties than expected in SLV development, because it required much stronger propellant power than KSR-III possessed to launch a satellite into orbit. After several failed attempts, KARI turned to Russia's Khrunichev Design Bureau for assistance in developing a liquid-propellant rocket engine for the KSLV-1 as well as for cooperation in the construction of the launch facility at the Naro Space Center. KSLV-1 was transformed into a two-stage launcher, 33 m high with a maximum diameter of 2.9 m. It has a mass of 140 tons at lift-off. The first stage of the launcher was derived from the Russian URM-1 (Universal Rocket Module) developed by Khrunichev. The second stage of the launcher was a solid Kick Motor developed by Korea, which includes the Inertial Navigation System; the power, control, and flight safety systems; plus the nose fairing. KSLV-1 was the most prominent project of the whole South Korean space development program and was successfully launched in late January 2013.
South Korea is planning to launch its next rocket KSLV-2 by year 2021. The first stage of its rocket will have 4 clustered engines, each of which will have a 75 metric ton thrust. It was announced that KARI has already developed few prototypes of a 75 metric ton thrust engine.
The Test Launch Vehicle (TLV) is a one stage rocket used to test the performance of the 75-ton thrust rocket engine that will power the KSLV-2.
The TLV is 25.8 meters in length, 2.6 meters in diameter, and with a mass of 52.1 tons. The main-stage Kerolox engine is fully gimballed.
The first TLV was launched from the Naro Space Center in Goheung, South Jeolla Province.
The main objective of the first suborbital flight was for the single-stage rocket's main engine to burn 140 seconds, reaching a 100 km altitude before splashing down in the sea between Jeju Island and Okinawa Island.
The maiden flight was first delayed from October 25, 2018, for two months, due to abnormal readings detected in the rocket propellant pressurization system.
The test flight was then rescheduled for November 28, 2018, at 16:00 KST(UTC+9). No payload is to be placed into orbit.
The launch of the first TLV while deemed successful with its main engine burning for 151 seconds in a 10-minute flight, was not broadcast live.
After reaching a maximum suborbital altitude of 209 kilometers, the rocket stage hit the ocean 429 kilometers southeast of Jeju.
Korean Lunar Exploration Program
In December 2016, KARI signed a lunar exploration technical cooperation with NASA which increased the possibility of exploration success greatly. The Korean Lunar Exploration Program (KLEP) is divided in two phases. Phase 1 incorporates the launch and operation of a lunar orbiter called Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO), which will be the first lunar probe by South Korea, meant to develop and enhance South Korea's technological capabilities, as well as map natural resources from orbit. Phase 2 will include a lunar obiter, a lunar lander, and a rover to be launched together on a KSLV-II South Korean rocket from the Naro Space Center, by 2030.
KASS is the Korean model of satellite-based augmented systems (SBAS), a technology that is capable of reducing GPS error to less than 3m.
Korea is expected to become the only seventh country in the world to own an SBAS, beginning in October 2022.
Korea Multiple- Purpose Satellite-3A
Korea Multiple-Purpose Satellite- 3A (KOMPSAT-3A) was launched on 25 March 2015, on a Dnepr-1 launch vehicle from the Jasny Kombarovsky site in Russia. The purpose of the KOMPSAT-3A is to enable us to take advantage of geographical information systems (GIS) in environmental, agricultural, and oceanographic sciences, and to facilitate responding to natural hazards. The KOMPSAT-3A is equipped with two distinctive sensors, a high-resolution multi-spectral (MS) optical sensor, namely the Advanced Earth Image Sensor System-A (AEISS-A), and the Scanner Infrared Imaging System (SIIS).