The Great Dome at MIT. As of October 2019, 97 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with MIT.

This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) comprehensively shows the alumni, faculty members as well as researchers of Massachusetts Institute of Technology who were awarded the Nobel Prize or the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prizes, established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, are awarded to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine.[1] An associated prize, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics), was instituted by Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.[2]

As of October 2019, 97 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with MIT. Among the 97 laureates, 96 are the laureates of the scientific Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Prize in Economics; 39 are MIT alumni (graduates and attendees) and 37 have been long-term academic members of the MIT faculty; and, subject-wise, 34 have won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, more than any other subject. No MIT Nobel laureate has won the Nobel Prize in Literature. This list considers Nobel laureates as equal individuals and does not consider their various prize shares or if they received the prize more than once.[3]

Inclusion criteria

General rules

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The affiliations of Massachusetts Institute of Technology in this list include all the official academic affiliations such as official academic employment and degree programs of the university. The official academic affiliations include alumni (graduates and attendees), long-term faculty members, and short-term academic staff.

Graduates are defined as those who hold bachelor's, master's, doctorate, or equivalent degrees from MIT, while attendees are those who studied at the institute, but did not complete the degree program or obtain a formal degree. All MIT degrees has been earned by academic labor, in that MIT has never awarded honorary degrees in any form.[4] Summer attendees, exchange students, and auditing students are excluded from this list. Those who hold certificates or studied as non-degree students at MIT are also excluded.

The long-term faculty members consist of tenure or tenure-track and equivalent academic positions, while short-term academic staff consist of lecturers (without tenure), postdoctoral researchers (postdocs), visiting professors or scholars (visitors), and equivalent academic positions. At MIT, the specific academic title solely determines the type of affiliation, regardless of the actual time the position was held by a laureate.

Further explanations on visitors under short-term academic staff are presented as follows. 1) All informal or personal visits are excluded from the list; 2) all employment-based visiting positions, which carry teaching or research duties, are included as affiliations in the list; and, 3) as for award or honor-based visiting positions, to minimize controversy this list takes a conservative view and includes the positions as affiliations only if the laureates were required to assume employment-level duty (teaching or research) or the laureates specifically classified the visiting positions as "affiliation" or similar in reliable sources such as their curriculum vita. To be specific, visiting positions such as the "Arthur D. Little Memorial Visiting Lectureship" are awards or honors or recognition without employment-level duty, and thus will not be counted in this list.[5] In case of "Arthur D. Little Visiting Professorship", visiting professors do spend several weeks on campus, but the professorship does not require inherent employment-level duty,[6] and thus are generally excluded from this list. In some cases, Arthur D. Little visiting professors do get involved in teaching or research; in such cases, they are included. In particular, attending meetings and giving public lectures, talks or non-curricular seminars is not a form of employment-level duty. This list also exclude those who held non-academic positions (for instance, advisory committee, administrative staff, etc.) at MIT. Finally, summer visitors are generally excluded from the list unless summer work yielded significant end products such as research publications and components of Nobel-winning work, since summer terms are not part of formal academic years.

Some attendees and visitors not qualified as official academic affiliates
Name Noble Prize Year Role in MIT
Mario Capecchi Physiology or Medicine 2007 Capecchi was an undergraduate student at Antioch College, which had "work-study program"; as a student of Antioch, he spent several quarters at MIT.[7] This program was not a degree program and is equivalent to a student-exchange program.
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji Physics 1997 Visiting professor in 1976 (classified under "special lecturer" in his C.V.)[8][9]
William A. Fowler Physics 1983 Visiting professor in March–May 26, 1966; he delivered a series of lectures "Nuclear Astrophysics and Geophysics"[10][11][12][13]
Ernst Otto Fischer Chemistry 1973 Arthur D. Little Visiting Professor (Spring 1973)[14]
Derek Barton Chemistry 1969 Arthur D. Little Visiting Professor (Spring 1958; he held the professorship for five weeks)[15][16]
Edward Victor Appleton Physics 1947 Arthur D. Little Memorial Lecturer (1946)[17]

Affiliated organizations

The MIT Radiation Laboratory was established on October 11, 1940 and was officially terminated on December 31, 1945.[18][19] This war-time laboratory was funded and overseen by Alfred Lee Loomis, whose wartime role was the head of Radar Division of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC).[20][21] Lee Alvin DuBridge, the 2nd President of California Institute of Technology, was the director of the lab, and Nobel laureate Isidor Isaac Rabi was the associate director.[22][23] The lab was primarily responsible for the research and development of radar and microwave technology.[18][19] As the Radiation Laboratory was not managed by or affiliated with the military, Nobel laureates who were affiliated with this war-time lab as researchers are generally considered as academic affiliates of MIT and thus are included in this list.[24] Exceptions include those who held military positions (non-academic) in the lab and those who participated only in military projects.

