The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system that serves four of the five boroughs of New York City in the U.S. state of New York: the Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, and Queens. Operated by the New York City Transit Authority under the Metropolitan Transportation Authority of New York, the New York City Subway is the busiest rapid transit system in the United States and the seventh busiest in the world, with 5.225 million daily riders. The system's 472 stations qualifies it to have the largest number of rapid transit stations in the world.
Three rapid transit companies merged in 1940 to create the present New York City Subway system: the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT), the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT), and the Independent Subway System (IND). All three former systems are present in Queens.
History and description
Until 1915 most rapid transit in Queens consisted of streetcars, primarily those owned by affiliates of the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company, but some included trolleys owned by the Long Island Consolidated Electrical Companies, a holding company co-owned by the Long Island Rail Road and Interborough Rapid Transit Company. Some steam dummy lines also entered Queens from Brooklyn, most notably the Atlantic Avenue Rapid Transit lines along the Atlantic Branch and part of the Main Line of the Long Island Rail Road. As far back as 1885, proposals existed for a tunnel between Midtown Manhattan and Long Island City designed to connect the Long Island Rail Road and the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad with a trolley line. Construction hazards, economic despair, and the transfer of ownership of this project delayed completion of the tunnel. This tunnel would eventually be known as the Steinway Tunnel.
The oldest subway line in Queens is the BMT Myrtle Avenue Line which was extended from Brooklyn into Ridgewood and Middle Village, replacing a steam dummy line. This was followed by the IRT Flushing Line, which had only one station in Long Island City, until it was extended with Dual Contracts to Astoria in 1916, Corona on April 21, 1917, and Downtown Flushing on January 2, 1928. The BMT Fulton Street Line extended from the City Line section of Brooklyn into Ozone Park and Richmond Hill on September 25, 1915. The same dual contracts project that brought about the extension of the IRT Flushing Line also lead to the opening of the BMT Astoria Line on February 1, 1917, as well as a connecting spur from the IRT Second Avenue Line over the Queensboro Bridge on July 23, 1917. The Astoria Line was the northernmost line owned by the BMT. The BMT Broadway-Brooklyn Line entered Queens from the Cypress Hills section of Brooklyn and ran through Woodhaven and Richmond Hill on May 28, 1917, and finally towards Downtown Jamaica on July 3, 1918.
The city-owned Independent Subway System installed two lines in Queens on August 19, 1933; the IND Crosstown Line ran south from Court Square in Long Island City to Greenpoint in Brooklyn, and was expanded to Downtown Brooklyn on July 1, 1937. The IND Queens Boulevard Line entered from Manhattan and ran to Jackson Heights, then to Kew Gardens on December 31, 1936, then to 169th Street in Jamaica on April 24, 1937. One last station at 179th Street was built on December 10, 1950. From 1939 to 1940, IND installed a spur off the Queens Boulevard Line called the IND World's Fair Line. The line was demolished after the closing of the 1939 World's Fair and the remnants can be found in the Jamaica Yard. A devastating fire on the trestle of the Rockaway Beach Branch of the Long Island Rail Road in Jamaica Bay in 1950 lead the gradual closure of the branch, as well as part of the Far Rockaway Branch and the replacement of both by the IND Rockaway Line by 1956, replacing many but not all former LIRR stations. One other station (Far Rockaway–Mott Avenue) would be opened on February 21, 1958, and the LIRR replaced it with a new station three blocks east a month later. When the IND connected the Fulton Street Subway to the BMT Fulton Street Elevated on April 29, 1956, the former segments of the line in Ozone Park and Richmond Hill was officially "recaptured" by the IND.
The newest subway lines to be built were the Archer Avenue Lines, which opened on December 11, 1988, and replaced the demolished sections of the BMT Jamaica Line in Downtown Jamaica itself with an connecting spur to the IND Queens Boulevard Line, and the 63rd Street Lines on October 29, 1989 from the Upper East Side and Roosevelt Island.
