List of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States Congress

Summary

This is a list of Hispanic and Latino Americans who have served in the United States Congress. Persons included are identified as having a lineage from Spain or Latin America, a definition that includes Brazil but not Portugal.

Entries shaded in gray refer to current members of the U.S. Congress.

SenateEdit

Picture Senator
(lifespan)
Hispanic or Latino ancestry Party State Term start Term end Notes
  Dominique Bouligny
(1773–1833)
Spanish Democratic-Republican
(1824–1828)
Louisiana Nov 19, 1824 March 4, 1829 Retired
National Republican
(1828–1829)
  David Levy Yulee
(1810–1886)
Spanish Democratic Florida July 1, 1845 March 4, 1851 Lost reelection
March 4, 1855 Jan 21, 1861 Resigned when Florida seceded from the Union
  Judah P. Benjamin
(1811–1884)
Spanish[1] Whig
(1853–1856)
Louisiana March 4, 1853 Feb 4, 1861 Resigned when Louisiana seceded from the Union
Democratic
(1856–1861)
  Octaviano Larrazolo[2]
(1859–1930)
Mexican[3] Republican New Mexico Dec 7, 1928 March 4, 1929 Retired
  Dennis Chávez
(1888–1962)
Mexican[4] Democratic New Mexico May 11, 1935 Nov 18, 1962 Died in office
  Joseph Montoya
(1915–1978)
Mexican[5] Democratic New Mexico Nov 4, 1964 Jan 3, 1977 Lost reelection
  John E. Sununu
(born 1964)
Salvadoran[6] Republican New Hampshire Jan 3, 2003 Jan 3, 2009 Lost reelection
  Mel Martínez[7]
(born 1946)
Cuban[8] Republican Florida Jan 3, 2005 Sep 9, 2009 Resigned
  Ken Salazar
(born 1955)
Mexican[9] Democratic Colorado Jan 3, 2005 Jan 20, 2009 Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior
  Bob Menendez
(born 1954)
Cuban[10] Democratic New Jersey Jan 17, 2006 Incumbent
  Marco Rubio
(born 1971)
Cuban[11] Republican Florida Jan 3, 2011 Incumbent
  Ted Cruz
(born 1970)
Cuban[11] Republican Texas Jan 3, 2013 Incumbent
  Catherine Cortez Masto[12]
(born 1964)
Mexican[13] Democratic Nevada Jan 3, 2017 Incumbent
  Ben Ray Luján
(born 1972)
Mexican[14] Democratic New Mexico Jan 3, 2021 Incumbent
  Alex Padilla
(born 1973)
Mexican[15] Democratic California Jan 20, 2021 Incumbent

Elected, but not seatedEdit

Picture Senator-elect
(lifespan)
Hispanic or Latino ancestry Party State Year elected Notes
  Charles Gayarré
(1805–1895)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana 1834 Prior to being seated, resigned due to ill health

