List of LGBT members of the United States Congress

Summary

This is a list of lesbian, gay, and bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) Americans who have served in the United States Congress.

As of March 2021, 26 members of the LGBT community are known to have held office in the U.S. Congress. In the House, 25 LGBT people held office; in the Senate, 3 held office. Two people, Tammy Baldwin and Kyrsten Sinema, served in the House and were later elected into the Senate. The earliest known LGBT congressperson was Stewart McKinney, who began his term in the House in 1971. The earliest known LGBT senator is Harris Wofford, who began his term in 1991. Both men were not out during their tenure: McKinney's bisexuality was revealed after his death and Wofford announced his plans to marry a man over 20 years after serving in the Senate. Sabrina Sojourner served as the Shadow Representative for the District of Columbia for the 1997 to 1999 term, though she did not have floor privileges.[1][2]

There are currently 11 openly LGBT members of the 117th Congress, all of whom are Democrats. Two are senators and the rest are House representatives. This constitutes the most LGBT congresspeople serving at the same time in U.S. history.[3][4]

SenateEdit

All senators listed served as open members of the LGBT community unless otherwise specified:

  Came out after serving

  Posthumously identified as LGBT

Senator Party State Term Notes
Start End
  Harris Wofford  Democratic Pennsylvania May 8, 1991 January 3, 1995 Lost reelection. [Note 1]
  Tammy Baldwin Democratic Wisconsin January 3, 2013 Incumbent [Note 2]
  Kyrsten Sinema Democratic Arizona January 3, 2019 Incumbent [Note 3]

House of RepresentativesEdit

All representatives listed served as open members of the LGBT community unless otherwise specified:

