List of Earth flybys

Summary

Earth imaged by MESSENGER during its 2005 flyby

List of Earth flybys is a list of cases where spacecraft incidentally performed Earth flybys, typically for a gravity assist to another body.

Spacecraft Organization Date Type Closest Approach Status Notes Image Ref
Giotto
(first pass)
ESA logo simple.svg ESA 2 July 1990 flyby 22,730 km success first Earth flyby, en route to Comet Grigg-Skjellerup [1]
Galileo
(first pass)
NASA logo.svg NASA 8 December 1990 flyby 301 km success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 960 km Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [2]
Sakigake
(first pass)
Japan ISAS 8 January 1992 flyby 88,790 km success previously visited Halley's comet Sakigake.gif [3]
Suisei Japan ISAS 20 August 1992 flyby failure failure previously visited Halley's comet; hydrazine depleted, further planned comet flybys abandoned Suisei.gif [4]
Galileo
(second pass)
NASA logo.svg NASA 8 December 1992 flyby success gravity assist en route to Jupiter; minimum distance 305 km Galileo Preparations - GPN-2000-000672.jpg [5]
Sakigake
(second and third passes)
Japan ISAS 14 June 1993 flyby Sakigake.gif [6]
28 October 1994 flyby out of fuel; telemetry contact lost November 1995
NEAR Shoemaker NASA logo.svg NASA 23 January 1998 flyby 540 km success gravity assist en route to Eros NEARCraft.jpg [7]
Nozomi
(first pass)
Japan ISAS 20 December 1998 flyby 1000 km partial success gravity assist on planned mission to Mars; valve malfunction during flyby required extra burn, which later forced alternate trajectory plan [8]
Giotto
(second pass)
ESA logo simple.svg ESA 1 July 1999 flyby failure n/a already defunct [1]
Cassini NASA logo.svg NASA
ESA logo simple.svg ESA
Asi logo.svg ASI
18 August, 1999 flyby 1171 km success gravity assist en route to Saturn Cassini assembly.jpg [9]
Stardust
(first pass)
NASA logo.svg NASA 15 January 2001 flyby 6000 km success gravity assist en route to comet 81P/Wild Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg [10]
Nozomi
(second pass)
Japan ISAS December, 2002 flyby 11,000 km success gravity assist en route to Mars [8]
Nozomi
(third pass)
Japan ISAS 19 June 2003 flyby 1000 km success gravity assist en route to Mars [8]
Hayabusa Japan ISAS 19 May 2004 flyby 20,000 km success en route to Itokawa Hayabusa(Muses-C) sampling.jpg [11]
Rosetta
(first pass)
ESA logo simple.svg ESA 4 March 2005 flyby 1950 km success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters Rosetta.jpg [12]
MESSENGER NASA logo.svg NASA 2 August 2005 flyby 2348 km success en route to Venus and Mercury Messenger.jpg [13]
Stardust
(second pass)
NASA logo.svg NASA 15 January 2006 flyby success drop-off of sample return capsule Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg [10]
Rosetta
(second pass)
ESA logo simple.svg ESA 13 November 2007 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (first pass) NASA logo.svg NASA 31 December 2007[14] flyby 15,567 success previously visited Comet 9P/Tempel; gravity assist en route to encounter with Comet 103P/Hartley Deep Impact.jpg [15]
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (second pass) NASA logo.svg NASA December 2008[14][16] flyby 43,450 km success gravity assist Deep Impact.jpg [15]
Stardust
(third pass)
NASA logo.svg NASA 14 January 2009 flyby 9200 km success[17] mission extension to Comet 9P/Tempel; minimum distance 9200 km Stardust - Concepcao artistica.jpg [10]
Rosetta
(third pass)
ESA logo simple.svg ESA 13 November 2009 flyby success gravity assist en route to asteroid and comet encounters
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (third pass) NASA logo.svg NASA June 2009[14] distant flyby success Deep Impact.jpg [15]
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (fourth pass) NASA logo.svg NASA December 2009[14][16] distant flyby success Deep Impact.jpg [15]
Deep Impact (redesignated EPOXI) (fifth pass) NASA logo.svg NASA June 2010[14] flyby 36,900 km success Deep Impact.jpg [15]
Juno NASA logo.svg NASA 9 October 2013 flyby 559 km success gravity assist en route to Jupiter Juno in front of Jupiter.jpg 2011-040A
Hayabusa2 Jaxa logo.svg JAXA 3 December 2015 flyby success gravity assist en route to Asteroid 162173 Ryugu 2014-076A
PROCYON Japan University of Tokyo
Jaxa logo.svg JAXA
3 December 2015[18] flyby success was en route to Asteroid 2000 DP107 but mission abandoned[19] 2014-076D
Shin'en 2 Japan Kyutech 4 December 2015[20] flyby success 2014-076B
OSIRIS-REx NASA logo.svg NASA 22 September 2017[21] flyby 17,237 km success Gravity assist en route to Asteroid 101955 Bennu OSIRIS-REx spacecraft model.png 2016-055A
BepiColombo ESA logo simple.svg ESA
Jaxa logo.svg JAXA
10 April 2020 flyby 12,700 km success Gravity assist en route to Venus and Mercury BEPICLMBO

See also

References

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  2. ^ "Solar System Exploration: : Galileo Legacy Site". 2.jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2001-04-19. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
  3. ^ "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  4. ^ "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
  5. ^ "Solar System Exploration: : Galileo Legacy Site". .jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2001-04-19. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  6. ^ "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
  7. ^ "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  8. ^ a b c "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  9. ^ "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  10. ^ a b c "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  11. ^ "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  12. ^ "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  13. ^ "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  14. ^ a b c d e "NASA - EPOXI Mission - Mission". Epoxi.umd.edu. Archived from the original on 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
  15. ^ a b c d e "NASA - NSSDC - Spacecraft - Details". Nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  16. ^ a b "Solar System Exploration: Missions: By Name: D: Deep Impact-EPOXI". Sse.jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  17. ^ "Stardust-NExT: Status Report 2009". Stardustnext.jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2012-08-20.
  18. ^ "PROCYON". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
  19. ^ Lakdawalla, Emily (May 8, 2015). "Due to ion engine failure, PROCYON will not fly by an asteroid". Retrieved 2015-09-23.
  20. ^ "Keiichi Okuyama-Lab". Kyushu Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2015-12-01.
  21. ^ "NASA'S OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Slingshots Past Earth". NASA. 2017-09-22. Retrieved 2018-04-26.