House of RepresentativesEdit

Picture Representative
(lifespan)
Hispanic or Latino ancestry Party State Term start Term end Notes
  Alcée la Branche
(1806–1881)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana March 4, 1843 March 4, 1845 Retired
  John Edward Bouligny
(1824–1864)
Spanish American (Know-Nothing)
(1859–1860)
Louisiana March 4, 1859 March 4, 1861 Retired[16]
Constitutional Union
(1860–1861)
  Romualdo Pacheco[17]
(1831–1899)
Mexican Republican California March 4, 1877 Feb 7, 1878 Lost election contestation
March 4, 1879 March 4, 1883 Retired
  Frank Coombs
(1853–1934)
Mexican Republican California March 4, 1901 March 4, 1903 Lost reelection
  Albert Estopinal
(1845–1919)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana Nov 3, 1908 April 28, 1919 Died in office
  Ladislas Lazaro
(1872–1927)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana March 4, 1913 March 30, 1927 Died in office
  Benigno C. Hernández
(1862–1954)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1915 March 4, 1917 Lost reelection
March 4, 1919 March 4, 1921 Retired
  Néstor Montoya
(1862–1923)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1921 Jan 13, 1923 Died in office
  Dennis Chávez
(1888–1962)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico March 4, 1931 Jan 3, 1935 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate from New Mexico[18]
  Joachim O. Fernández
(1896–1978)
Spanish Democratic Louisiana March 4, 1931 Jan 3, 1941 Lost reelection
  Antonio M. Fernández
(1902–1956)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico Jan 3, 1943 Nov 7, 1956 Died in office
  Joseph Montoya
(1915–1978)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico April 9, 1957 Nov 3, 1964 Retired to run successfully for the U.S. Senate from New Mexico
  Henry B. González
(1916–2000)
Mexican Democratic Texas Nov 4, 1961 Jan 3, 1999 Retired
  Thomas Ponce Gill
(1922–2009)
Cuban Democratic Hawaii Jan 3, 1963 Jan 3, 1965 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate from Hawaii
  Edward R. Roybal
(1916–2005)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 1963 Jan 3, 1993 Retired
  Kika de la Garza
(1927–2017)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 1965 Jan 3, 1997 Retired
  Manuel Lujan
(1928–2019)
Mexican Republican New Mexico Jan 3, 1969 Jan 3, 1989 Retired[19]
  Herman Badillo
(1929–2014)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York Jan 3, 1971 Dec 31, 1977 Resigned to become Deputy Mayor of New York City
  Charles Rangel
(born 1930)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York Jan 3, 1971 Jan 3, 2017 Retired
  Robert Garcia
(1933–2017)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York Feb 21, 1978 Jan 7, 1990 Resigned[20]
  Matthew Martínez
(1929–2011)
Mexican
Democratic
(1982–2000)
.
California July 13, 1982 Jan 3, 2001 Lost renomination as a Democrat and joined the Republican Party
Republican
(2000–2001)
  Solomon P. Ortiz
(born 1937)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 1983 Jan 3, 2011 Lost reelection
  Bill Richardson
(born 1947)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico Jan 3, 1983 Feb 13, 1997 Resigned to become U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations[21]
  Esteban E. Torres
(1930–2022)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 1983 Jan 3, 1999 Retired
  Barbara Vucanovich[22]
(1921–2013)
Mexican Republican Nevada Jan 3, 1983 Jan 3, 1997 Retired
  Albert Bustamante
(1935–2021)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 1985 Jan 3, 1993 Lost reelection[23]
  Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
(born 1952)
Cuban Republican Florida Aug 29, 1989 Jan 3, 2019 Retired
  José E. Serrano
(born 1943)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York March 20, 1990 Jan 3, 2021 Retired
  Ed Pastor
(1943–2018)
Mexican Democratic Arizona Oct 3, 1991 Jan 3, 2015 Retired
  Xavier Becerra
(born 1958)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 1993 Jan 24, 2017 Resigned to become Attorney General of California[24]
  Henry Bonilla
(born 1954)
Mexican Republican Texas Jan 3, 1993 Jan 3, 2007 Lost reelection
  Lincoln Díaz-Balart
(born 1954)
Cuban Republican Florida Jan 3, 1993 Jan 3, 2011 Retired
  Luis Gutiérrez
(born 1953)
Puerto Rican Democratic Illinois Jan 3, 1993 Jan 3, 2019 Retired
  Bob Menendez
(born 1954)
Cuban Democratic New Jersey Jan 3, 1993 Jan 16, 2006 Resigned to accept appointment as U.S. Senator from New Jersey
  Lucille Roybal-Allard
(born 1941)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 1993 Incumbent
  Frank Tejeda
(1945–1997)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 1993 Jan 30, 1997 Died in office
  Nydia Velázquez
(born 1953)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York Jan 3, 1993 Incumbent
  Rubén Hinojosa
(born 1940)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 1997 Jan 3, 2017 Retired
  Silvestre Reyes
(born 1944)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 1997 Jan 3, 2013 Lost renomination
  Loretta Sánchez
(born 1960)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 1997 Jan 3, 2017 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate from California
  John E. Sununu
(born 1964)
Salvadoran Republican New Hampshire Jan 3, 1997 Jan 3, 2003 Retired to run successfully for the U.S. Senate from New Hampshire
  Ciro Rodríguez
(born 1946)
Mexican Democratic Texas April 12, 1997 Jan 3, 2005 Lost renomination
Jan 3, 2007 Jan 3, 2011 Lost reelection
  Charlie González