  Came out after serving

  Posthumously identified as LGBT

Representative Party State Term Notes
Start End
  Ed Koch  Democratic New York January 3, 1969 December 31, 1977 Resigned after being elected mayor of New York City.[Note 4]
  Stewart McKinney  Republican Connecticut January 3, 1971 May 7, 1987 Died in office [Note 5]
  Barbara Jordan  Democratic Texas January 3, 1973 January 3, 1979 Retired [Note 6]
  Gerry Studds Democratic Massachusetts January 3, 1973 January 3, 1997 Retired [Note 7]
  Robert Bauman Republican Maryland August 21, 1973 January 3, 1981 Lost reelection [Note 8]
  Jon Hinson Republican Mississippi January 3, 1979 April 13, 1981 Resigned [Note 9]
  Barney Frank Democratic Massachusetts January 3, 1981 January 3, 2013 Retired [Note 10]
  Steve Gunderson Republican Wisconsin January 3, 1981 January 3, 1997 Retired [Note 11]
  Jim Kolbe Republican Arizona January 3, 1985 January 3, 2007 Retired [Note 12]
  Michael Huffington  Republican California January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 Retired to run unsuccessfully for U.S. Senator from California [Note 13]
  Mark Foley Republican Florida January 3, 1995 September 29, 2006 Resigned [Note 14]
  Tammy Baldwin Democratic Wisconsin January 3, 1999 January 3, 2013 Retired to run successfully for U.S. Senator from Wisconsin. [Note 15]
  Mike Michaud Democratic Maine January 3, 2003 January 3, 2015 Retired to run unsuccessfully for Governor of Maine [Note 16]
  Jared Polis Democratic Colorado January 3, 2009 January 3, 2019 Retired to run successfully for Governor of Colorado, becoming the first openly gay elected governor of a U.S. state. [Note 17]
  Aaron Schock  Republican Illinois January 3, 2009 March 31, 2015 Resigned [Note 18]
  David Cicilline Democratic Rhode Island January 3, 2011 Incumbent [Note 19]
  Sean Patrick Maloney Democratic New York January 3, 2013 Incumbent [Note 20]
  Mark Pocan Democratic Wisconsin January 3, 2013 Incumbent [Note 21]
  Kyrsten Sinema Democratic Arizona January 3, 2013 January 3, 2019 Retired to run successfully for U.S. Senator from Arizona [Note 22]
  Mark Takano Democratic California January 3, 2013 Incumbent [Note 23]
  Angie Craig Democratic Minnesota January 3, 2019 Incumbent [Note 24]
  Sharice Davids Democratic Kansas January 3, 2019 Incumbent [Note 25]
  Katie Hill Democratic California January 3, 2019 November 1, 2019 Resigned [Note 26]
  Chris Pappas Democratic New Hampshire January 3, 2019 Incumbent [Note 27]
  Mondaire Jones Democratic New York January 3, 2021 Incumbent [Note 28]
  Ritchie Torres Democratic New York January 3, 2021 Incumbent [Note 29]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Wofford announced his marriage to a man in 2016, which makes him the earliest known LGBT senator.[5][6]
  2. ^ As an openly lesbian woman, Baldwin is the first openly LGBT senator.[3][7][8]
  3. ^ Sinema is the first openly bisexual senator.[3][9]
  4. ^ Koch denied he was gay throughout his life, but his sexuality was confirmed in a 2022 article in The New York Times.[10]
  5. ^ After dying in office of AIDS, McKinney was outed as bisexual in his obituary, making him the earliest known LGBT member of Congress.[6][11][12][13][14][15]
  6. ^ Jordan's domestic partnership with Nancy Earl was revealed in her obituary in 1996, making her the first LGBT woman in Congress (per the U.S. National Archives).[16][17]
  7. ^ Studds came out as gay as a result of his implication in the 1983 congressional page sex scandal.[18] He became the first openly LGBT person to win election to Congress with his reelection in 1984.[6]
  8. ^ In October 1980, Bauman was outed as gay while in office, making him the first openly LGBT member of Congress.[19][20][6]
  9. ^ Hinson was outed as gay after being arrested on a charge of oral sodomy on February 4, 1981.[21][6]
  10. ^ Frank came out as gay in 1987 and in 2012 became the first member of Congress in a same-sex marriage.[6][22][23]
  11. ^ Outed as gay on the floor of the House in 1994, Gunderson was the first openly gay Republican to be reelected after being outed.[24][25][6]
  12. ^ In 1996, Kolbe came out as gay while in office after voting for the Defense of Marriage Act. He was the first openly gay person to address the Republican National Convention.[26][27][28][6]
  13. ^ In 1998, Huffington came out as bisexual.[6][29]
  14. ^ Foley came out as gay after being implicated in a 2006 congressional page scandal.[30]
  15. ^ Baldwin is the first openly LGBT non-incumbent elected to Congress.[7][6]
  16. ^ Michaud came out as gay in 2013.[31][32][6]
  17. ^ In 2011, Polis became the first same-sex parent in Congress.[6][33][8][34]
  18. ^ Schock came out as gay in 2020.[35]
  19. ^ Cicilline is openly gay.[3][6][8]
  20. ^ Maloney is openly gay.[3][6][8]
  21. ^ As an openly gay man, Pocan is the first LGBT member of Congress to replace another LGBT member of Congress (Tammy Baldwin) and the first non-incumbent in a same-sex marriage elected to Congress.[3][6][8][36]
  22. ^ Sinema is the first openly bisexual member of Congress.[6][8][37]
  23. ^ Takano is the first openly gay person of color (specifically Asian American) elected to Congress.[3][8]
  24. ^ As an openly lesbian woman, Craig is the first non-incumbent LGBT parent elected to Congress. Craig is also one of the first two openly lesbian woman of color (specifically Asian American) elected to Congress..[3][38]
  25. ^ Davids is one of the first two openly lesbian woman of color (specifically Native American) elected to Congress.[3][39]
  26. ^ Hill is openly bisexual. She resigned in 2019 amid allegations of improper relationships with staffers.[40]
  27. ^ Pappas is openly gay.[3][41]
  28. ^ Jones is the first openly gay African-American elected to Congress (along with Ritchie Torres).[3][42]
  29. ^ Torres is the first openly gay African-American elected to Congress (along with Mondaire Jones)[42] and the first openly gay Latino member of Congress.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hamilton, Martha. "Washingtonpost.com: Retirement". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
  2. ^ Yeager, Kenneth S. (2019). Trailblazers : profiles of America's gay and lesbian elected officials. Routledge. ISBN 9781317712305. Retrieved May 10, 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Flores, Andrew; Gossett, Charles; Magni, Gabriele; Reynolds, Andrew (November 30, 2020). "11 openly LGBTQ lawmakers will take their seats in the next Congress. That's a record in both numbers and diversity". Washington Post. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  4. ^ LeBlanc, Paul. "Rep. Katie Hill announces resignation amid allegations of improper relationships with staffers". CNN. Retrieved October 27, 2019.
