List of Indian state symbols

Summary

This is a list of the symbols of the states and union territories of India. Each state and union territory has a unique set of official symbols, usually a state emblem, an animal, a bird, a flower and a tree. A second animal (fish, butterfly, reptile, aquatic animal, heritage animal) sometimes appears, as do fruits and other plants, and there are some state songs and state mottos.

StatesEdit

Andhra PradeshEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Andhra Pradesh  
State motto సత్యమేవ జయతే
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State song Maa Telugu Thalliki
(To Our Mother Telugu)
 
State animal Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)  
State bird Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri)[1]  
State fish Snakehead Murrel (Channa striata)[2]  
State flower Common jasmine (Jasminum officinale)  
State fruit Mango (Mangifera indica)[citation needed]  
State tree Neem (Azadirachta indica)[3]  

Arunachal PradeshEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Arunachal Pradesh  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Mithun (Bos frontalis)[4][5][6]  
State bird Hornbill (Buceros bicornis)[4][5][6]  
State fish Golden Mahseer (Tor putitora)[2]  
State flower foxtail orchid (Rhynchostylis retusa)[4][6]  
State tree Hollong ( Dipterocarpus macrocarpus)[7][8]  

AssamEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Assam  
State motto জয় আই অসম
(Hail Mother Assam)
State song অ মোৰ আপোনাৰ দেশ

O Mur Apunar Desh
(O My Endearing Country!)

 
State Festival বিহু
Bihu
State animal এশিঙীয়া গঁড়
Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)[9][10]
 
State bird দেওহাঁহ
White-winged duck (Asarcornis scutulata)[9][10]
 
State flower কপৌ ফুল
Foxtail orchid (Rhynchostylis retusa)[7][9][10]
 
State tree হোলোঙ
Hollong (Dipterocarpus macrocarpus)[7][9][10][11]
 

BiharEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Bihar  
State song Mere Bharat Ke Kanth Haar
(The Garland of My India)
State foundation day Bihar Day
(22 March)
State animal Gaur (Mithun)[12]  
State bird House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)[13]  
State fish Walking catfish (Clarias batrachus)[2]  
State flower Kachnar (Phanera variegata)[14]  
State tree Peepal tree (Ficus religiosa)[15]  
State fruit Mango (Mangifera indica)  

ChhattisgarhEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Chhattisgarh  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State song Arpa Pairi Ke Dhar
(The Streams of Arpa and Pairi)[16][17]
 
State foundation day Chhattisgarh Day
(1 November)
State animal Wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)[18][19]  
State bird Hill myna (Gracula religiosa)[18][19]  
State flower Rhynchostylis gigantea[20]  
State tree Sal (Shorea robusta)[18][19]  

GoaEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Goa  
State motto सर्वे भद्राणि पश्यन्तु मा कश्चिद् दुःखमाप्नुयात्
Sarve bhadrāṇi paśyantu mā kaścid duḥkhamāpnuyāt
(May everyone see goodness, may none suffer any pain)
State animal Gaur (Bos gaurus)[21][22]  
State bird Ruby Throated Yellow Bulbul (Pycnonotus gularis)[21][22][23]  
State fish Grey mullet/Shevtto in Konkani (Mugil cephalus)[24][25]  
State flower Jasmine (Plumeria rubra)  
State heritage tree Coconut palm Cocos nucifera  
State tree Matti Terminalia crenulata  

GujaratEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Uses the National Emblem of India  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State song Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat
(Victory to Proud Gujarat!)
 
