The definition was introduced in 2004 by Eurostat, the statistical agency of the European Union (EU), in agreement with the national statistics offices in the member states. Eurostat data is provided on cities in the EU, its candidate countries and EFTA countries. Several cities were excluded by definition from the 2004 list of LUZs on technical, definitional grounds, such as the coincidence of the metropolitan area with the urban zone.
The LUZ represents an attempt at a harmonised definition of the metropolitan area. Eurostat's objective was to have an area from which a significant share of the residents commute into the city, a concept known as the "functional urban region." To ensure a good data availability, Eurostat adjusts the LUZ boundaries to administrative boundaries that approximate the functional urban region.
In 2006 LUZ definitions were changed significantly, improving the comparability of LUZ definitions across different countries, and allowing for almost all cities to be included.
List of larger urban zones
This is a list of larger urban zones. The Urban Audit also includes cities from EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and EU candidate countries. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) uses a similar definition of Functional Urban Area to represent population sizes of cities in OECD countries. This data is also included.
The figures in the Eurostat database are an attempt at a compromise between harmonised data for all of the European Union, and with availability of statistical data, making comparisons more accurate.
|Larger urban zone||Country||OECD Population (2014) ||Eurostat Population (2006)||Eurostat Population (2016)|
|Amsterdam metropolitan area||Netherlands||2,452,659||2,497,000[a]||2,437,114|
|Barcelona metropolitan area||Spain||3,846,697||4,082,000[c]||5,445,616|
|Birmingham (West Midlands)||United Kingdom||1,957,078||3,701,107||2,332,629|
|Bordeaux||France||1,175,699||No data||No data|
|Bucharest metropolitan area||Romania||No data||2,158,558||2,403,107|
|Budapest metropolitan area||Hungary||2,879,601||2,523,000||2,971,246|
|Dublin Metropolitan Area||Ireland||1,836,119||1,261,332||1,263,035|
|Gdansk||Poland||1,105,467||No data||No data|
|Greater Glasgow||United Kingdom||967,101||1,395,000||1,789,003|
|Metropolitan Gothenburg||Sweden||1,015,974||No data||No data|
|The Hague||Netherlands||906,897||1,404,000[a]||No data|
|Hamburg Metropolitan Region||Germany||3,008,841||2,983,000||3,173,871|
|Hanover||Germany||1,217,511||No data||No data|
|Helsinki Metropolitan Area||Finland||1,498,050||1,285,000||1,532,309|
|Katowice metropolitan area||Poland||2,589,349||3,029,000[f]||2,743,929|
|Kraków metropolitan area||Poland||1,362,740||1,236,000||1,276,438|
|West Yorkshire (Bradford - Leeds)||United Kingdom||1,774,552[g]||2,302,000||2,238,127|
|Lisbon metropolitan area||Portugal||2,886,662||2,591,000||2,839,908|
|London metropolitan area||United Kingdom||12,401,188||13,709,000||14,031,830|
|Madrid metropolitan area||Spain||7,079,173||5,263,000||6,378,297|
|Greater Manchester||United Kingdom||1,935,559||2,556,000||2,615,144|
|Mannheim||Germany||1,230,276||No data||No data|
|Milan metropolitan area||Italy||4,159,854||4,136,000[j]||4,267,946|
|Naples metropolitan area||Italy||4,475,682||4,654,259[l]||4,127,390|
|Nuremberg Metropolitan Region||Germany||1,169,367||1,443,000||1,301,504|
|Ostrava||Czech Republic||no data||no data||1,119,593[m]|
|Paris metropolitan area||France||12,037,889||11,175,000||12,005,077|
|Porto Metropolitan Area||Portugal||1,313,829||1,245,000[n]||1,286,111|
|Rhein-Nord[q] (Düsseldorf - Neuss)||Germany||1,427,823[r]||3,073,000[s]||No Data|
|Rhein-Süd[q] (Cologne - Bonn)||Germany||1,926,073[t]||3,070,000[s]||3,023,545[u]|
|Rome metropolitan area||Italy||4,149,364||4,353,738||3,700,000|
|Ruhr area||Germany||No data[v]||5,376,000[s]||5,045,784|
|Saarbrücken - Forbach|| Germany/
|Metropolitan Stockholm||Sweden||2,018,208||2,171,000||2,034,354|
|South Yorkshire (Sheffield)||United Kingdom||920,128||1,569,000||1,596,298|
|Stuttgart Metropolitan Region||Germany||1,965,942||2,289,000||2,678,795|
|Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area||Greece||975,439||1,052,000||1,166,914|
|Toulouse||France||1,309,149||No data||No data|
|Turin metropolitan area||Italy||1,774,507||1,601,000[y]||2,302,353|
|Warsaw metropolitan area||Poland||3,037,890||2,785,000||3,304,641|
|Zürich metropolitan area||Switzerland||1,246,968||1,615,000||1,984,534|
List of larger urban zones by population as of 2004
This is a list of larger urban zones by population as of 2004. The 2004 Urban Audit also includes cities from EFTA countries (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland) and EU candidate countries, although the only candidate country for which there is available data is Turkey. Some cities, including Marseille, Lille, Nice, Cordoba, Badajoz, Toulon and Montpellier were excluded from the 2004 list on technical, definitional grounds, such as the coincidence of the metropolitan area with the urban zone.
