Krunoslav Draganović
Krunoslav Draganović.jpg
Born
Krunoslav Stjepan Draganović

(1903-10-30)30 October 1903
Died5 July 1983(1983-07-05) (aged 79)
OccupationRoman Catholic priest and historian
Headed the Confraternity of San Girolamo ratline

Krunoslav Stjepan Draganović (30 October 1903 – 5 July 1983) was a Bosnian Croat Roman Catholic priest associated with the ratlines which aided the escape of Ustaše war criminals from Europe after World War II while he was living and working at the College of St. Jerome in Rome.[1] He was an Ustaša and a functionary in the fascist puppet state called the Independent State of Croatia.[2][3]

Early life

Draganović was born in Matići, Austro-Hungary (now part of Bosnia and Herzegovina). He attended secondary school in Travnik and studied theology and philosophy in Sarajevo. Draganović was ordained a priest on 1 July 1928.[4]

From 1932–35 he studied at the Papal Oriental Institute and the Jesuit Gregorian University in Rome. In 1937, his German language doctoral dissertation, Massenübertritte von Katholiken zur Orthodoxie im kroatischen Sprachgebiet zur Zeit der Türkenherrschaft (Mass conversions of Catholics to Orthodoxy in the Croatian-speaking area during the Turkish rule) was published.[2] This would later be used by the Ustaše as a justification for forced conversions to Catholicism.[5]

In 1935 he returned to Bosnia, initially as secretary to Archbishop Ivan Šarić.

World War II and Ratlines

Draganović was an Ustaše lieutenant-colonel and the vice chief of the Bureau of Colonization.[6] He oversaw confiscation of Serb property in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[6] He was the Jasenovac concentration camp military chaplain for some time until Aloysius Stepinac sent him in mid-1943 to Rome as the second unofficial Ustaše representative.[6] Arriving in Rome in August 1943, Draganović became secretary of the Croatian 'Confraternity of San Girolamo', based at the monastery of San Girolamo degli Illirici in Via Tomacelli. This monastery became the centre of operations for the Croat ratline, as documented by CIA surveillance files. He is believed to have been instrumental in the escape to Argentina of the Croatian wartime dictator Ante Pavelić.[7]

Ante Pavelić hid for two years, from 1945 to 1948, in Italy under the protection of Draganović and the Vatican, before surfacing in Buenos Aires in Argentina.[8]

Officers of the United States Counterintelligence Corps (CIC) detachment responsible for Austria had this to say about Draganović, who was "employed" by the CIC because they wanted to use his pre-existing ratline (he had been obtaining passports from the Red Cross and visas from various South American countries for Ustaše use, thus enabling their escape from Italia to the Americas):

Draganovich is known and recorded as a Fascist, war criminal, etc., and his contacts with South American diplomats of a similar class are not generally approved by US State Department officials [...][9]

Through his ratline, with assistance from the CIC, Draganović played a major role in helping notorious Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie flee from Europe.[10] The two maintained a friendly relationship.[11] Asked by Barbie why he was going out of his way to help him escape to Juan Peron's Argentina, he responded: "We have to maintain a sort of moral reserve on which we can draw in the future."[12]

Draganović was central to many allegations involving the Vatican Bank, the Central Intelligence Agency, and the Nazi Party. Declassified CIA documents confirm that Draganović was a member of the Ustaše, who murdered between 330,000 and 390,000 Orthodox Serbs and about 32,000 Jews.[13]

Draganović was accused of laundering the Ustaše's treasure of jewellery and other items stolen from war victims in Croatia.[14] In 2002, declassified CIA documents revealed that Draganović worked as a spy for the CIA from 1959–62 for the purposes of gathering intelligence on the Communist but non-aligned regime of Yugoslavia, at the time headed by Tito. His employment with the CIA was eventually terminated as he was considered to be unreliable.[15] According to the CIA, Draganović was "not amenable to control, too knowledgeable of unit personnel and activity, demand[ed] outrageous monetary tribute and U.S. support of Croat organizations as partial payment for cooperation."[16]

In 1945, Draganović printed his Mali hrvatski kalendar za godinu 1945 (Small Croatian Calendar for the year 1945) in Rome for Croatian emigrants.[17]

Return to Yugoslavia

Some mystery surrounds Draganović's later defection to Yugoslavia. After World War II, he lived in Italy and Austria gathering evidence of communist crimes committed in Yugoslavia. He was wanted by Yugoslavia's Department of State Security (UDBA).

On 10 November 1967, the Yugoslavian state attorney declared that Draganović was in Sarajevo—as a free man, as Yugoslav authorities reportedly sought information from Draganović in exchange for granting him freedom.[18] He was supposed to "tell-all", name his colleagues and like-minded people, hand his archive over to Tito's agents, make some positive remarks about Communist Yugoslavia and in return, Belgrade would waive judicial condemnation and imprisonment.[18]

UDBA held Draganović in Belgrade for 42 days and once the investigation against him concluded, he appeared in Sarajevo where he held a press conference (on 15 November 1967) at which he praised the "democratisation and humanising of life" under Tito. He denied claims made by the Croatian diaspora press that he had been kidnapped or entrapped by the UDBA. Draganović spent his last years in Sarajevo forming a new general register of the Roman Catholic Church in Yugoslavia.[19] Draganović died in Sarajevo on 5 July 1983.[20]