(born 1945)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 1999 Jan 3, 2013 Retired
  Grace Napolitano
(born 1936)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 1999 Incumbent
  Joe Baca
(born 1947)
Mexican Democratic California Nov 16, 1999 Jan 3, 2013 Lost reelection
  Hilda Solis
(born 1957)
Mexican,
Nicaraguan
Democratic California Jan 3, 2001 Feb 24, 2009 Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of Labor
  Mario Díaz-Balart
(born 1961)
Cuban Republican Florida Jan 3, 2003 Incumbent
  Raúl Grijalva
(born 1948)
Mexican Democratic Arizona Jan 3, 2003 Incumbent
  Linda Sánchez
(born 1969)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2003 Incumbent
  Henry Cuellar
(born 1955)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 2005 Incumbent
  John Salazar
(born 1953)
Mexican Democratic Colorado Jan 3, 2005 Jan 3, 2011 Lost reelection
  Albio Sires
(born 1951)
Cuban Democratic New Jersey Nov 13, 2006 Incumbent
  Ben Ray Luján
(born 1972)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico Jan 3, 2009 Jan 3, 2021 Retired to run successfully for the U.S. Senate from New Mexico
  John Garamendi
(born 1945)
Spanish Democratic California Nov 3, 2009 Incumbent
  Quico Canseco
(born 1949)
Mexican Republican Texas Jan 3, 2011 Jan 3, 2013 Lost reelection
  Bill Flores
(born 1954)
Spanish Republican Texas Jan 3, 2011 Jan 3, 2021 Retired
  Jaime Herrera Beutler
(born 1978)
Mexican Republican Washington Jan 3, 2011 Incumbent
  Raúl Labrador
(born 1967)
Puerto Rican Republican Idaho Jan 3, 2011 Jan 3, 2019 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for Governor of Idaho
  David Rivera
(born 1965)
Cuban Republican Florida Jan 3, 2011 Jan 3, 2013 Lost reelection
  Tony Cárdenas
(born 1963)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2013 Incumbent
  Joaquin Castro
(born 1974)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 2013 Incumbent
  Pete Gallego
(born 1961)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 2013 Jan 3, 2015 Lost reelection
  Joe Garcia
(born 1963)
Cuban Democratic Florida Jan 3, 2013 Jan 3, 2015 Lost reelection
  Michelle Lujan Grisham
(born 1959)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico Jan 3, 2013 Dec 31, 2018 Resigned to become Governor of New Mexico
  Gloria Negrete McLeod
(born 1941)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2013 Jan 3, 2015 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Board of Supervisors of San Bernardino County, California
  Raul Ruiz
(born 1972)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2013 Incumbent
  Juan Vargas
(born 1961)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2013 Incumbent
  Filemón Vela
(born 1963)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 2013 Mar 31, 2022 Resigned
  Pete Aguilar
(born 1979)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2015 Incumbent
  Carlos Curbelo
(born 1980)
Cuban Republican Florida Jan 3, 2015 Jan 3, 2019 Lost reelection
  Ruben Gallego
(born 1979)
Mexican,
Colombian
Democratic Arizona Jan 3, 2015 Incumbent
  Alex Mooney
(born 1971)
Cuban Republican West Virginia Jan 3, 2015 Incumbent
  Norma Torres
(born 1965)
Guatemalan Democratic California Jan 3, 2015 Incumbent
  Nanette Barragán
(born 1976)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2017 Incumbent
  Salud Carbajal
(born 1964)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2017 Incumbent
  Lou Correa
(born 1958)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2017 Incumbent
  Adriano Espaillat
(born 1954)
Dominican Democratic New York Jan 3, 2017 Incumbent
  Vicente Gonzalez
(born 1967)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 2017 Incumbent
  Rubén Kihuen
(born 1980)
Mexican Democratic Nevada Jan 3, 2017 Jan 3, 2019 Retired
  Brian Mast
(born 1980)
Mexican Republican Florida Jan 3, 2017 Incumbent
  Darren Soto
(born 1978)
Puerto Rican Democratic Florida Jan 3, 2017 Incumbent
  Jimmy Gomez
(born 1974)
Mexican Democratic California July 11, 2017 Incumbent
  Gil Cisneros
(born 1971)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2019 Jan 3, 2021 Lost reelection
  Veronica Escobar
(born 1969)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 2019 Incumbent
  Chuy García
(born 1956)
Mexican Democratic Illinois Jan 3, 2019 Incumbent
  Sylvia Garcia
(born 1950)
Mexican Democratic Texas Jan 3, 2019 Incumbent
  Anthony Gonzalez
(born 1984)
Cuban Republican Ohio Jan 3, 2019 Incumbent
  Mike Levin
(born 1978)
Mexican Democratic California Jan 3, 2019 Incumbent
  Debbie Mucarsel-Powell
(born 1971)
Ecuadorian Democratic Florida Jan 3, 2019 Jan 3, 2021 Lost reelection
  Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez
(born 1989)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York Jan 3, 2019 Incumbent
  Xochitl Torres Small
(born 1984)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico Jan 3, 2019 Jan 3, 2021 Lost reelection
  Mike Garcia
(born 1976)
Mexican Republican California May 19, 2020 Incumbent
  Carlos Giménez
(born 1954)
Cuban Republican Florida Jan 3, 2021 Incumbent
  Tony Gonzales
(born 1980)
Mexican Republican Texas Jan 3, 2021 Incumbent
  Teresa Leger Fernandez
(born 1959)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico Jan 3, 2021 Incumbent
  Nicole Malliotakis
(born 1980)
Cuban Republican New York Jan 3, 2021 Incumbent
  María Elvira Salazar
(born 1961)
Cuban Republican Florida Jan 3, 2021 Incumbent
  Ritchie Torres
(born 1988)
Puerto Rican Democratic New York Jan 3, 2021 Incumbent