|Rank||Larger urban zone||Country||Population||Area (km²)|
|2||Istanbul||Turkey (non EU state)||11,154,928|
|10||Ankara||Turkey (non EU state)||3,736,359|
|13||Upper Silesian Industrial Region||Poland||2,710,397||2,650.65|
|19||Izmir||Turkey (non EU state)||2,459,474|
|34||Belgrade||Serbia (non EU state)||1,683,962||514|
|36||Dublin||Republic of Ireland||1,535,446|
|38||Bursa||Turkey (non EU state)||1,474,482|
|40||Adana||Turkey (non EU state)||1,394,130|
|54||Zurich||Switzerland (non EU state)||1,110,478||1,086.14|
|57||Oslo||Norway (non EU state)||1,090,513||6,920|
|58||Newcastle upon Tyne||United Kingdom||1,055,600||3,385|
|59||Gaziantep||Turkey (non EU state)||1,052,795|
Eurostat's Urban Audit is about much more than demographics. In order for it to be useful as a policy tool to the European Commission and other authorities it contains data for over 250 indicators across the following domains:
- Social Aspects
- Economic Aspects
- Civic Involvement
- Training and Education
- Travel and Transport
- Information Society
- Culture and Recreation
- List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits
- List of urban areas in the European Union
- List of metropolitan areas in Europe
- Largest metropolitan areas in the Nordic countries
- World's largest cities
- Part of the Randstad polycentric urban region consisting of the metropolitan areas of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht (982,000). The total population of the region is 7,100,000.
- The Flemish Diamond metropolitan region, which consists of the metropolitan areas of Brussels, Antwerp, Gent, and Leuven, has a total population of 5,103,000.
- Total population is 4,251,000 if the metropolitan area of Mataro (169,000) is included.
- Part of the wider Öresund region, which includes the Swedish metropolitan area of Malmö (961,000). The total regional population is 2,842,000.
- Part of the Rhein-Main metropolitan region with a total population of 4,149,000, which additionally includes the metropolitan areas of Darmstadt (501,000), Wiesbaden (453,000), and Mainz (431,000).
- Part of the polycentric Upper Silesian urban region with a total population of 5,294,000. The region additionally includes the metropolitan areas of Ostrava (1,046,000), Bielsko-Biala (584,000) and Rybnik (526,000).
- Leeds and Bradford counted separately.
- Kortrijk not included.
- Part of the wider Lille-Bassin Minier region with a total population of 3,115,000.
- Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 6,011,000.
- When combined with the Augsburg metropolitan area (606,000), the region has a total population of 3,271,000.
- Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 3,714,000.
- Part of a wider polycentric urban region with a population of 1,778,000.
- Excludes Southampton
- Polycentric metropolitan area
- Excludes Neuss.
- Part of the polycentric urban region of Rhein-Ruhr, which has a total population of 12,190,000.
- Excludes Bonn which has a population of 750,370
- Excludes Bonn
- Essen, Bochum, and Dortmund counted separately.
- Saarbrücken only
- Total population is 1,262,000 if the metropolitan area of Utrera (82,000) is included.
- Total population is 1,716,000 if the metropolitan of Pinerolo is included.
- Excludes Sunderland
- Total population is 1,499,000 if the metropolitan area of Sagunto is included.
- Position Statement on Cohesion Policy 2014–2020, EuroMETREX. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "European cities – the EU-OECD functional urban area definition". Eurostat. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- "City statistics - Urban audit". Eurostat. 2006. Archived from the original on 6 February 2009.
- "The shift of Eurostat to Urban Statistics". Dr. Berthold Feldmann, Eurostat. March 2006. Archived from the original on 20 September 2006.
- http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999003.pdf Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20110727094843/http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999004.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2016. Missing or empty
- (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20110727094905/http://www.statistiques-locales.insee.fr/Fiches/RS/AU1999/RS_AU1999006.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2016. Missing or empty
- "OEDC Populations in cities". OEDC. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
- "Urban Audit Database". Urbanaudit.org. Archived from the original on 23 May 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3) Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007)
- Data for 2001 (2004 data not yet available)
- "Urban Audit". European Commission. 2006. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013.
- "State of European Cities Report" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- GMES Urban Atlas: PDF files, ZIP files
- Eurostat: European cities
- Eurostat: Total population in Urban Audit cities, Larger Urban Zone