State animal Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica)[26]   Surviving today only in India, the Asiatic lion's range is restricted to the Gir National Park and the surrounding areas in the Indian state of Gujarat.
State bird Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus)[27]   In Gujarat, a state of India, flamingos can be observed at the Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary, Flamingo City, and in the Thol Bird Sanctuary. They remain there during the entire winter season.
State flower Marigold (Tagetes)[28]  
State tree Banyan Tree.[29][26][30][31]

HaryanaEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Haryana  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Blackbuck (kala hiran) (Antilope cervicapra)[32][33]  
State bird Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus)[32][33]  
State fish Orangefin labeo (Kalbasu) (Labeo calbasu)[2]  
State flower Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)[32][33]  
State tree Peepal (Ficus religiosa)[32][33]  

Himachal PradeshEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Himachal Pradesh  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Snow leopard (Uncia uncia)[34][35]  
State bird Western tragopan (Tragopan melanocephalus)[34][35]  
State fish Golden Mahseer (Tor putitora)[2]  
State flower Pink rhododendron (Rhododendron campanulatum)[34][35]  
State tree Deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara)[34][35]  

JharkhandEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Jharkhand  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)[36][37]  
State bird Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus)[36][37]  
State flower Palash (Butea monosperma)[36][37]  
State tree Sal (Shorea robusta)[36][37]  

KarnatakaEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem ಗಂಡಭೇರುಂಡ ಲಾಂಛನ Emblem of Karnataka  
State motto ಸತ್ಯಮೇವ ಜಯತೆ सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State song ಜಯ ಭಾರತ ಜನನಿಯ ತನುಜಾತೆ Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate[38]
(Victory to you Mother Karnataka, The Daughter of Mother India!)
 
State foundation day ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ರಾಜ್ಯೋತ್ಸವ Kannada Rajyotsava
(1 November)
State animal Asian elephant[39][40] (Elephas maximus)  
State bird ನೀಲಕಂಠ ಪಕ್ಷಿ Indian roller[39][40] (Coracias indica)  
State butterfly Southern birdwing[41] (Troides minos)  
State fish Carnatic carp (Puntius carnaticus)[2]  
State flower Lotus[39][40] (Nelumbo nucifera)  
State tree ಶ್ರೀಗಂಧ ಮರ Sandalwood[39][40] (Santalum album)  

KeralaEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Kerala[42]  
State motto സത്യമേവ ജയതേ
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State foundation day കേരള പിറവി Kerala Day
(1 November)
State animal ആന Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus)[43][44]  
State bird മലമുഴക്കി വേഴാമ്പൽ Great hornbill (Buceros bicornis)[43][44]  
State butterfly ബുദ്ധമയുരി Malabar banded peacock (Papilio buddha)[45]  
State fish കരിമീൻ Green chromide (Etroplus suratensis)[46]   Green chromide was designated state fish by Government of Kerala in 2010.
State flower കണിക്കൊന്ന Kanikonna (Cassia fistula)[43][44]  
State fruit ചക്ക Jackfruit   Jackfruit was Declared as Official State Fruit of Kerala on 21 March 2018.[47]
State tree തെങ്ങ് Coconut tree (Cocos nucifera)[43][44]  

Madhya PradeshEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Madhya Pradesh  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State song Mera Madhya Pradesh
(My Madhya Pradesh)
State animal Barasingha[48][49] (Rucervus duvaucelii)  
State bird Indian paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi)[50]  
State fish Mahsheer (Tor tor)[50]  
State flower Madonna lily (Lilium candidum)[51]  
State tree Banyan tree[52]  

MaharashtraEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Maharashtra  
State motto प्रतिपच्चंद्रलेखेव वर्धिष्णुर्विश्व वंदिता महाराष्ट्रस्य राज्यस्य मुद्रा भद्राय राजते
Pratipaccandralēkhēva vardhiṣṇurviśva vanditā mahārāṣṭrasya rājyasya mudrā bhadrāya rājatē
(The glory of this seal of the Government of Maharashtra will grow like the first day moon. It will be worshipped by the world and will shine only for the well being of its people.)
  The motto is based on one found on the Rajmudra (royal seal) used by 17th-century Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji.[53]
State foundation day Maharashtra Day
(1 May)
State animal Indian giant squirrel[54] (Ratufa indica)  
State bird Yellow-footed green pigeon[54] (Treron phoenicoptera)  
State butterfly Blue Mormon (Papilio polymnestor)[55]  
State flower Pride of India/Jarul (Lagerstroemia speciosa)[56]  
State tree Mango Tree (Mangifera indica)[57]  

| State fish || Rohu (रोहू)

ManipurEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Manipur  
State motto ꯀꯪꯂꯥꯁꯥ
Kanglasha
(The Dragon Lord)
 
State song Sana Leibak Manipur[58]
(Manipur, Land of Gold)
State animal Sangai (Rucervus eldii eldii)[59][60]  
State bird Nongin (Syrmaticus humiae)[61]  
State fish Pengba (Osteobrama belangeri)[2]  
State flower Siroi lily (Lilium mackliniae)[59][60]  
State tree Uningthou (Phoebe hainesiana)[62]  

MeghalayaEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Uses the National Emblem of India  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)[63]  
State bird Hill myna (Gracula religiosa)[64][65]  
State flower Lady's Slipper Orchid (Paphiopedilum insigne)[20]  
State tree Gamhar (Gmelina arborea)[66]  

MizoramEdit

Title Symbol[67][68] Image Notes
State emblem Uses the National Emblem of India  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Himalayan serow (Capricornis thar)  
State bird Mrs. Hume's pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae)  
State fish Burmese kingfish (Ngahvang) (Semiplotus modestus)[2]  
State flower Red Vanda (Renanthera imschootiana)[20]  
State tree Indian rose chestnut (Mesua ferrea)  

NagalandEdit

Title Symbol[69][70] Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Nagaland  
State motto Unity  
State animal Mithun  
State bird Blyth's tragopan (Tragopan blythii)  
State fish Chocolate mahseer (Neolissochilus hexagonolepis)[2]
State flower Tree rhododendron (Rhododendron arboreum)[20]  
State tree Alder (Alnus nepalensis)[29]  

OdishaEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Odisha  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State song Bande Utkala Janani
(I Adore Thee, O Mother Utkala!)
State foundation day Odisha Day
(1 April)
State animal Sambar deer (Cervus unicolor)[71][72]  
State bird Indian roller[73] (Coracias benghalensis)[71][72]  
State fish Mahanadi mahseer (Tor mosal mahanadicus)[2]  
State flower Ashoka tree (Saraca asoca)[71][72]  
State tree Sacred fig (Ficus religiosa)[71]  

PunjabEdit

Title Symbol[74][75] Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Punjab  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra)  
State aquatic animal Indus River dolphin (Bhulan)[76]  
State bird Baaz (Accipiter gentilis)  
State flower Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus)  [20]
State tree Sheesham (Dalbergia sissoo)  

RajasthanEdit

Title Symbol[77][78] Image Notes
State emblem Uses the National Emblem of India  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Chinkara (Gazella bennettii)[79]  
State bird Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps)  
State flower Rohida (Tecomella undulata)  
State heritage animal Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius)  
State plant cactus (cactaceae)
State tree Khejri (Prosopis cineraria)  

SikkimEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Sikkim  
State motto ༄༅།ཁམས་གསུམ་དབང་འདུས
Kham-sum-wangdu
(Conqueror of the three worlds)
 
State animal Red panda (Ailurus fulgens)[80][81]  
State bird Blood pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus)[80][81]  
State Fish Copper Mahseer / Katley (Neolissochilus hexagonolepis)[citation needed]  
State flower Noble dendrobium (Dendrobium nobile)[80][81]  
State tree Rhododendron (Rhododendron niveum)[80][81]  

Tamil NaduEdit

Title Symbols[82][83] Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Tamil Nadu  
State motto வாய்மையே வெல்லும்
Vāymaiyē vellum
(Truth alone triumphs)
Carries a similar meaning to the National Motto of India.
State song Tamil Thai Valthu
(Invocation to Tamil Mother)
 
State foundation day Tamil Nadu Day
(1 November)
State animal Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragkus hylocrius)  
State bird Emerald dove (Chalcophaps indica)  
State butterfly Tamil yeoman (Cirrochroa thais)  
State flower Gloriosa lily (Gloriosa superba)  
State fruit பலாப்பழம் Jackfruit ("Artocarpus heterophyllus")  
State tree பனை மரம் Palm tree (Borassus flabellifer)  

TelanganaEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Telangana  
State motto సత్యమేవ జయతే सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State song జయ జయ హే తెలంగాణ

Jaya Jaya He Telangana
(Victory to Mother Telangana!)