House delegates (non-voting members)Edit

(Note: Delegates are organized first in chronological order according to their first term in office, then second in alphabetical order according to their surname.)

Picture Delegate[25]
(lifespan)
Hispanic or Latino ancestry Party Territory Term start Term end Notes
  Joseph Marion Hernández
(1788–1857)
Spanish Democratic-Republican Florida Sep 30, 1822 March 4, 1823 Retired
  David Levy Yulee
(1810–1886)
Spanish Democratic Florida March 4, 1841 March 3, 1845 Office eliminated when Territory of Florida was admitted to the Union as the State of Florida[26]
  José Manuel Gallegos
(1815–1875)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico March 4, 1853 July 23, 1856 Lost election contestation
March 4, 1871 March 4, 1873 Lost reelection
  Miguel Antonio Otero
(1829–1882)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico July 23, 1856 March 4, 1861 Retired
  Francisco Perea
(1830–1913)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1863 March 4, 1865 Lost reelection
  José Francisco Chaves
(1833–1904)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1865 March 4, 1867 Lost reelection
Feb 20, 1869 March 4, 1871 Lost reelection
  Trinidad Romero
(1835–1918)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1877 March 4, 1879 Retired
  Mariano S. Otero
(1844–1904)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1879 March 4, 1881 Retired
  Tranquilino Luna
(1849–1892)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1881 March 5, 1884 Lost election contestation
  Francisco Antonio Manzanares
(1843–1904)
Mexican Democratic New Mexico March 5, 1884 March 4, 1885 Retired
  Pedro Perea
(1852–1906)
Mexican Republican New Mexico March 4, 1899 March 4, 1901 Retired
  Federico Degetau
(1862–1914)
Puerto Rican Republican Puerto Rico March 4, 1901 March 4, 1905 Retired
  Tulio Larrínaga
(1847–1917)
Puerto Rican Unionist Puerto Rico March 4, 1905 March 4, 1911 Lost reelection
  Benito Legarda
(1853–1915)
Spanish Federalist
(Republican)
Philippine Islands Nov 22, 1907 March 4, 1912 Retired
  Manuel L. Quezón
(1878–1944)
Spanish Nacionalista Philippine Islands Nov 23, 1909 Oct 15, 1916 Retired[27]
  Luis Muñoz-Rivera
(1859–1916)
Puerto Rican Unionist Puerto Rico March 4, 1911 Nov 15, 1916 Died in office
  Félix Córdova-Dávila
(1878–1938)
Puerto Rican Unionist Puerto Rico August 7, 1917 April 11, 1932 Resigned to accept appointment as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico
  Isauro Gabaldón
(1875–1942)
Spanish Nacionalista Philippine Islands March 4, 1920 July 16, 1928 Resigned
  José Lorenzo Pesquera
(1882–1950)
Puerto Rican Independent Puerto Rico April 15, 1932 March 4, 1933 Retired
  Santiago Iglesias
(1872–1939)
Spanish Coalitionist Puerto Rico March 4, 1933 Dec 5, 1939 Died in office
  Francisco A. Delgado
(1886–1964)
Spanish Nacionalista Philippine Islands Jan 3, 1935 Feb 14, 1936 Retired
  Joaquín Miguel Elizalde
(1896–1965)
Spanish Nonpartisan Philippines Sep 29, 1938 August 9, 1944 Resigned
  Bolívar Pagán
(1897–1961)
Puerto Rican Coalitionist Puerto Rico Dec 26, 1939 Jan 3, 1945 Lost reelection
  Jesús T. Piñero
(1897–1952)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico Jan 3, 1945 Sep 2, 1946 Resigned to accept appointment as Governor of Puerto Rico
  Antonio Fernós-Isern
(1895–1974)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico Sep 11, 1946 Jan 3, 1965 Retired to run successfully for the Puerto Rico Senate
  Santiago Polanco-Abreu
(1920–1988)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico Jan 3, 1965 Jan 3, 1969 Lost reelection
  Jorge Luis Córdova
(1907–1994)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico Jan 3, 1969 Jan 3, 1973 Lost reelection
  Jaime Benítez
(1908–2001)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico Jan 3, 1973 Jan 3, 1977 Lost reelection
  Ron de Lugo
(1930–2020)
Puerto Rican Democratic Virgin Islands Jan 3, 1973 Jan 3, 1979 Retired to run unsuccessfully for Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands
Jan 3, 1981 Jan 3, 1995 Retired
  Baltasar Corrada del Río
(1935–2018)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico Jan 3, 1977 Jan 3, 1985 Retired to run successfully for Mayor of San Juan, Puerto Rico
  Jaime Fuster
(1941–2007)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico Jan 3, 1985 March 4, 1992 Resigned to accept appointment as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico
  Antonio Colorado
(born 1939)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico March 4, 1992 Jan 3, 1993 Lost reelection
  Carlos Romero-Barceló[28]
(1932–2021)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico Jan 3, 1993 Jan 3, 2001 Lost reelection
  Aníbal Acevedo-Vilá
(born 1962)
Puerto Rican Popular
Democratic
Puerto Rico Jan 3, 2001 Jan 3, 2005 Retired to run successfully for Governor of Puerto Rico
  Luis Fortuño
(born 1960)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico Jan 3, 2005 Jan 3, 2009 Retired to run successfully for Governor of Puerto Rico
  Pedro Pierluisi
(born 1959)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico Jan 3, 2009 Jan 3, 2017 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the nomination for Governor of Puerto Rico[29]
  Jenniffer González
(born 1976)
Puerto Rican New Progressive Puerto Rico Jan 3, 2017 Incumbent

