Koszalin
Koszalin Poczta Główna 2.JPG
Koszalin - Wieża Katedry Niepokalanego Poczęcia Najświętszej Maryi Panny - 2018-02-28 16-12-51.jpg
Pdsoki Pałac Młynarzy - Muzeum Miejskie przy ul Młyńskiej w Koszalinie 03.jpg
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  • From top, left to right: Main Post Office
  • Koszalin Cathedral
  • Museum
  • Saint Joseph church
  • Park of the Dukes of Pomerania
  • Market Square
Flag of Koszalin
Flag
Coat of arms of Koszalin
Coat of arms
Koszalin is located in West Pomeranian Voivodeship
Koszalin
Koszalin
Koszalin is located in Poland
Koszalin
Koszalin
Coordinates: 54°12′N 16°11′E / 54.200°N 16.183°E / 54.200; 16.183Coordinates: 54°12′N 16°11′E / 54.200°N 16.183°E / 54.200; 16.183
CountryPoland
VoivodeshipWest Pomeranian
Countycity county
Established11th century
Town rights1266
Government
 • MayorPiotr Jedliński
Area
 • Total98.33 km2 (37.97 sq mi)
Elevation
32 m (105 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2018)
 • Total107,321 Decrease (37th)[1]
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
75-900, 75-902, 75-007, 75-016
Area code(s)+48 94
Vehicle registrationZK
ClimateCfb
Websitewww.koszalin.pl

Koszalin ([kɔˈʂalʲin] (About this soundlisten); German: Köslin,[2] Kashubian: Kòszalëno) is a city in northwestern Poland, in Western Pomerania. It is located 12 kilometres (7 miles) south of the Baltic Sea coast, and intersected by the river Dzierżęcinka. Koszalin is also a county-status city and capital of Koszalin County of West Pomeranian Voivodeship since 1999. Previously, it was a capital of Koszalin Voivodeship (1950–1998). The current mayor of Koszalin is Piotr Jedliński.[3]

History

Middle Ages

Medieval city walls

According to the Medieval Chronicle of Greater Poland (Kronika Wielkopolska) Koszalin was one of the Pomeranian cities captured and subjugated by Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland in 1107 (other towns included Kołobrzeg, Kamień and Wolin).[4] Afterwards, in the 12th century the area became part of the Griffin-ruled Duchy of Pomerania, a vassal state of Poland, which later on separated from Poland after the fragmentation of Poland into smaller duchies.

Gothic Koszalin Cathedral

In 1214, Bogislaw II, Duke of Pomerania, made a donation of a village known as Koszalice/Cossalitz by Chełmska Hill in Kołobrzeg Land to the Norbertine monastery in Białoboki near Trzebiatów. New, mostly German, settlers from outside of Pomerania were invited to settle the territory. In 1248, the eastern part of Kołobrzeg Land, including the village, was transferred by Duke Barnim I to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kammin.[5]

On 23 May 1266, Kammin bishop Hermann von Gleichen granted a charter to the village, granting it Lübeck law, local government, autonomy and multiple privileges. When in 1276 the bishops became the sovereign in neighboring Kołobrzeg, they moved their residence there, while the administration of the diocese was done from Koszalin.[5]

The city obtained direct access to the Baltic Sea when it gained the village of Jamno (1331), parts of Lake Jamno, a spit between the lake and the sea and the castle of Unieście in 1353. Thence, it participated in the Baltic Sea trade as a member of the Hanseatic League, which led to several conflicts with the competing seaports of at Kołobrzeg and Darłowo. From 1356 until 1417/1422, the city was part of the Duchy of Pomerania-Wolgast. In 1446 Koszalin fought a victorious battle against the nearby rival city of Kołobrzeg.[6] In 1475 a conflict between the city of Koszalin and the Pomeranian duke Bogislaw X broke out, resulting in the kidnapping and temporary imprisonment of the duke in Koszalin.[6]

Modern Age

Coat of arms from ca. 1400-1800, showing the head of John the Baptist.