 
State foundation day Telangana Day

తెలంగాణ అవతరణ దినోత్సవం
(2 June)

State animal Spotted deer జింక

(Axis axis)[84]

 
State bird Indian roller పాలపిట్ట

(Coracias benghalensis)[84]

 
State fish Snakehead Murrel (Channa striata)[2][85]  
State flower Tangidi Puvvu (Senna auriculata)[84]  
State fruit Mango (Mangifera indica)[citation needed]  
State tree Jammi Chettu జమ్మీ చెట్టు

(Prosopis cineraria)[84]

 

TripuraEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Uses the National Emblem of India  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Phayre's leaf monkey (Trachypithecus phayrei)[86][87][88]  
State bird Green imperial pigeon (Ducula aenea)[86][87][88]  
State fish Pabda (Ompok bimaculatus)[2]  
State flower Indian rose chestnut (Mesua ferrea)[86][87][88]  
State fruit Queen pineapple (Ananas comosus)[89]  
State tree Agarwood[86][87][88]  

Uttar PradeshEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Uttar Pradesh  
State foundation day Uttar Pradesh Day
(24 January)
State animal Barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii)[90][91]  
State bird Sarus crane (Grus antigone)[90][91]  
State fish Chital (Chitala chitala)[2]  
State flower Palash (Butea monosperma)[90][91]  
State tree Ashoka (Saraca asoca)[90][91]  

UttarakhandEdit

Title Symbol Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of Uttarakhand  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State song Uttarakhand Devabhumi Matribhumi
(Uttarakhand, Land of the Gods, O Motherland!)
 
State foundation day Uttarakhand Day
(9 November)
State animal Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster)[92][93]  
State bird Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus)[92][93]  
State fish Golden mahseer (Tor putitora)[94][95]  
State butterfly Common peacock[96][97] (Papilio bianor polyctor)  
State flower Brahma Kamal (Saussurea obvallata)[92][93]  
State tree Burans (Rhododendron arboreum)[92][93]  

West BengalEdit

Title Symbols Image Notes
State emblem Emblem of West Bengal  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal মেছোবিড়াল
Fishing cat[98][99] (Prionailurus viverrinus)[100]
 
State bird ধলাগলা মাছরাঙা
White-throated kingfisher[98][99] (Halcyon smyrnensis)
 
State fish ইলিশ
Ilish (Tenualosa ilisha)[2]
 
State flower পারিজাত/শিউলি
Night-flowering jasmine (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis)[100]
 
State tree ছাতিম গাছ
Blackboard tree (Alstonia scholaris)[100][101]
 

Union territoriesEdit

Andaman and Nicobar IslandsEdit

Title Symbol Image
State emblem Uses National Emblem of India  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Dugong sea cow[102][103]  
State bird Andaman wood pigeon (Columba palumboides)[102][103]  
State flower Andaman Pyinma (Lagerstroemia speciosa)[20]  
State tree Andaman redwood (Pterocarpus dalbergioides)[102][103]  

ChandigarhEdit

Title Symbol Image
State emblem Emblem of Chandigarh  
State animal Indian grey mongoose[104][105] (Urva edwardsii)  
State bird Indian grey hornbill[104][105] (Ocyceros birostris)  
State flower Dhak flower[104][105] (Butea monosperma)  
State tree Mangifera indica[104][105]  

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and DiuEdit

Title Symbol Image
State emblem Uses the National Emblem of India  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Not designated
State bird Not designated
State flower Not designated[20]
State tree Not designated[29]

DelhiEdit

Title Symbol Image
State emblem Uses the National Emblem of India  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Nilgai[88] (Boselaphus tragocamelus)  
State bird House sparrow (Passer domesticus)[106][107]  
State flower Alfalfa[20]  
State tree Flamboyant (Delonix regia)[29]  