The MIT Lincoln Laboratory was established in 1951, with its roots in the MIT Radiation lab.[25] Nobel laureates who were affiliates of this lab as researchers are generally considered as academic affiliates of MIT and thus are included in this list. Exceptions include those who held military positions (non-academic) in the lab and those who participated only in military projects.

Visitors and staff not qualified as official academic affiliates
Name Noble Prize Year Role in MIT
Paul Greengard Physiology or Medicine 2000 Electronics technician from U.S. Navy (military, non-academic) at MIT during World War II[26][27]
Jack Steinberger Physics 1988 War-time military researcher from U.S. Army at MIT Radiation Lab (1942-1944) during World War II[28][29]
Willis Lamb Physics 1955 Researcher at MIT Radiation Laboratory, Columbia University Satellite (1943-1945)[a]
Edwin McMillan Chemistry 1951 Researcher working on military work at MIT Radiation Lab (1940-1941) during World War II[33][34][35]

Summary

According to Wikipedia policies on no original research and objectivity/neutrality, it is not possible in Wikipedia to assign various weights to different types of affiliations. Hence, all types of affiliations count equally in the following table and throughout the whole page.

In the following list, the number following a person's name is the year they received the prize; in particular, a number with asterisk (*) means the person received the award while they were working at MIT (including emeritus staff). A name underlined implies that this person has already been listed in a previous category (i.e., multiple affiliations). The table doesn't provide citations or details on entries; for citations and details, see "Nobel laureates by category".

Alumni Long-term academic staff Short-term academic staff
Physics (33)
  1. Rainer Weiss - 2017
  2. Adam Riess - 2011
  3. George Smoot- 2006
  4. Carl Wieman - 2001
  5. Eric Cornell - 2001
  6. Robert Laughlin - 1998
  7. William D. Phillips - 1997
  8. Henry W. Kendall - 1990
  9. Burton Richter - 1976
  10. John Schrieffer- 1972
  11. Murray Gell-Mann - 1969
  12. Richard Feynman - 1965
  13. William Shockley - 1956
  1. Rainer Weiss - 2017*
  2. Frank Wilczek - 2004*
  3. Wolfgang Ketterle - 2001*
  4. Clifford Shull - 1994*
  5. Henry W. Kendall - 1990*
  6. Jerome I. Friedman - 1990*
  7. Steven Weinberg - 1979
  8. Samuel Ting - 1976*
  9. Charles Townes - 1964*
  1. Didier Queloz - 2019
  2. Serge Haroche - 2012
  3. Daniel Tsui - 1998
  4. Horst Störmer - 1998
  5. William D. Phillips - 1997
  6. Norman Ramsey - 1989
  7. Sheldon Glashow - 1979
  8. Steven Weinberg - 1979
  9. Murray Gell-Mann - 1969
  10. Luis W. Alvarez - 1968
  11. Hans Bethe - 1967
  12. Julian Schwinger - 1965
  13. Donald Glaser - 1960
  14. Max Born - 1954
  15. Edward M. Purcell - 1952
  16. Isidor Rabi - 1944
Chemistry (17)
  1. Paul Modrich - 2015
  2. Elias Corey - 1990
  3. Sidney Altman - 1989
  4. Charles Pedersen - 1987
  5. Robert Mulliken - 1966
  6. Robert B. Woodward - 1965
  1. John B. Goodenough - 2019
  2. Richard Schrock - 2005*
  3. Barry Sharpless - 2001
  4. Mario Molina - 1995*
  1. Ada Yonath - 2009
  2. Aaron Ciechanover - 2004
  3. Thomas Cech - 1989
  4. Donald J. Cram - 1987
  5. Alexander R. Todd - 1957
  6. Geoffrey Wilkinson - 1951
  7. Peter Debye - 1936
Physiology or Medicine (12)
  1. Michael Rosbash - 2017
  2. Andrew Fire - 2006
  3. Robert Horvitz - 2002
  4. Leland Hartwell - 2001
  5. David Baltimore - 1975
  1. Robert Horvitz - 2002*
  2. Phillip Sharp - 1993*
  3. Susumu Tonegawa - 1987*
  4. David Baltimore - 1975*
  5. Salvador Luria - 1969*
  6. Gobind Khorana- 1968
  1. James Rothman - 2013
  2. Donnall Thomas - 1990
  3. Werner Arber- 1978
  4. David Baltimore - 1975
Economic Sciences (34)
  1. Esther Duflo - 2019
  2. Paul Romer - 2018
  3. William Nordhaus - 2018
  4. Jean Tirole - 2014
  5. Robert Shiller - 2013
  6. Peter Diamond - 2010
  7. Oliver Williamson - 2009
  8. Paul Krugman - 2008
  9. Robert Aumann - 2005
  10. George Akerlof - 2001
  11. Joseph Stiglitz - 2001
  12. Robert Mundell - 1999
  13. Robert C. Merton - 1997
  14. Lawrence Klein - 1980
  1. Esther Duflo - 2019*
  2. Abhijit Banerjee - 2019*
  3. Michael Kremer - 2019
  4. Bengt Holmström - 2016*
  5. Oliver S. Hart - 2016
  6. Jean Tirole - 2014
  7. Peter Diamond - 2010*
  8. Paul Krugman - 2008
  9. Eric Maskin- 2007
  10. Robert Engle - 2003
  11. Joseph Stiglitz - 2001
  12. Daniel McFadden - 2000
  13. Myron Scholes - 1997
  14. Robert C. Merton - 1997
  15. John F. Nash - 1994
  16. Robert Solow - 1987*
  17. Franco Modigliani - 1985*
  18. Paul Samuelson - 1970*
  1. Michael Kremer - 2019
  2. Richard Thaler - 2017
  3. Jean Tirole - 2014
  4. Lars P. Hansen- 2013
  5. Robert Shiller - 2013
  6. Christopher Sims - 2011
  7. Paul Krugman- 2008
  8. Leonid Hurwicz - 2007
  9. Edmund Phelps - 2006
  10. Amartya Sen- 1998
  11. James Mirrlees - 1996
  12. Franco Modigliani - 1985
  13. Kenneth Arrow - 1972
Peace (1)
  1. Kofi Annan - 2001