As a result of German colonization discriminatory regulations against the indigenous population were introduced.[6] In 1516 local Germans enforced a ban on buying goods from Slavic speakers.[7] It was also forbidden to accept native Slavs to craft guilds.[6]

In 1534 during the Protestant Reformation, the city became mostly Lutheran under the influence of Johannes Bugenhagen. In 1568, Johann Friedrich, Duke of Pomerania and bishop of Cammin, started constructing a residence.[8] After the 1637 death of the last Pomeranian duke, Bogislaw XIV, the city passed to his cousin, Bishop Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ of Kammin. Occupied by Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War in 1637, some of the city's inhabitants sought refuge in nearby Poland.[6] The city was granted to Brandenburg-Prussia after the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Stettin (1653), and with all of Farther Pomerania became part of the Brandenburgian Pomerania.

As part of the Kingdom of Prussia, "Cöslin" was heavily damaged by a fire in 1718, but was rebuilt in the following years. In 1764 on the Chełmska Hill, now located within the city limits, a Pole Jan Gelczewski founded a paper mill that supplied numerous city offices.[6] The city was occupied by French troops in 1807 after the War of the Fourth Coalition. Following the Napoleonic wars, it became the capital of Fürstenthum District (county) and Regierungsbezirk Cöslin (government region) within the Province of Pomerania. The Fürstenthum District was dissolved on 1 September 1872 and replaced with the Cöslin District on December 13. Between 1829 and 1845, a road connecting Koszalin with Szczecin and Gdańsk was built.[6] Part of this road, from Koszalin to the nearby town of Sianów, was built in 1833 by around one hundred former Polish insurgents.[6]

Coat of arms of Köslin from 1800-1939

The town became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the unification of Germany. The railroad from Stettin (Szczecin) through "Cöslin" and Stolp (Słupsk) to Danzig (Gdańsk) was constructed from 1858-78. A military cadet school created by Frederick the Great in 1776 was moved from Kulm (Chełmno) to the city in 1890.

After the Nazis had closed down Dietrich Bonhoeffer's seminar in Finkenwalde (a suburb of Stettin, now Szczecin) in 1937, Bonhoeffer chose the town as one of the sites where he illegally continued to educate vicars of the Confessing Church.[9] During the Second World War Köslin was the site of the first school for the "rocket troops" created on orders of Walter Dornberger, the Wehrmacht's head of the V-2 design and development program.[10] The Nazis brought many prisoners of war and forced labourers to the city, mainly Poles, but also Italians and French.[6]

After World War II

Main Post Office in Koszalin

On 4 March 1945, the city was captured by the Red Army. According to the post-war Potsdam Agreement, Köslin, renamed as Koszalin, became part of Poland. Most of the town's native German population fled or was expelled to the remainder of post-war Germany. The city was resettled by Poles from Central and pre-war Eastern Poland and Kashubians.[11]

As early as March 1945 a Polish police unit was established, consisting of former forced labourers and prisoners of war, however, the Soviets, still present in the city, plundered local industrial factories in April.[12] From May 1945, life in the destroyed city was being organized, the first post-war schools, shops and service premises were established.[12] In March 1946, the anti-communist Home Army 5th Wilno Brigade was active in Koszalin.[12] In July 1947, the last units of the Soviet Army left Koszalin, and from that time only Polish troops were stationed in the city.[12]

Initially, the city was considered to become the capital of the voivodeship created from the former German province east of the Oder-Neisse line, which nevertheless was assigned to Szczecin (Szczecin voivodeship, 1945–1950). In 1950 this voivodeship was divided into a truncated Szczecin Voivodeship and Koszalin Voivodeship. In years 1950-75 Koszalin was the capital of the enlarged Koszalin Voivodeship sometimes called Middle Pomerania due to becoming the fastest growing city in Poland. In years 1975-98 it was the capital of the smaller Koszalin Voivodeship.

As a result of the Local Government Reorganization Act (1998) Koszalin became part of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship (effective 1 January 1999) regardless of an earlier proposal for a new Middle Pomeranian Voivodeship covering approximately the area of former Koszalin Voivodeship (1950–75).