Works

  • Izvješće fra Tome Ivkovića, biskupa skradinskog, iz godine 1630. (1933)
  • Izvješće apostolskog vizitatora Petra Masarechija o prilikama katoličkog naroda u Bugarskoj, Srbiji, Srijemu, Slavoniji i Bosni g. 1623. i 1624. (1937)
  • Opći šematizam Katoličke crkve u Jugoslaviji, en: General schematism of the Catholic Church in Yugoslavia (1939)[21]
  • Hrvati i Herceg-Bosna (1940)
  • Hrvatske biskupije. Sadašnjost kroz prizmu prošlosti (1943)
  • Katalog katoličkih župa u BH u XVII. vijeku (1944)
  • Povijest Crkve u Hrvatskoj (1944)
  • Opći šematizam Katoličke crkve u Jugoslaviji, Cerkev v Jugoslaviji 1974, en: General schematism of the Catholic Church in Yugoslavia, The Church in Yugoslavia 1974 (1975)[22]
  • Katarina Kosača – Bosanska kraljica (1978)
  • Komušina i Kondžilo (1981)
  • Masovni prijelazi katolika na pravoslavlje hrvatskog govornog područja u vrijeme vladavine Turaka (1991)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Press Release". Archives.gov. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
  2. ^ a b Breitman, Richard; Goda, Norman J. W.; Naftali, Timothy; Wolfe, Robert (2005). U.S. Intelligence and the Nazis. Cambridge University Press. pp. 211–223. ISBN 9780521617949.
  3. ^ Wolfe, Robert; Naftali, Timothy; Goda, Norman J. W.; Breitman, Richard (2005). The Ustaša: Murder and Espionage.
  4. ^ "Sažetak". Studiacroatica.org. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  5. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-building and Legitimation, 1918-2005. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253346568.
  6. ^ a b c David M. Crowe (2013). Crimes of State Past and Present: Government-Sponsored Atrocities and International Legal Responses. Routledge. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-1-317-98682-9.
  7. ^ "The Fate of the Wartime Ustasha Treasury" (PDF). U.S. State Department. June 1998. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
  8. ^ "Adolf Hitler greets Ante Pavelic, leader of the Croatian puppet state, upon his arrival at the Berghof for a state visit. - Collections Search - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum". collections.ushmm.org.
  9. ^ "Klaus Barbie and the United States Government: A Report to the Attorney General of the United States, August 1983" (PDF).
  10. ^ O'Toole, Thomas (August 21, 1983). "'Operation Ratline' Was Barbie's Ticket Out". The Washington Post.
  11. ^ Bower, Tom (2017). Klaus Barbie: The Butcher of Lyons. Open Road Media. ISBN 9781504043250.
  12. ^ Mark Falcoff, Peron's Nazi Ties, Time, 9 November 1998, vol 152, n°19
  13. ^ "Press Release". Archives.gov. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  14. ^ J. Navarro Vals about Ante Pavelić's treasure, the Vatican Bank and the national Catholic Church of Croatia in Rome, St Jerome of the Illyrians pagg.100–101, Eric Salerno, Mossad base Italia: le azioni, gli intrighi, le verità nascoste, Il Saggiatore 2010.
  15. ^ "More CIA Records Opened Under Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act", fas.org, May 2002; accessed 1 January 2016.
  16. ^ Frattini, Eric (2008). The Entity: Five Centuries of Secret Vatican Espionage. St. Martin's Publishing Group. p. 284. ISBN 978-1-429-94724-4.
  17. ^ Berislav Jandrić, Saveznički izbjeglički logori, počeci otpora hrvatske političke emigracije komunističkom režimu u domovini (logor Fermo), 1945. Razdjelnica hrvatske povijesti. Zagreb, p. 313
  18. ^ a b Steinacher, Gerald (2012). Nazis on the Run: How Hitler's Henchmen Fled Justice. Oxford University Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-199-64245-8.
  19. ^ Linklater, Magnus; Hilton, Isabel; Ascherson, Neal (February 1985). The Nazi Legacy: Klaus Barbie and the International Fascist Connection. Henry Holt and Company. p. 195. ISBN 9780030693038.
  20. ^ Adriano, Pino; Cingolani, Giorgio (2018). Nationalism and Terror: Ante Pavelić and Ustasha Terrorism from Fascism to the Cold War. Central European University Press. p. 431. ISBN 978-9-633-86206-3.
  21. ^ Draganović, Krunoslav (1939). Opći šematizam Katoličke crkve u Jugoslaviji (1939). Curia Archiepiscopalis Vrhbosnensis.
  22. ^ Opći šematizam Katoličke Crkve u Jugoslaviji 1974. Biskupska Konferencija Jugoslavije. 1975.

Bibliography

  • Anderson, Scott & Anderson, John Lee, Inside the League: The Shocking Expose of How Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American Death Squads Have Infiltrated the World Anti-Communist League. Dodd Mead, 1986, ISBN 0396085172
  • Mark Aarons and John Loftus, Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, The Nazis, and the Swiss Bankers, St Martins Press 1991 (revised 1998)
  • Uki Goñi: The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina (Granta Books, 2002, ISBN 1-86207-581-6)
  • Eric Salerno, Mossad base Italia: le azioni, gli intrighi, le verità nascoste, Il Saggiatore 2010. (Italian text)

External links

  • Background Report on Krunoslav Draganović, CIA, February 12, 1947. Published on the website of the Jasenovac Committee of the Holy Assembly of Bishops of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
  • Declassified US CIA files on Krunoslav Draganović on Archive.org
  • Some example files on Draganović on cia.gov, find the rest here:
    • COVERT ACTION: SPECIAL: NAZIS, THE VATICAN, AND CIA: This issue of CAIB focuses on the fascist connection, in particular the U.S. role in helping hundreds, perhaps thousands, of prominent Nazis avoid retribution at the end of World War
    • DECLASSIFIED AND RELEASED BY CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, NAZI WAR CRIMES DISCLOSURE ACT
  • Klaus Barbie and the United States Government: A Report to the Attorney General of the United States, August 1983, see pages 136-213