Nobel laureates by category

Nobel laureates in Physics

Name Year Affiliation with MIT
Didier Queloz 2019 Visiting Scientist at MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research[36][37]
Rainer Weiss 2017 B.S. (1955) and Ph.D. in Physics (1962); Assistant Professor of Physics (1964–1967), Associate Professor of Physics (1967–1973), Professor of Physics (1973–2001), and Professor of Physics, Emeritus (2001–present)[38]
Serge Haroche 2012 Visiting Scientist (1979)[39]
Adam Riess 2011 B.S[40]
George Smoot 2006 B.S, PhD[41]
Frank Wilczek 2004 Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics (September 2000–present)[42][43]
Carl Wieman 2001 B.S[44]
Eric Cornell 2001 PhD[45]
Wolfgang Ketterle 2001 Professor[46]
Daniel Tsui 1998 Visiting Scientist (1988)[47]
Horst Störmer 1998 Visiting Scientist at Francis Bitter High Magnetic Field Lab[47][48]
Robert Laughlin 1998 PhD[49]
William D. Phillips 1997 PhD; Postdoctoral Researcher[50]
Clifford Shull 1994 Professor of Physics (1955–1986) and Professor of Physics Emeritus (1986–2001)[51][52]
Henry W. Kendall 1990 PhD; Professor[53]
Jerome I. Friedman 1990 Professor[54]
Norman Ramsey 1989 Research group leader at MIT Radiation lab (1940-1943)[55][56][57]
Steven Weinberg 1979 Professor; Visiting Professor[58][59]
Sheldon Glashow 1979 Visiting Professor (1974, 1980) [60]
Burton Richter 1976 B.S, PhD[61]
Samuel Ting 1976 Professor[62]
John Schrieffer 1972 B.S[63]
Murray Gell-Mann 1969 PhD; Visiting Professor (Spring 1963)[64]
Luis W. Alvarez 1968 Researcher at MIT Radiation Lab (1940-1943)[65][66][67]
Hans Bethe 1967 Staff member, MIT Radiation Lab (1942-1943); Visiting Professor (1975, 1977)[68]
Richard Feynman 1965 B.S[69]
Julian Schwinger 1965 Researcher at MIT Radiation Lab (1943-1945)[70][71][72]
Charles Townes 1964 Professor of Physics[73]
Donald Glaser 1960 Visiting Professor of Biophysics (For a semester starting in January 1962)[74][75]
William Shockley 1956 PhD[76]
Max Born 1954 Visiting "Foreign Lecturer" at MIT (14 November 1925 to 22 January 1926)[b][78]
Edward M. Purcell 1952 Researcher at MIT Radiation Lab (1941-1946)[79][80]
Isidor Rabi 1944 Associate Director of MIT Radiation Lab (1942-1945)[23]

