Leader of the Opposition (New Zealand)

Summary

In New Zealand, the Leader of the Opposition (or Opposition leader) is a senior politician who leads the Official Opposition. The Leader of the Opposition is, by convention, the leader of the largest political party in the House of Representatives that is not in government (nor provides confidence and supply). This is usually the parliamentary leader of the second-largest caucus in the House of Representatives.[2]

Leader of the Opposition of New Zealand
Coat of arms of New Zealand.svg
Christopher Luxon.jpg
Incumbent
Christopher Luxon

since 30 November 2021
Official Opposition of New Zealand
Reports toParliament
Term lengthWhile leader of the largest political party in the House of Representatives that is not in government
Inaugural holderJohn Ballance[a]
Formation2 July 1889[b]
Salary$288,900 (As at 2016)[1]
^ a. As the first parliamentary leader of an Opposition party.
^ b. The date Ballance was officially named Leader of the Opposition.
In parliament, the leader of the Opposition sits near the front to the left of the speaker's chair (annotated)

When in the debating chamber the Opposition leader sits on the left-hand side of the centre table, in front of the Opposition and opposite the prime minister.[3]

The role of the leader of the Opposition dates to the late 19th century, with the first political parties, and the office was formally recognised by statute in 1933. Although currently mentioned in a number of statutes, the office is not established by any Act (nor is that of the prime minister); it is simply a product of the conventions of the Westminster-style parliamentary system. The leader of the Opposition is paid a special salary by virtue of the office.

Typically the leader is elected by his or her party according to its rules. A new leader may be elected when the incumbent dies, resigns, or is challenged for the leadership. On 30 November 2021 Christopher Luxon was voted Leader of the National Party and Leader of the Opposition [4]

Since 1936, the leader of the Opposition has invariably come from either the Labour or National parties.

RoleEdit

The term "opposition" has a specific meaning in the parliamentary sense; it is an important component of the Westminster system, with the Official Opposition directing criticism at the Government. The leader of the Opposition chairs a Shadow Cabinet, which scrutinises the policies and actions of the Cabinet led by the prime minister, and promotes alternative policies.[5][6] Directed by the leader, the Opposition may move no-confidence motions to test the Government's majority or the confidence of the House.[7] The leader of the Opposition may be asked by the governor-general form a new government if the incumbent government is unable to continue in office (e.g. upon a successful no-confidence motion).[8]

Apart from parliamentary duties, there are several ways in which the leader of the Opposition participates directly in affairs of state. Often, these relate to national security matters, which are supposed to transcend party politics – the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service, for example, is required to brief the leader of the Opposition as well as the prime minister on certain matters of national security.[9]

SalaryEdit

The leader of the Opposition receives a higher salary than other members of the Opposition, being paid the same amount as a Cabinet minister.[10] As at 2016 the Leader of the Opposition's salary is NZ$288,900.[11][1] In addition, like all other members of parliament, the leader of the Opposition receives annual allowances for travel and lodging.

HistoryEdit

For much of the country's early history, the role was not a formal one. For most of the 19th century, there was rarely any one person who could be identified as the leader of the Opposition. Prominent members were sometimes informally dubbed as "Leader of the Opposition" – often facetiously by rival politicians.[8] It was only when the Liberal Party was formed that any unified leadership appeared in Parliament, and the role of Opposition leader is generally traced from this point. John Ballance, leader of the Liberals (and later premier) is usually considered the first leader of the Opposition in the modern sense.[8]

When Ballance led the Liberals into government in 1891, they faced no formal opposition in a party sense, though certain MPs were styled leader of the Opposition. Their opponents gradually coalesced around a leader, William Massey, who became Opposition leader in 1903, and in 1909 became the first parliamentary leader of the new Reform Party.[12] For the first time, an Opposition party came forward as an alternative government.[12] After this, the leader of the Opposition was typically the parliamentary leader of the largest party in the House of Representatives that had not undertaken to support the government of the day.[citation needed]

One exception to this was during World War I, when the opposition Liberal Party accepted the governing Reform Party's offer to form a wartime coalition. Prime Minister Massey also extended the offer to the new Labour Party who rejected it. This made Labour the largest party not in government, however their leader Alfred Hindmarsh was not officially recognised as the leader of the Opposition. Joseph Ward, who became deputy prime minister in the wartime cabinet, still retained the title, albeit in name only.[13]

During the 1910s and 1920s, the role of Official Opposition alternated between the Liberal and Reform parties. However, the rise of the Labour Party in the 1920s, together with a gradual weakening in support for the Liberals, led to a three-party situation by the mid-1920s, with the Labour and Liberal parties having a similar number of seats. After the 1925 election there was no official leader of the Opposition until Rex Mason of Labour won the seat of Eden in the by-election held on 15 April 1926. Labour superseded the Liberals as the Official Opposition, and their leader Harry Holland became the leader of the Opposition.[14]

The 1928 general election put the United Party (a remnant of the Liberals) in government for the last time. Reform then became the Opposition, however in 1931 Reform entered into coalition with the Liberals, and Labour then became the Official Opposition, despite being the third party. The unity of the coalition, culminating in the formation of the National Party in 1936, created a stable two-party system, with National and Labour alternating between Government and Opposition for much of the remainder of the century.