Landmarks

The city borders on Chełmska Hill (Polish: Góra Chełmska), a site of pagan worship in prehistory, and upon which is now built the tower "sanctuary of the covenant", which was consecrated by Pope John Paul II in 1991, and is currently a pilgrimage site. Also an observation is located on the hill.

Koszalin's most distinctive landmark is the Gothic St. Mary's Cathedral, dating from the early 14th century. Positioned in front of the cathedral is a monument commemorating John Paul II's visit to the city.

Gallery

Demographics

Before World War II the population of the town was composed of Protestants, Jews and Catholics.

Number of inhabitants in years 1740-2017
YearPop.±% p.a.
17402,535—    
17822,933+0.35%
17913,071+0.51%
17943,286+2.28%
18123,802+0.81%
18164,636+5.08%
18316,541+2.32%
YearPop.±% p.a.
18438,114+1.81%
18529,398+1.65%
186111,303+2.07%
190020,417+1.53%
192528,810+1.39%
194033,587+1.03%
195018,690−5.69%
YearPop.±% p.a.
196044,449+9.05%
197062,212+3.42%
198095,490+4.38%
1990109,002+1.33%
2000108,899−0.01%
2010107,948−0.09%
2017107,670−0.04%

Climate

The climate is oceanic (Köppen: Cfb) with some humid continental characteristics (Dfb), usually categorized if the 0 °C isotherm is used (for the same classification). Being in Western Pomerania and near the Baltic Sea, it has a much more moderate climate than the others large Polish cities. The summers are warm and practically never hot as in the south and the winters are often more moderate than the northeast and east, although still cold, yet it is not as mild as Western Europe. Daily averages below freezing point can be found in January and February, while in the summer they are between 15 and 16 °C, relatively cool. The average annual precipitation is 704 mm, distributed during the year. Koszalin is one of the sunniest cities in the country.[13][14][15]

Climate data for Koszalin (Wilkowo), elevation: 33 m, 1961-1990 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
17.7
(63.9)
23.3
(73.9)
28.0
(82.4)
31.2
(88.2)
34.9
(94.8)
33.6
(92.5)
33.9
(93.0)
33.9
(93.0)
27.3
(81.1)
18.8
(65.8)
13.6
(56.5)
34.9
(94.8)
Average high °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
2.0
(35.6)
5.8
(42.4)
10.7
(51.3)
16.6
(61.9)
19.7
(67.5)
20.8
(69.4)
21.0
(69.8)
17.3
(63.1)
12.5
(54.5)
6.4
(43.5)
2.6
(36.7)
11.4
(52.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.4
(29.5)
−0.7
(30.7)
2.2
(36.0)
6.1
(43.0)
11.5
(52.7)
15.0
(59.0)
16.5
(61.7)
16.2
(61.2)
12.9
(55.2)
8.9
(48.0)
4.1
(39.4)
0.4
(32.7)
7.6
(45.8)
Average low °C (°F) −3.9
(25.0)
−3.3
(26.1)
−0.7
(30.7)
2.3
(36.1)
6.8
(44.2)
10.4
(50.7)
12.3
(54.1)
12.0
(53.6)
9.5
(49.1)
5.9
(42.6)
1.9
(35.4)
−1.8
(28.8)
4.3
(39.7)
Record low °C (°F) −26.7
(−16.1)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−10.1
(13.8)
−3.9
(25.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.6
(36.7)
2.3
(36.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
−4.4
(24.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−19.6
(−3.3)
−26.7
(−16.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43
(1.7)
30
(1.2)
35
(1.4)
39
(1.5)
55
(2.2)
72
(2.8)
88
(3.5)
74
(2.9)
82
(3.2)
62
(2.4)
69
(2.7)
55
(2.2)
704
(27.7)
Average rainy days 10.9 7.9 8.4 8.1 8.9 9.0 11.3 9.4 11.1 9.5 12.6 11.6 118.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 37.2 61.6 108.5 159.0 235.6 231.2 213.9 210.8 135.1 93.0 39.3 27.9 1,553.1
Source: HKO[16] and NOAA[13]

Notable people

Rudolf Clausius
Sebastian Mila, 2014
Joanna Majdan, 2007

Sports

Major corporations

  • Zakład Energetyczny Koszalin SA
  • Brok Brewery SA
  • JAAN Nordglass Autoglass
  • TWIP Foundation