Nobel laureates in Chemistry

Name Year Affiliation with MIT
John B. Goodenough 2019 Research Scientist at MIT Lincoln Lab (1952-1976)[81]
Paul Modrich 2015 B.S[82]
Ada Yonath 2009 Postdoctoral Researcher (1970)[83]
Richard Schrock 2005 Professor[84]
Aaron Ciechanover 2004 Fulbright Postdoctoral Fellow (1981-1984)[85]
Barry Sharpless 2001 Professor[86]
Mario Molina 1995 Professor[87]
Elias Corey 1990 B.S, PhD[88]
Thomas Cech 1989 Postdoctoral Researcher (1975-1977)[89]
Sidney Altman 1989 B.S[90]
Charles Pedersen 1987 M.S[91]
Donald J. Cram 1987 Postdoctoral Researcher[92][93]
Robert Mulliken 1966 B.S[94]
Robert B. Woodward 1965 B.S, PhD[95]
Alexander R. Todd 1957 Arthur D. Little Visiting Professor of Chemistry (Fall 1954); he delivered a course on vitamins, co-enzymes and nucleic acids[96][97]
Geoffrey Wilkinson 1951 Research Associate (1950-1951)[98][99]
Peter Debye 1936 Visiting Researcher, Department of Physics (1932)[100][101][102]

Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine

Name Year Affiliation with MIT
Michael Rosbash 2017 PhD[103]
James Rothman 2013 Postdoctoral Researcher (1976-1978)[104]
Andrew Fire 2006 PhD[105]
Robert Horvitz 2002 B.S; Professor[106]
Leland Hartwell 2001 PhD[107]
Phillip Sharp 1993 Professor[108]
Donnall Thomas 1990 Postdoctoral Researcher (1950-1951)[109][110][111]
Susumu Tonegawa 1987 Professor[112]
Werner Arber 1978 Visiting Researcher at Department of Biology (1959)[113][114]
David Baltimore 1975 Graduate attendee (1960-1961); Professor; Postdoctoral Researcher (1963-1964)[115]
Salvador Luria 1969 Professor[116]
Gobind Khorana 1968 Professor[117]

Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economic Sciences

Name Year Affiliation with MIT
Michael Kremer 2019 Professor; Postdoctoral Researcher[118]
Esther Duflo 2019 PhD; Professor[119]
Abhijit Banerjee 2019 Professor[120]
Paul Romer 2018 Graduate attendee[121]
William Nordhaus 2018 PhD[122]
Richard Thaler 2017 Visiting Professor, Sloan School of Management (Sep 1994 ‐ Jun 1995, Jan 1993 ‐ Jul 1993)[123]
Bengt Holmström 2016 Professor[124]
Oliver S. Hart 2016 Professor[125]
Jean Tirole 2014 PhD; Professor; Visiting Professor[126]
Robert Shiller 2013 M.S, PhD; Visiting Professor[127]
Lars P. Hansen 2013 Visiting Professor, Department of Economics (1983)[128]
Christopher Sims 2011 Visiting Professor (1979-1980)[129]
Peter Diamond 2010 PhD; Professor[130]
Oliver Williamson 2009 B.S[131]
Paul Krugman 2008 PhD; Professor; Visiting Assistant Professor[132]
Eric Maskin 2007 Professor[133]
Leonid Hurwicz 2007 Research Assistant of Paul Samuelson (1941) [134]
Edmund Phelps 2006 Visiting Associate Professor of Economics (1962-1963)[135]
Robert Aumann 2005 M.S, PhD[136]
Robert Engle 2003 Associate Professor[137]
George Akerlof 2001 PhD[138]
Joseph Stiglitz 2001 PhD; Assistant Professor[139]
Daniel McFadden 2000 Professor[140]
Robert Mundell 1999 PhD[141]
Amartya Sen 1998 Visiting Assistant Professor (1960-1961)[142]
Myron Scholes 1997 Professor[143]
Robert C. Merton 1997 PhD; Professor[144]
James Mirrlees 1996 Visiting Professor (March–July 1968, September 1970-January 1971, January–May 1976)[145]
John F. Nash 1994 Professor[146]
Robert Solow 1987 Professor[147]
Franco Modigliani 1985 Professor; Visiting Professor[148]
Lawrence Klein 1980 PhD[149]
Kenneth Arrow 1972 Visiting Professor of Economics (Fall 1966)[11][150]
Paul Samuelson 1970 Professor[151]