  5. ^ Wofford, Harris (April 23, 2016). "Finding love again, this time with a man". New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2016. Too often, our society seeks to label people by pinning them on the wall – straight, gay or in between. I don't categorize myself based on the gender of those I love. I had a half-century of marriage with a wonderful woman, and now am lucky for a second time to have found happiness.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Illsley, C. L. (May 31, 2019). "Openly LGBT Members Of Congress". WorldAtlas. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  7. ^ a b O'Brien, Brendan (October 19, 2012). "Wisconsin's Baldwin becomes first openly gay senator". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Olugbemiga, Ayobami (February 4, 2014). "Capitol Hill: The 7 Openly Gay and Lesbian Members of Congress". DC Inno. Business Journals. Retrieved March 7, 2021.
  9. ^ Vagianos, Alanna (January 3, 2019). "Kyrsten Sinema Makes History As First Openly Bisexual Person Sworn In To Senate". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  10. ^ Flegenheimer, Matt; Goldensohn, Rosa (May 7, 2022). "The Secrets Ed Koch Carried". The New York Times. Retrieved May 7, 2022.
  11. ^ "AIDS Makes Another Chilling Advance, Claiming the Life of a Congressman". People. May 25, 1987. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  12. ^ Houston, Paul (May 8, 1987). "Connecticut's McKinney, GOP Liberal, Dies of AIDS". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  13. ^ Kimmey, Samantha (December 20, 2012). "Rep. Barney Frank Comments on Scalia, Prostitution, Marijuana and More". The Raw Story. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  14. ^ "Congressman Killed by AIDS Led Secret Life, Gay Man Claims". Bangor Daily News. Associated Press. August 23, 1989. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  15. ^ May, Clifford D. (May 9, 1987). "Friends Say McKinney Had Homosexual Sex". New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  16. ^ Bartgis, Rachel (June 10, 2021). Kratz, Jessie (ed.). "LGBTQ+ History Month: Barbara Jordan". Pieces of History. U.S. National Archives. Archived from the original on July 1, 2021.
  17. ^ Henderson, Kali. "Barbara Jordan | LGBT African Americans (2014) by Kali Henderson and Dionn McDonald". OutHistory.org. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  18. ^ "Housecleaning". Time. July 25, 1983. Archived from the original on November 3, 2006.
  19. ^ Bauman, Robert (August 1986). The Gentleman from Maryland: The Conscience of a Gay Conservative. Arbor House. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0877956860.
  20. ^ Kelly, Jacques (April 5, 2008). "Whatever happened to . . . Robert E. Bauman?". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  21. ^ "Jon Hinson, 53, Congressman and Then Gay-Rights Advocate". New York Times. p. 19. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  22. ^ O'Keefe, Ed (December 3, 2012). "When Barney Frank announced he was 'coming out of the room' (er... the closet)". Washington Post.
  23. ^ "DC's Most Influential Gay Couple Calls It Quits". Tuscaloosa News. July 3, 1998. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  24. ^ Bergling, Tim (May 11, 2004). "Closeted in the capital: they're powerful, Republican, and gay. Will the marriage battle finally get them to come out to their bosses?". The Advocate. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
  25. ^ Bierbauer, Charles (November 28, 1997). "Gunderson Leaves 'Increasingly Polarized' House". CNN. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  26. ^ Dunlap, David W. (August 3, 1996). "A Republican Congressman Discloses He Is a Homosexual". New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2007.
  27. ^ Campbell, Julia (August 1, 2000). "Openly Gay Congressman Addresses Convention". ABC News.
  28. ^ Eaklor, Vicki Lynn (2008). Queer America: a GLBT history of the 20th century. ABC-CLIO. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-313-33749-9.
  29. ^ King, Ryan James (May 22, 2006). "Michael Huffington: The long-awaited Advocate interview". The Advocate. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
  30. ^ "Foley lawyer makes statement". CNN. October 2, 2006. Retrieved October 4, 2006.
  31. ^ Cousins, Christopher (November 5, 2013). "Michaud: 'I haven't changed. I'm Mike.'". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  32. ^ Michaud, Mike (November 4, 2013). "Rep. Michaud's op-ed column: Yes, I'm gay. Now let's get our state back on track". Portland Press Herald. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
  33. ^ Parkinson, John (September 30, 2011). "House Democrat Jared Polis Becomes First Openly Gay Parent in Congress". ABC News. Retrieved September 30, 2011.
  34. ^ Anderson, James; Slevin, Colleen (January 9, 2019). "Colorado's Jared Polis Makes History as Gay Governor". Associated Press. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  35. ^ Coleman, Justin (March 5, 2020). "Former GOP Rep. Aaron Schock comes out as gay". The Hill. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  36. ^ Craver, Jack (May 11, 2013). "Mark Pocan's husband finally recognized as congressional 'spouse'". Capital Times. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  37. ^ Fitzsimons, Tom (November 3, 2018). "Kyrsten Sinema makes history as first bisexual member of U.S. Senate". NBC News. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  38. ^ "Minnesota Democrat Angie Craig, a former health care executive, is the first lesbian mother to be elected to Congress". WJCT. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  39. ^ Sopelsa, Brooke; Fitzsimons, Tim (November 7, 2018). "Sharice Davids, a lesbian Native American, makes political history in Kansas". NBC News. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  40. ^ North, Anna (October 28, 2019). "Revenge porn, biphobia, and alleged relationships with staffers: The complicated story around Rep. Katie Hill, explained". Vox. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  41. ^ Verhovek, John (November 3, 2018). "New Hampshire could elect its first openly gay congressman". ABC News. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  42. ^ a b Avery, Dan (November 6, 2020). "Mondaire Jones joins Ritchie Torres as first gay Black men elected to Congress". NBC News. Retrieved January 19, 2021.