Kosmos 2044

Summary

Kosmos 2044, or Bion 9 (in Russian: Бион 9, Космос 2044) was a biomedical research mission involving in nine countries plus ESA: United Kingdom, Hungarian People's Republic, East Germany, Polish People's Republic, Czechoslovakia, United States, Canada, Australia, Soviet Union and European Space Agency (ESA). It was part of the Bion program.

Kosmos 2044 / Bion 9
Bion spacecraft.jpg
A Bion spacecraft
NamesBion 9
Biocosmos 9
Biokosmos 9
Mission typeBioscience
OperatorInstitute for Medical and Biological Problems (IMBP)
COSPAR ID1989-075A [1]
SATCAT no.20242
Mission duration14 days
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftBion 9
Spacecraft typeBion
ManufacturerTsSKB
Launch mass6,000 kg (13,000 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date15 September 1989,
06:30:00 UTC
RocketSoyuz-U 11A511U
s/n T15000-599
Launch sitePlesetsk, Site 41/1
ContractorTsSKB
End of mission
Recovered bySoviet Space Forces
Landing date29 September 1989, 02:53 UTC
Landing siteMirny, Soviet Russia,
Soviet Union
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit[2]
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Perigee altitude216 km (134 mi)
Apogee altitude294 km (183 mi)
Inclination82.30°
Period89.30 minutes
← Bion 8
Bion 10 →
 

MissionEdit

Eighty experiments were conducted in such categories as motion sickness, reproduction and regeneration, immunology, and readaptation to a normal gravity environment. A number of different biological specimens were used, including rodents.

The joint U.S./U.S.S.R. experiments were conducted on 2 rhesus monkeys and 10 male Wistar rats. The biological payload also included cell cultures (Escherichia coli). The prime occupants were two macaque monkeys. The 2.3 m diameter descent sphere was successfully recovered after 14 days, but a failure in the thermal control system resulted in the deaths of some of the specimens.

Scientific experimentsEdit

The Bion 9 mission was composed of 80 scientific experiments, but only 30 experiments returned:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Display: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ "Trajectory: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ "Experiment 01: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ "Experiment 02: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. ^ "Experiment 03: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. ^ "Experiment 04: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  7. ^ "Experiment 05: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  8. ^ "Experiment 06: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  9. ^ "Experiment 07: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. ^ "Experiment 08: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  11. ^ "Experiment 09: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  12. ^ "Experiment 10: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  13. ^ "Experiment 11: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  14. ^ "Experiment 12: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  15. ^ "Experiment 13: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  16. ^ "Experiment 14: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  17. ^ "Experiment 15: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  18. ^ "Experiment 16: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  19. ^ "Experiment 17: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  20. ^ "Experiment 18: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  21. ^ "Experiment 19: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  22. ^ "Experiment 20: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  23. ^ "Experiment 21: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  24. ^ "Experiment 22: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  25. ^ "Experiment 23: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  26. ^ "Experiment 24: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  27. ^ "Experiment 25: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  28. ^ "Experiment 26: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  29. ^ "Experiment 27: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  30. ^ "Experiment 28: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  31. ^ "Experiment 29: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  32. ^ "Experiment 30: Bion 9 1989-075A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021.   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

External linksEdit

  • NASA
  • U.S. Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044, NASA
  • U.S. Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044, NASA
  • "COSMOS 2044 MISSION", entire issue of which was dedicated to reports of joint U.S./U.S.S.R. research in space biomedicine on this specific 14-day spaceflight, Journal of Applied Physiology 73, 1992