Nobel Peace Prize laureates

Name Year Affiliation with MIT
Kofi Annan 2001 M.S[152]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ From 1943 to 1945, Willis E. Lamb was a researcher at Columbia Radiation Laboratory at Columbia University,[30][31] which was a satellite lab supporting the main Radiation Lab at MIT during World War II.[32]
  2. ^ From 14 November 1925 to 22 January 1926, Max Born delivered two series of lectures on quantum theory at MIT. Born was one of the first physicists to write a paper on then newly developed theory of quantum mechanics that was published in the United States. The matrix mechanics, developed by Werner Heisenberg, was developed for dealing with discrete energy spectra. At MIT, Born and Norbert Wiener, a professor of mathematics, developed a general operator calculus that could be applied to both discrete and continuous case, and published their work in The Journal of Mathematical Physics in February 1926. They were able to solve a continuum problem, namely the motion of a free particle in one dimension. Later, their work were superseded. However, Born's work on continuum problems was important for his later discovery of the statistical interpretation of the wavefunction.[77] His two sets of lectures at MIT were published in Problems of Atomic Dynamics (See "Bibliography").

References

  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  2. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  3. ^ "Nobel Prize facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  4. ^ "No honorary degrees is an MIT tradition going back to… Thomas Jefferson". MIT News Office. June 8, 2001. Retrieved 2011-04-18. MIT's founder, William Barton Rogers, regarded the practice of giving honorary degrees as 'literary almsgiving …of spurious merit and noisy popularity.'
  5. ^ "Arthur D. Little,Inc.: Exhibits: Institute Archives & Special Collections: MIT". libraries.mit.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-18.
  6. ^ "Postdoc T.Y. Shen Honors his Wife". MIT. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  7. ^ "Mario R. Capecchi - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-02-06.
  8. ^ "Cohen-Tannoudji Claude". www.phys.ens.fr. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  9. ^ "Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (Collège de France), "Atom-Photon Interactions" - MIT Physics Department Special Seminar 4/29/1992". mit.edu. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  10. ^ "Fowler, William A." history.aip.org. Retrieved 2017-12-28.
  11. ^ a b "MIT (Report of the President 1966)" (PDF).
  12. ^ Appropriations, United States Congress Senate Committee on (1966). Independent Offices Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1967: Hearings Before the Subcommittee ... Committee on Appropriations, Senate, Eighty-ninth Congress, Second Session, on H.R. 14921. U.S. Government Printing Office.
  13. ^ "Guide to the Papers of William A. Fowler, 1917-1994". oac.cdlib.org. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  14. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2019-10-15.
  15. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2019-10-15.
  16. ^ Cotton, F. Albert (2000). "Derek H. R. Barton, 8 September 1918 · 16 March 1998". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 144 (3): 292–296. ISSN 0003-049X. JSTOR 1515591.
  17. ^ Appleton, Edward V. (December 1, 1946). "Science, Government and Industry in Britain". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 2 (11): 2–5. Bibcode:1946BuAtS...2k...2A. doi:10.1080/00963402.1946.11458055.
  18. ^ a b Saad, T. A. (October 1990). "The story of the MIT Radiation Laboratory". IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine. 5 (10): 46–51. doi:10.1109/62.60678.
  19. ^ a b "MIT Radiation Laboratory". www.aps.org. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  20. ^ "Alfred Lee Loomis" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences.
  21. ^ "Norman F. Ramsey" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences.
  22. ^ "DuBridge, Lee A. (Lee Alvin), 1901-1994". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  23. ^ a b "Rabi, I. I. (Isidor Isaac), 1898-1988". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  24. ^ "MIT Department of Physics". web.mit.edu. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  25. ^ "History | MIT Lincoln Laboratory". www.ll.mit.edu. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  26. ^ "Celebrating and remembering Paul Greengard, a pioneering neuroscientist and Nobel laureate". News. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  27. ^ "Paul Greengard - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-04-28.
  28. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2019-10-16.
  29. ^ "Steinberger, J." history.aip.org. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