Modern officeEdit

The office was first officially recognised by an Act of Parliament in 1933, when a special allowance was conferred on the holder.[8]

With the introduction of the mixed-member proportional (MMP) voting system, first used in the 1996 general election, the nature of parliamentary opposition has changed. Now, though the leader of the largest non-Government party still becomes the leader of the Opposition, there will usually be several parties who are "in opposition". An example of this arose after the 2002 general election, when the National Party gained only 27 seats – less than half the 58 seats held by opposition parties. This prompted calls from a number of parties, notably New Zealand First and the Greens, for the abolition or reform of the post. It was argued by these parties that the position had become an "anachronism" in the modern multi-party environment, and that the days of a united opposition bloc were gone. However, with the revival of the National Party in the 2005 general election, a more traditional relationship between Government and Opposition has been restored. According to Parliamentary Services, the leader of the Opposition formally represents and speaks for all parties that are outside Government.[15]

List of leaders of the OppositionEdit

A table of leaders is below. Those who also served as prime minister, either before or after being leader of the Opposition, are indicated.

Key

  Liberal   Conservative   Reform   Labour   United   National

No. Leader
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
Portrait Term of office Party Prime Minister
1 John Ballance
(1839–1893)
MP for Wanganui
  2 July 1889 23 January 1891 Liberal Atkinson
1887–91
2 John Bryce
(1833–1913)
MP for Waikato
  23 January 1891 31 August 1891 Conservative Ballance
1891–93
3 William Rolleston
(1831–1903)
MP for Halswell
  31 August 1891 8 November 1893 Conservative
Seddon
1893–1906
4 William Russell
(1838–1913)
MP for Hawkes Bay
  26 June 1894 3 July 1901 Conservative
5 William Massey
(1856–1925)
MP for Franklin
  11 September 1903 February 1909 Conservative
Hall-Jones
1906
Ward
1906–12
February 1909 10 July 1912 Reform
Mackenzie
1912
6 Joseph Ward
(1856–1930)
MP for Awarua[a]
  11 September 1913 27 November 1919 Liberal Massey
1912–25
7 William MacDonald
(1862–1920)
MP for Bay of Plenty
  21 January 1920 31 August 1920 Liberal
8 Thomas Wilford
(1870–1939)
MP for Hutt
  8 September 1920 13 August 1925 Liberal
Bell
1925
Coates
1925–28
9 George Forbes
(1869–1947)
MP for Hurunui
  13 August 1925 4 November 1925 Liberal
Position vacant
from 1925 general election until after 1926 Eden by-election
4 November 1925 16 June 1926
10 Harry Holland
(1868–1933)
MP for Buller
  16 June 1926 18 October 1928 Labour
(6) Joseph Ward
(1856–1930)
MP for Invercargill
  4 December 1928 10 December 1928 United
11 Gordon Coates
(1878–1943)
MP for Kaipara
  10 December 1928 22 September 1931 Reform Ward
1928–30
Forbes
1930–35
(10) Harry Holland
(1868–1933)
MP for Buller
  22 September 1931 8 October 1933 Labour
12 Michael Joseph Savage
(1872–1940)
MP for Auckland West
  12 October 1933 6 December 1935 Labour
(9) George Forbes
(1869–1947)
MP for Hurunui
  6 December 1935 14 May 1936 United Savage
1935–40
14 May 1936 2 November 1936 National
13 Adam Hamilton
(1880–1952)
MP for Wallace
  2 November 1936 26 November 1940 National
Fraser
1940–49
14 Sidney Holland
(1893–1961)
MP for Christchurch North until 1946
MP for Fendalton from 1946
  26 November 1940 13 December 1949 National
15 Peter Fraser
(1884–1950)
MP for Brooklyn
  13 December 1949 12 December 1950 Labour Holland
1949–57
16 Walter Nash
(1882–1968)
MP for Hutt
  17 January 1951 12 December 1957 Labour
Holyoake
1957
17 Keith Holyoake
(1904–1983)
MP for Pahiatua
  12 December 1957 12 December 1960 National Nash
1957–60
(16) Walter Nash
(1882–1968)
MP for Hutt
  12 December 1960 31 March 1963 Labour Holyoake
1960–72
18 Arnold Nordmeyer
(1901–1989)
MP for Island Bay
  1 April 1963 16 December 1965 Labour
19 Norman Kirk
(1923–1974)
MP for Lyttelton until 1969
MP for Sydenham from 1969
  16 December 1965 8 December 1972 Labour
Marshall
1972
20 Jack Marshall
(1912–1988)
MP for Karori
  8 December 1972 9 July 1974 National Kirk
1972–74
21 Robert Muldoon
(1921–1992)
MP for Tāmaki
  9 July 1974 12 December 1975 National
Rowling
1974–75