Jammu and KashmirEdit

[108]

Title Symbol Image
State emblem Emblem of Jammu and Kashmir  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Kashmir stag (Cervus elaphus hanglu)  
State bird Kalij pheasant (Lophura leucomelanos)[109]
 
State fish Golden Mahseer (Tor putitora)[2]
 
State flower Common rhododendron  
State tree Chinar  

LadakhEdit

[108]

Title Symbol Image
State emblem Emblem of Ladakh  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State animal Snow leopard (Uncia uncia)[110]  
State bird Black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis)[111]
 
State flower To be determined
State tree To be determined

LakshadweepEdit

Title Symbol Image
State emblem Emblem of Lakshadweep  
State animal Butterfly fish (Chaetodon falcula)[112][113]  
State bird Brown noddy (Anous stolidus)[112][113]  
State flower നീലക്കുറിഞ്ഞിNeelakurinji
 
State tree കടപ്ലാവ് (കടച്ചക്ക മരം)Bread fruit (Artocarpus incisa)[112][113]  

PuducherryEdit

Title Symbol Image
State emblem Uses the National Emblem of India  
State motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)
State song Tamil Thai Valthu
(Invocation to Tamil Mother)
 
State animal Indian palm squirrel[114][115] (Funambulus palmarum)  
State bird Koel[114][115] (Eudynamys scolopaceus)  
State flower Cannonball[114][115] (Couroupita guianensis)  
State tree Bael fruit tree[114][115] (Aegle marmelos)  

Autonomous administrative divisionsEdit

Some of the autonomous administrative divisions established by the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India have also adopted official symbols.

Bodoland Territorial RegionEdit

Title Symbol Image
Emblem Uses the National Emblem of India[116]  
Motto सत्यमेव जयते
Satyameva Jayate
(Truth alone triumphs)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "State Symbols".
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "State Fishes of India" (PDF). National Fisheries Development Board, Government of India. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  3. ^ "Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). bsienvis.nic.in. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "Basic Statistical Figure of Arunachal Pradesh" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  5. ^ a b "Symbols of Arunachal Pradesh". knowindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  6. ^ a b c "Symbols of Arunachal Pradesh". Archived from the original on 11 March 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  7. ^ a b c "State Trees and Flowers of India". flowersofindia.net. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  8. ^ "State Tree of Arunachal Pradesh" (PDF). Retrieved 27 January 2016.
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  10. ^ a b c d "Symbols of Assam". Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  11. ^ "Assam" (PDF). ENVIS Centre on Floral Diversity. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  12. ^ "State animal of Bihar (Gaur) – complete detail – updated". natureconservation.in. 12 March 2020.
  13. ^ "Sparrow to become the state bird of Bihar | Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  14. ^ "State flower of Bihar" (PDF). ENVIS Centre on Floral Diversity. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  15. ^ "Bihar State Symbols". www.onlinesaraswati.com. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
  16. ^ "Chhattisgarh State Song : अरपा पैरी के धार... बना छत्तीसगढ़ का राजगीत". 4 November 2019.
  17. ^ "Chattisgarh's official song to play after Vande Mataram to mark commencement of assembly session".
  18. ^ a b c "Symbols of Chhattisgarh". knowindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  19. ^ a b c "Symbols of Chhattisgarh". Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h "State Flowers of India". www.bsienvis.nic.in. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  21. ^ a b "Symbols of Goa". knowindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  22. ^ a b "Symbols of Goa". Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  23. ^ "Ruby-throated yellow bulbul". The Goan. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  24. ^ "Shevtto declared state fish as it is extensively found throughout year". www.navhindtimes.in. 8 January 2016.
  25. ^ http://fisheries.goa.gov.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/newmullet.pdf[bare URL PDF]
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General referencesEdit

  • 102-Journal de Kanpur Vol-3/ year 2018
  • GSV Journalism Research Center.India.Kanpur

External linksEdit

  • Knowindia.gov.in: States and Union Territories Symbols