Lines and services
There are 81 New York City Subway stations in Queens, per the official count of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority; of these, 10 are express-local stations. If the 2 station complexes are counted as one station each, the number of stations is 78. In the table below, lines with colors next to them indicate trunk lines, which determine the colors that are used for services' route bullets and diamonds. The opening date refers to the opening of the first section of track for the line. In the "division" column, the current division is followed by the original division in parentheses.
|Division||Line||Services||Stations in Queens||Opened||Continues to|
|B (IND)||63rd Street Line||||1||October 29, 1989||Manhattan|
|B (BMT)||Archer Avenue Lines||||[^ 1] both shared with IND Archer Avenue Line)2 (1 express-local station,||December 11, 1988||N/A|
|B (IND)||Archer Avenue Lines||3 (2 shared with BMT Archer Avenue Line)||December 11, 1988||N/A|
|B (BMT)||Astoria Line||||7 (1 shared with Flushing Line)||February 1, 1917||Manhattan|
|B (IND)||Crosstown Line||2 (1 part of a station complex)||August 19, 1933||Brooklyn|
|A (IRT)||Flushing Line||||18 (4 express-local stations, 1 shared with Astoria Line, 2 part of station complexes)||June 22, 1915||Manhattan|
|B (IND)||Fulton Street Line||6||April 29, 1956||Brooklyn|
|B (BMT)||Jamaica Line||||[^ 1]6 (1 express-local station)||May 28, 1917||Brooklyn|
|B (BMT)||Myrtle Avenue Line||4||February 22, 1915||Brooklyn|
|B (IND)||Queens Boulevard Line||||21 (4 express-local stations, 2 part of station complexes)||August 19, 1933||Manhattan|
|B (IND)||Rockaway Line||14||June 28, 1956||N/A|
Permanently closed subway stations, including those that have been demolished, are not included in the list below. Numerically named stations that are attached with a geographic location before them (61st Street–Woodside, Forest Hills–71st Avenue, and Jamaica–179th Street) are listed under the geographic location name.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops late nights only|
|Stops weekdays only|
|Stops all times except rush hours in the peak direction|
|Stops daily except rush hours in the peak direction|
|Stops rush hours only|
|Stops rush hours in the peak direction only|
|Time period details|
|Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
|↑||Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
in the indicated direction only
|Elevator access to mezzanine only|
|*||Station is part of a station complex|
|**||Transfer stations either between local and express services or that involve the terminus of a service on the same line; may also be part of a station complex as defined above|
|***||Multi-level or adjacent-platform transfer stations on different lines considered to be one station as classified by the MTA|
|†||Terminal of a service|
|*†, **† or ***†||Transfer stations and terminals|
|‡||Last station in Queens before service continues to Brooklyn or Manhattan|
|*‡, **‡, or ***‡||Last station in Queens and a transfer station|
|*†‡, **†‡, or ***†‡||Last station in Queens, a transfer station and a terminal|
- New York City Subway stations
- List of New York City Subway transfer stations
- List of New York City Subway terminals
- List of closed New York City Subway stations
- List of Staten Island Railway stations
- Accessibility of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority
- List of New York City Subway stations in the Bronx
- List of New York City Subway stations in Brooklyn
- List of New York City Subway stations in Manhattan
- As the J/Z combined in a skip-stop service, an "express-local" station in this sense means both services stop at the station during the hours of skip-stop operation.
- The 2 platform sets of the Jackson Heights–Roosevelt Avenue/74th Street–Broadway station complex counts as one station when compared to international standards.
- The platform is on the northbound side only.
- The 3 platform sets of the Court Square station complex counts as one station when compared to international standards.
- The Mets–Willets Point station is disability-accessible on the northbound side platform only. Northbound local trains will open their doors on this platform during New York Mets game days and special events only.
- The transfer at Rockaway Boulevard is between A trains going to/from Ozone Park–Lefferts Boulevard and A trains going to/from Far Rockaway–Mott Avenue or Rockaway Park–Beach 116th Street.
- "Transit Service on Corona Extension of Dual Subway System Opened to the Public". The New York Times. April 22, 1917. p. RE1. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
- Sheridan, Dick (April 12, 1999). "MOVING UP ON MAIN ST. ESCALATORS READY AT SUBWAY STATION". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- New York Times, New Elevated Line Opened for Queens, September 26, 1915, page 7
- "First Train Runs On Elevated Line to Astoria Section". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. February 1, 1917. Retrieved June 29, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Annual report. 1916-1917. New York: Interborough Rapid Transit Company. 1917.
