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The chronology of Indian mathematicians spans from the Indus Valley Civilization and the Vedas to Modern India.

Indian mathematicians have made a number of contributions to mathematics that have significantly influenced scientists and mathematicians in the modern era. Arabic-Hindu numerals predominantly used today and likely into the future.

- Baudhayana (fl. c. 900 BCE)
- Yajnavlkya (700 BCE)
- Manava (fl. 750–650 BCE)
- Apastamba (c. 600 BCE)
*Pāṇini*(c. 520–460 BCE)- Katyayana (fl. c. 300 BCE)
- Akspada Gautama(c. 400 BCE)
- Bharat Muni (300–200 BCE)
- Pingala(c. 3rd/2nd century BCE)

Post-Vedic Sanskrit to Pala period mathematicians (2nd century BCE to 11th century CE)

- Bhadrabahu (367 – 298 BCE)
- Umasvati (c. 200 AD)
- Yavaneśvara (2nd century)

- Vasishtha Siddhanta, 4th century AD
- Śrīsheṇa, 4th century AD
- Sarvanandi (458 CE)
- Aryabhata (476–550 CE)
- Pānduranga-svāmi, disciple of Aryabhatta
- Lātadeva, disciple of Aryabhatta
- Nishanku., disciple of Aryabhatta
- Yativrsabha (500–570)
- Varahamihira (505–587 CE)
- Yativṛṣabha, 6th-century mathematician and writer of the book Tiloyapannatti which gives various units for measuring distances and time and postulated different concepts about infinity.
- Brahmagupta (598–670 CE), Helped bring the concept of zero into arithmetic
- Virahanka (6th century AD)
- Bhaskara I (600–680 CE)
- Shridhara (between 650–850), Gave a rule for finding the volume of a sphere
- Lalla (c. 720–790 CE)
- Virasena (792–853 CE)
- Govindasvāmi (c. 800 – c. 860)
- Prithudaka (c. 830 – c. 890)
- Śaṅkaranārāyaṇa, (c. 840 – c. 900 AD)
- Vaṭeśvara (born 880)
- Mahavira (9th century CE)
- Jayadeva (mathematician) 9th century
- Aryabhata II (920 – c. 1000)
- Vijayanandi (c. 940–1010)
- Śrīpati (1019–1066)
- Halayudha 10th Century
- Brahmadeva (1060–1130)
- Abhayadeva Suri (1050 AD)
- Pavuluri Mallana (11th century CE)
- Hemachandra (1087–1172 CE)
- Udayadivākara 1073
- Gopala (11th century AD)
- Bhaskara II (1114–1185 CE)
- Ratnakarashanti (11th century AD)
- Someshvara III (1127–1138 CE)

- Madhava of Sangamagrama
- Parameshvara (1360–1455), discovered drk-ganita, a mode of astronomy based on observations
- Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1545), mathematician and astronomer
- Shankara Variyar (c. 1530)
- Jyeshtadeva (1500–1610), author of
*Yuktibhāṣā* - Achyuta Pisharati (1550–1621), mathematician and astronomer
- Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri (1560–1646/1666)
- Achyuta Panikkar (c. 1550 – 7 July 1621)

- Raghunatha Siromani (1475–1550)
- Gangesha Upadhyaya (first half of the 14th century)

- Munishvara (17th century)
- Kamalakara (1657)
- Narayana Pandit(1325–1400)
- Mahendra Suri (14th century)
- Mulla Jaunpuri (1606–1651)

- Radhanath Sikdar (1813–1870)
- Ramchandra (1821–1880)
- Pathani Samanta (1835–1904)
- Jadav Chandra Chakravarti (1855–1920)
- Ashutosh Mukherjee (1864–1924)
- Ganesh Prasad (1876–1935)
- Swami Bharati Krishna Tirtha (1884–1960)
- Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887–1920)
- A. A. Krishnaswami Ayyangar (1892–1953)
- Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis (1893–1972)
- Dinanath Atmaram Dalvi (1844–1897)

- Subbayya Sivasankaranarayana Pillai (1901–1950)
- Raj Chandra Bose (1901–1987)
- Tirukkannapuram Vijayaraghavan (1902–1955)
- Dattaraya Ramchandra Kaprekar (1905–1986)
- Lakkoju Sanjeevaraya Sharma (1907–1998)
- Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910–1995)
- S. S. Shrikhande (1917–2020)
- Prahalad Chunnilal Vaidya (1918–2010)
- Anil Kumar Gain (1919–1978)
- Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao (born 1920)
- Harish-Chandra (1923–1983)
- P. K. Srinivasan (1924–2005)
- C. S. Seshadri (1932–2020)
- M. S. Narasimhan (1932–2021)
- Srinivasacharya Raghavan (born 1934)
- K. S. S. Nambooripad (1935–2020)
- Ramaiyengar Sridharan (born 1935)
- Vinod Johri (1935–2014)
- K. R. Parthasarathy (born 1936)
- S. N. Seshadri (1937–1986)
- Ramdas L. Bhirud (1937–1997)
- S. Ramanan (born 1937)
- Pranab K. Sen (born 1937)
- Veeravalli S. Varadarajan (1937–2019)
- Jayanta Kumar Ghosh (1937–2017)
- C. P. Ramanujam (1938–1974)
- V. N. Bhat (1938–2009)
- S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan (born 1940)
- M. S. Raghunathan (born 1941)
- Vashishtha Narayan Singh (1942–2019)
- C. R. Rao (born 1920)
- S. B. Rao (born 1943)
- Phoolan Prasad (born 1944)
- Gopal Prasad (born 1945)
- Vijay Kumar Patodi (1945–1976)
- S. G. Dani (born 1947)
- Raman Parimala (born 1948)
- Singhi Navin M. (born 1949)
- Sujatha Ramdorai
- R. Balasubramanian (born 1951)
- M. Ram Murty (born 1953)
- Alok Bhargava (born 1954)
- Rattan Chand (born 1955)
- V. Kumar Murty (born 1956)
- Rajendra Bhatia (born 1952)
- Narendra Karmarkar (born 1957)
- Dipendra Prasad (born 1960)
- Dinesh Thakur (born 1961)
- Manindra Agrawal (born 1966)
- Madhu Sudan (born 1966)
- Chandrashekhar Khare (born 1968)
- U. S. R. Murty
- Ramji Lal (born 1945)
- L. Mahadevan
- Kapil Hari Paranjape
- Vijay Vazirani (born 1957)
- Umesh Vazirani
- Mahan Mj (born 1968)
- Santosh Vempala (born 1971)
- Kannan Soundararajan (born 1973)
- Kiran Kedlaya (born 1974)
- Manjul Bhargava (born 1974)
- Ritabrata Munshi (born 1976)
- Amit Garg (born 1978)
- Subhash Khot (born 1978)
- Sourav Chatterjee (born 1979)
- Akshay Venkatesh (born 1981)
- Sucharit Sarkar (born 1983)
- Neena Gupta (born 1984)
- Nayandeep Deka Baruah (born 1972)
- Anand Kumar (born 1973)

- Famous Indian Mathematicians

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