22 Bill Rowling
(1927–1995)
MP for Tasman
  12 December 1975 3 February 1983 Labour Muldoon
1975–84
23 David Lange
(1942–2005)
MP for Māngere
  3 February 1983 26 July 1984 Labour
(21) Robert Muldoon
(1921–1992)
MP for Tāmaki
  26 July 1984 29 November 1984 National Lange
1984–89
24 Jim McLay
(born 1945)
MP for Birkenhead
  29 November 1984 26 March 1986 National
25 Jim Bolger
(born 1935)
MP for King Country
  26 March 1986 2 November 1990 National
Palmer
1989–90
Moore
1990
26 Mike Moore
(1949–2020)
MP for Christchurch North
  2 November 1990 1 December 1993 Labour Bolger
1990–97
27 Helen Clark
(born 1950)
MP for Mount Albert
  1 December 1993 10 December 1999 Labour
Shipley
1997–99
28 Jenny Shipley
(born 1952)
MP for Rakaia
  10 December 1999 8 October 2001 National Clark
1999–2008
29 Bill English
(born 1961)
MP for Clutha-Southland
  8 October 2001 28 October 2003 National
30 Don Brash
(born 1940)
List MP
  28 October 2003 27 November 2006 National
31 John Key
(born 1961)
MP for Helensville
  27 November 2006 19 November 2008 National
32 Phil Goff
(born 1953)
MP for Mount Roskill
  19 November 2008 13 December 2011 Labour Key
2008–16
33 David Shearer
(born 1957)
MP for Mount Albert
  13 December 2011 15 September 2013 Labour
34 David Cunliffe
(born 1963)
MP for New Lynn
  15 September 2013 27 September 2014 Labour
35 Andrew Little
(born 1965)
List MP
  18 November 2014 1 August 2017 Labour
English
2016–17
36 Jacinda Ardern
(born 1980)
MP for Mount Albert
  1 August 2017 26 October 2017 Labour
(29) Bill English
(born 1961)
List MP
  26 October 2017 27 February 2018 National Ardern
2017–present
37 Simon Bridges
(born 1976)
MP for Tauranga
  27 February 2018 22 May 2020 National
38 Todd Muller
(born 1968)
MP for Bay of Plenty
  22 May 2020 14 July 2020 National
39 Judith Collins
(born 1959)
MP for Papakura
  14 July 2020 25 November 2021 National
Shane Reti[b]
(born 1963)
List MP
Interim Leader of the National Party
  25 November 2021 30 November 2021 National
40 Christopher Luxon
(born 1970)
MP for Botany
  30 November 2021 Incumbent National
Notes
  1. ^ From 4 August 1915 to 21 August 1919, the Reform Party and the Liberal Party formed a joint wartime coalition. Joseph Ward of the Liberals officially remained "Leader of the Opposition", even though he was actually part of the government.
  2. ^ Shane Reti assumed the position of interim leader of the National Party due to the motion of no confidence against former leader Judith Collins.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "MPs given 2.5 percent pay rise". Radio NZ. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  2. ^ "Glossary". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  3. ^ "People in Parliament". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
  4. ^ "National leadership updates: 'We are the reset,' says Chris Luxon after becoming new leader". 30 November 2021.
  5. ^ "The Relationship between the Government and the Opposition or Minority Parties in Selected Places" (PDF). 13 November 2002. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  6. ^ Martin, John E. (20 June 2012). "Parliament – The business of government". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. § The opposition. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  7. ^ "The Opposition". nzhistory.govt.nz. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 15 July 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d "Chapter 8 Parties and Government". www.parliament.nz. New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  9. ^ "Overview". NZSIS. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
  10. ^ "Bill English admits pay rise 'a bit embarrassing'". New Zealand Herald. 21 November 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2009.
  11. ^ "Parliamentary Salaries and Allowances Determination 2016" (PDF). New Zealand Parliament. 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  12. ^ a b Gardner, William James (1966). McLintock, Alexander Hare (ed.). "MASSEY, William Ferguson". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  13. ^ Ward, Joseph George
  14. ^ O'Farrell, Patrick. "Holland, Henry Edmund - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  15. ^ "Who's who in Parliament?". Retrieved 9 February 2018.

External linksEdit

  • People of Parliament – New Zealand Parliament