Education

Stanisław Dubois High School in Koszalin
  • Koszalin University of Technology (Politechnika Koszalińska)
  • Baltic College (Bałtycka Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczna)
  • Air Force training center (Centrum Szkolenia Sił Powietrznych im. Romualda Traugutta)
  • Koszalin University of Humanities (Koszalińska Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Humanistycznych)
  • State Higher Vocational School in Koszalin (Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Koszalinie)
  • Major Seminary of the Diocese of Koszalin-Kolobrzeska in Koszalin (Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne Diecezji Koszalińsko-Kołobrzeskiej w Koszalinie)
  • Team State School of Music (Zespół Państwowych Szkół Muzycznych im. Grażyny Bacewicz)
  • School Arts Team (Zespół Szkół Plastycznych im. Władysława Hasiora)
  • 1st. High School Stanisława Dubois (Dubois or colloquially Dibulec)
  • 2nd. High School Władysława Broniewskiego (colloquially Bronek)
  • 5th. High School Stanisława Lema (Jednosci)
  • 6th. High School Cypriana Norwida (Podgorna)

International relations

Koszalin is twinned with:[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2 June 2019. Data for territorial unit 3261000.
  2. ^ "Former Territory of Germany" (in German). 2017-11-14.
  3. ^ "Interview with Mr. Piotr Jedliński, Mayor of Koszalin, Poland". CEOWORLD Magazine. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  4. ^ "Historia Koszalina, Serwis Urzędu Miejskiego w Koszalinie". Retrieved June 8, 2019.
  5. ^ a b Gerhard Köbler, Historisches Lexikon der Deutschen Länder: die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, 7th edition, C.H. Beck, 2007, p. 113, ISBN 3-406-54986-1
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Kalendarium 750 lat Koszalina, Muzeum w Koszalinie" (in Polish). Retrieved June 9, 2019.
  7. ^ Hieronim Kroczyński, Kołobrzeg zarys dziejów, Wyd. Poznańskie, Poznań, 1979, p. 27 (in Polish)
  8. ^ Kyra T. Inachin, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p.61, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2
  9. ^ Peter Zimmerling, Bonhoeffer als praktischer Theologe, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2006, p.59, ISBN 3-525-55451-6
  10. ^ p.37, Dornberger
  11. ^ W. Seidel: Das Land und Volk der Kassuben. In: Preußische Provinzialblätter N.F. 2 (1852), p. 104.
  12. ^ a b c d "Kalendarium Koszalina z lat 1945-1950, Muzeum w Koszalinie" (in Polish). Retrieved June 8, 2019.
  13. ^ a b "Koszalin (12105) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA. Retrieved December 26, 2018. Archived December 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ Engel, Pamela. "MAP: Here's Where You Should Move If You Want The Most Sunshine". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018-12-26.
  15. ^ "Koszalin climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Koszalin weather averages - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 2018-12-26.
  16. ^ "Hong Kong Observatory". HKO. December 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  17. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 15, Kleist, Ewald Christian von retrieved 11 October 2018
  18. ^ 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 6, Clausius, Rudolf Julius Emmanuel retrieved 11 October 2018
  19. ^ "Miasta partnerskie". Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  20. ^ "Twin Cities". Kristianstads kommun. 2015-04-15. Archived from the original on 2016-04-06. Retrieved 2016-06-06.

External links

  • Official City Authorities site
  • Technical University of Koszalin
  • ChefMoz Dining Guide
  • Unofficial Forum of Koszalin's Community
  • Koszalin in Your Wonder Beautiful Place
  • http://www.koszalincity.pl/ (Polish)
  • Heimatkreis Köslin (German refugee's organization) ‹See Tfd›(in German)

Media

  • Głos Pomorza, regional daily newspaper
  • Głos Koszaliński, regional daily newspaper
  • Radio Koszalin, regional radio station
  • Radio Północ, regional radio station
  • Telewizja Polska Szczecin, regional TV station
  • TV MAX, regional TV station
  • http://www.wysotsky.com/Koszalin/10-1049.htm