- "Subway Link Over Queensboro Bridge". The New York Times. July 22, 1917. p. 31. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- * "TO OPEN JAMAICA AV. LINE.; Nearly Two and a Half Miles Ready for Operation Tonight". New York Times (May 27, 1917). May 27, 1917. p. 24. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- "Jamaica Avenue 'L' is an Old Story Already" (PDF). Leader Observer (May 31, 1917). Queens/Brooklyn, New York. May 31, 1917. p. 1. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- Report of the Public Service Commission for the First District of the State of New York, Volume 1. New York State Public Service Commission. January 15, 1918. pp. 73, 81, 312–314. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- * New York Times, New Subway Line: Affords a Five-Cent Fare Between Manhattan and Jamaica, L.I., July 7, 1918, page 30
- "OPEN NEW SUBWAY TO REGULAR TRAFFIC; First Train on Seventh Avenue Line Carries Mayor and Other Officials ... New Extensions of Elevated Railroad Service … Currents of Travel to Change". New York Times (July 2, 1918). July 2, 1918. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
- "'L' Trains Now Run Through to Jamaica" (PDF). Leader Observer (July 4, 1918). Queens/Brooklyn, New York. July 4, 1918. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
- Report of the Public Service Commission for the First District of the State of New York, Volume 1. New York State Public Service Commission. January 10, 1919. pp. 61, 71, 285, 286. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
- Raskin, Joseph B. (2013). The Routes Not Taken: A Trip Through New York City's Unbuilt Subway System. New York, New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-82325-369-2.
- "Independent Subway Services Beginning in 1932". thejoekorner.com. August 21, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- "TWO SUBWAY UNITS OPEN AT MIDNIGHT; Links in City-Owned System in Queens and Brooklyn to Have 15 Stations" (PDF). The New York Times. August 18, 1933. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- "New Crosstown Subway Line Is Opened". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 1, 1937. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- "Reproduction Poster of Extension to Union Turnpike–Kew Gardens". Flickr – Photo Sharing!. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
- Roger P. Roess; Gene Sansone (August 23, 2012). The Wheels That Drove New York: A History of the New York City Transit System. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 416–417. ISBN 978-3-642-30484-2.
- "PWA Party Views New Subway Link: Queens Section to Be Opened Tomorrow Is Inspected by Tuttle and Others" (PDF). The New York Times. December 30, 1936. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "Subway Link Opens Soon: City Line to Jamaica Will Start About April 24" (PDF). The New York Times. March 17, 1937. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "Trial Run to Jamaica on Subway Tomorrow: Section From Kew Gardens to 169th Street Will Open to Public in Two Weeks" (PDF). The New York Times. April 9, 1937. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
- "TO BUILD FAIR SUBWAY P. T. Cox Co. Wins Award for Extending Independent System The first contract for the World's Fair spur from the Queens Boulevard line of the Independent Subway System was awarded yesterday by the Board of Transportation to the lowest bidder, the P. T. Cox Contracting Company, at the bid price of $308,770" (PDF). The New York Times. October 27, 1937. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Lucev, Emil (June 18, 2010). "Historical Views of the Rockaways: The old Far Rockaway Station Plaza, Mott and Central Avenues, 1922". rockawave.com. The Wave. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- "Shop Center Due in Far Rockaway: Market and Big Parking Lot to Replace L.I. Station Being Moved 2 Blocks" (PDF). The New York Times. July 6, 1956. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- "L.I.R.R. to Shift Station" (PDF). The New York Times. April 5, 1957. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- IND Rockaway Branch/Jamaica Bay Crossing, accessed June 14, 2006
- Sparberg, Andrew J. (October 1, 2014). From a Nickel to a Token: The Journey from Board of Transportation to MTA. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-6190-1.
- Freeman, Ira Henry (June 28, 1956). "Rockaway Trains to Operate Today" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Johnson, Kirk (December 9, 1988). "Big Changes For Subways Are to Begin". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
- "New Subway Line Finally Rolling Through Queens", Newsday, December 11, 1988, page 7.
- Fischler, p. 239-240
- Fischler, p. 241-242
- Fischler, p. 243-244
- "New York City Subway IND Division Timeline". www.nycsubway.org. Retrieved May 31, 2009.
- Feinman, Mark (2000). "The History of the Independent Subway". Retrieved July 3, 2006.
- "New York City Subway BMT Division Timeline". www.nycsubway.org. Retrieved May 31, 2009.