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Judah Philip Benjamin". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  2. ^ Larrazolo was the first Latino to serve in the U.S. Senate.
  3. ^ "Octaviano Larrazolo". Library of Congress. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  4. ^ "New Mexico lawmaker proposes holiday to honor Cesar Chavez, Dennis Chavez". NBC News. January 7, 2019. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  5. ^ "Joseph Manuel Montoya". Library of Congress. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  6. ^ Lauter, David (August 27, 2012). "Sununu urges comprehensive action on immigration". Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  7. ^ Martinez previously served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
  8. ^ "Mel Martinez on President's Cuba Speech, RNC Resignation". NPR. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  9. ^ Johnson, Kirk (June 11, 2006). "At Fore on Immigration, Senator Has a Story to Tell". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  10. ^ Gambino, Lauren (July 8, 2014). "New Jersey senator Robert Menendez alleges Cuba behind sex allegations". The Guardian. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  11. ^ a b Glenza, Jessica (November 27, 2016). "Cruz and Rubio condemn Castro as questions remain over Cuba-US ties". The Guardian. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  12. ^ Cortez Masto is the first Latina to serve in the U.S. Senate.
  13. ^ Gamboa, Suzanne (January 3, 2017). "'It's About Time': Catherine Cortez Masto, 1st Latina U.S. Senator Sworn In". NBC News. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  14. ^ Bernal, Rafael (November 4, 2020). "Democrat Ben Ray Luján wins open Senate seat in New Mexico". The Hill. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  15. ^ Kumar, Maria Teresa (December 28, 2020). "Padilla's California nomination helps heal America's historical omission of the Latino experience". MSNBC. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  16. ^ Bouligny was the only congressman from Louisiana not to resign when the state seceded from the Union.
  17. ^ Pacheco was the first Latino to serve in Congress, and previously served as the first (and, to date, only) Hispanic Governor of the State of California.
  18. ^ Chávez later was appointed as United States Senator from New Mexico.
  19. ^ Lujan later served as United States Secretary of the Interior.
  20. ^ Garcia later was jailed due to the Wedtech scandal, but his conviction ultimately was reversed by an appellate court.
  21. ^ Richardson later served as United States Secretary of Energy and Governor of New Mexico.
  22. ^ Though Ileana Ros-Lehtinen is widely credited as the first Hispanic woman in Congress, Vucanovich's mother was of partial Mexican Hispanic heritage.
  23. ^ Bustamante later was jailed for bribery.
  24. ^ Becerra later served as United States Secretary of Health and Human Services.
  25. ^ Delegates from Puerto Rico (since 1901) and from the Philippines (from 1907 to 1946) officially are known as Resident Commissioners.
  26. ^ Yulee later was elected as United States Senator from Florida.
  27. ^ Quezón later served as President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.
  28. ^ Romero-Barceló previously served as Governor of Puerto Rico.
  29. ^ Pierluisi later served as Governor of Puerto Rico.