Landing Craft Support

Summary

The Landing Craft, Support (Large) were two distinct classes of amphibious warfare vessels were used by the United States Navy (USN) in the Pacific and the Royal Navy in World War II. The USN versions which were later reclassified Landing Ship Support, Large also performed radar picket duty and fire fighting.

USS LCS(L) 102.jpg
Ex-LCS(L)-102 (HTMS Nakha)
Class overview
BuildersGeorge Lawley & Son, Commercial Iron Works and Albina Engine Works
Preceded byLCI(G)
In commission1944-2007
Completed130
Lost5
Retired125
Preserved1
General characteristics
Displacement250 long tons (250 t)
Length158 ft 6 in (48.31 m)
Beam23 ft 3 in (7.09 m)
Draft5 ft 10 in (1.78 m) (aft, loaded)
Propulsion
  • 8 × Gray Marine diesel engines
  • 1,600 hp (1,200 kW), twin screws
Speed16.5 knots (30.6 km/h)
Range5,500 nmi (10,200 km)
Complement3–6 officers, 55–68 men
Armament
  • 1 × 3"/50 caliber gun
  • 1 × twin 40 mm or single 40 mm bow gun;
  • 2 × twin 40 mm deck guns (one forward, one aft)
  • 4 × 20 mm cannons;
  • 4 × .50 cal (12.7 mm) machine guns
  • 10 × Mk7 rocket launchers
Armor10-lb. STS splinter shields

US Navy VesselsEdit

The original designation for the ships was LCS(L)(3), which stood for "Landing Craft Support (Large) Mark 3". In 1949 the class was reclassified to "Landing Ship Support, Large" (LSSL). The United States Navy had to have the designation LCS(L) because there was also a smaller class named LCL, that were built mainly for rescue and smoke laying during amphibious operation.[1]

Design and manufactureEdit

 
Builders progress photo of LCS(L)(3)-26, Commercial Iron Works, Portland Oregon, 21 July 1944.

A total of 130 were made. Three different ship building yards did the construction: George Lawley & Son (Neponset, Massachusetts); Commercial Iron Works (Portland, Oregon); and Albina Engine Works (Portland, Oregon).

The hull was the same as the Landing Craft Infantry ships. They were 158 ft 6 in (48.31 m) long, displaced 250 long tons (250 t), 23 ft 3 in (7.09 m) wide and drew 5 ft 10 in (1.78 m) when fully loaded. The flat bottom and skegs between and on either side of the twin screws allowed the ships to safely beach. The anchor is at the stern of the ship so it can be used to help pull the ship off the beach if necessary. The twin variable pitch screws were each driven by a bank of four Grey Marine (later General Motors) diesel engines, with a total power for all eight engines of 1,600 horsepower (1,200 kW). These engines gave a maximum speed of 16.5 knots (30.6 km/h), but normally the ships sailed at 12 knots (22 km/h). The ships had a range of 5,500 nautical miles (10,200 km). Armour for the gun mounts, pilot house and conning tower was provided by 10 lb (4.5 kg) STS splinter shields. The ships had a smoke generator which was used to obscure landing craft approaching the beach.

LCS(L) vessels could be produced in as little as 10 days, and final fitting out would take a further few weeks. The ships also made very good fire fighting ships. A fire fighting manifold was fitted in front of the bow gun and two monitors with pumps fitted just forward of the aft gun.

ArmamentEdit

The LCS(L)(3) ships provided more firepower per ton than any ship ever built for the USN. Three guns and ten rocket launchers comprised the main armament. The bow gun was a 3"/50 caliber gun, a single 40 mm gun or a twin 40 mm gun. The forward and aft deck guns were twin 40 mm guns. The ten Mark 7 rocket launchers were situated behind the bow gun and forward deck house. Four 20 mm cannons were also mounted.

OperationsEdit

 
A group of LSSLs awaiting transfer to the ROK Navy in 1952

The Battle of Tarawa showed a gap in Navy resources for close in support of landing troops. The time interval between the end of shelling from the large ships and the arrival of the landing craft on the beach allowed the defenders to regroup. The Landing Craft Support was designed to fill this void.

The first Landing Craft Support ships arrived in the Pacific Theater in time for the landings at Iwo Jima.

After providing close in support during the landings at Okinawa, many Landing Craft Support ships were placed on the radar picket stations as anti-aircraft platforms. When not on a picket stations, the ship would create smoke to hide the fleet at anchor and perform "skunk patrol" screening for suicide boats.

In the Borneo Campaign, Landing Craft Support was used in landings in Tarakan and Balikpapan.

During World War II, five LCS(L)(3)s were sunk in combat (see below) and 21 were damaged. Three of these small warships received Presidential Unit Citations, while six were awarded Navy Unit citations. Importantly, Lieutenant Richard M. McCool, skipper of USS LCS(L)(3) 122, was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

LCS(L)(3)-7, LCS(L)(3)-26 and LCS(L)(3)-49 were sunk by suicide boats off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on 16 February 1945. LCS(L)(3)-15 was sunk by kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, on 22 April 1945. LCS(L)(3)-33 was sunk by a kamikaze on 12 April 1945 at RP position No1. <NHHC , Action Report)ref></ref>

Post warEdit

At the end of the war, surviving ships returned to the United States. Some were restored to action for the Korean War. Many were transferred to Japan (three were later transferred to Taiwan[2]), France (and on to South Vietnam), Cambodia, Thailand, Greece, and other nations.

Only two ships are known to still exist. One has been highly modified as a fishing boat. The second was in Thailand and was kept in very similar configuration to its original (HTMS Nakha, formerly USS LCS(L)-102). The National Association of USS LCS(L) 1–130 was successful in having HTMS Nakha transferred to the association for public display in the United States. She was officially released from the Royal Thai Navy on November 10, 2007 after being returned to the US in September of that year. As of May 2017 USS LCS(L)-102 is under restoration and upkeep. It is open to the public on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays or by special arrangements, and tours at the former Naval Ship yard, Mare Island, in Vallejo, California.[3]

British LCS vesselsEdit

The British designed, built and operated ten Fairmile Type H LCS vessels. Three of these were sunk in action.[4]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Rocket Boats Lay Smoke Screen For Landings. Popular Mechanics, February 1945, p. 28.
  2. ^ "銅山港海戰人物群像 - 戰史專區 - 中華民國海軍". ROC Navy. 2017-07-12. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  3. ^ "Last WW II Landing Craft Support Ship Still Afloat in Vallejo, Calif". Contra Costa Times. Sep 11, 2013.
  4. ^ Lambert, John and Ross, Al . Allied Coastal Forces of World War Two, Volume I : Fairmile designs and US Submarine Chasers. 1990. ISBN 978-0-85177-519-7.

External linksEdit

  • The Landing Craft Support Museum Museum preserving the last Landing Craft Support vessel, LCS(L)-102
  • MightyMidgets.org Official Website of the National Association of USS LCS(L) 1-130
  • NavSource photo archive page for the LSSL/LCS(L) class
  • HyperWar US Navy Landing Ships/Craft
  • Construction Records and Disposition summaries
  • French Riverine Craft, where some of the LSSL ended up
  • Vic Smeed's Model Maker Annual, 1963. No ISBN.
  • US Navy Landing Craft Support prints from 1942