  30. ^ "Lamb, Willis E. (Willis Eugene), 1913-2008". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  31. ^ "Willis E. Lamb - Biographical". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2019-10-18.
  32. ^ De Bary, Wm. Theodore; De Bary, William Theodore (2006). Living Legacies at Columbia. Columbia University Press. p. 226. ISBN 0231138849.
  33. ^ "Edwin McMillan" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences.
  34. ^ "Edwin M. McMillan - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
  35. ^ "McMillan, Edwin M. (Edwin Mattison), 1907-". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2019-10-15.
  36. ^ "Congratulations To MKI Visiting Scientist Didier Queloz For Being Awarded The 2019 Nobel Prize In Physics!". MIT. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  37. ^ "Queloz, Didier". MIT. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  38. ^ "Weiss, Rainer". The American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  39. ^ "Curriculum Vitae (Serge Haroche)" (PDF). college-de-france.fr. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  40. ^ "Curriculum Vitae (Adam Guy Riess)" (PDF). stsci.edu. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  41. ^ "Curriculum Vitae (George F. Smoot)" (PDF). http://pariscosmo.in2p3.fr. Retrieved 15 October 2019. External link in |website= (help)
  42. ^ "Wilczek, Frank". The American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  43. ^ "Curriculum Vitae (Frank Wilczek)" (PDF). MIT. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  44. ^ "Curriculum Vitae (Carl Edwin Wieman)" (PDF). ubc.ca. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  45. ^ "CV (Eric A. Cornell)" (PDF).
  46. ^ "CV (Wolfgang Ketterle)" (PDF).
  47. ^ a b "Winners of Nobel Prize in physics have roots at MIT". MIT News. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  48. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2019-10-15.
  49. ^ "R. B. Laughlin - Professional History". large.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-21.
  50. ^ "CV (William D. Phillips)" (PDF).
  51. ^ "Shull, Clifford Glenwood". The American Institute of Physics. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  52. ^ "Clifford G. Shull - Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  53. ^ "Kendall, Henry W. (Henry Way), 1926-1999". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
  54. ^ "Friedman, Jerome I. (Jerome Isaac), 1930-". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
  55. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2019-10-15.
  56. ^ "Ramsey, Norman, 1915-2011". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
  57. ^ "Norman F. Ramsey (1915–2011)" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences.
  58. ^ "Weinberg, Steven, 1933-". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2017-12-29.
  59. ^ "CV of Steven Weinberg" (PDF).
  60. ^ "CV (Sheldon Lee Glashow)" (PDF).
  61. ^ "Richter, Burton, 1931-". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
  62. ^ "Ting, S. C. C. (Samuel Chao-chung), 1936-". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
  63. ^ "Schrieffer, J. R. (John Robert), 1931-". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-02.
  64. ^ "CV (Murray Gell-Mann)" (PDF).
  65. ^ "Luis W. Alvarez". www.lbl.gov. Retrieved 2019-10-15.
  66. ^ "Alvarez, Luis W., 1911-1988". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  67. ^ "MEMORIAL TRIBUTE FOR LUIS W. ALVAREZ". Federation of American Scientists.
  68. ^ "Bethe, Hans A. (Hans Albrecht), 1906-2005". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  69. ^ "Feynman, Richard P. (Richard Phillips), 1918-1988". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  70. ^ "Schwinger, Julian, 1918-1994". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  71. ^ "Julian Schwinger". Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  72. ^ Mehra, Jagdish; Milton, Kimball A.; Rembiesa, Peter (1999-07-01). "The Young Julian Schwinger. V. Winding Up at the Radiation Lab, Going to Harvard, and Marriage". Foundations of Physics. 29 (7): 1119–1162. doi:10.1023/A:1018841800257. ISSN 1572-9516.
  73. ^ "Townes, Charles H." history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-03.
  74. ^ Alladi, Krishnaswami (2010). "Telegrams Received for the MATSCIENCE Inauguration". The Legacy of Alladi Ramakrishnan in the Mathematical Sciences. pp. 25–65. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-6263-8_3. ISBN 978-1-4419-6262-1.
  75. ^ Vettel, Eric (2006). "Donald Glaser: The Bubble Chamber, Bioengineering, Business Consulting, and Neurobiology – an oral history conducted in 2003–2004" (PDF). Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 2013-03-02. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  76. ^ "Shockley, William, 1910-1989". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  77. ^ Pais, Abraham (December 17, 1982). "Max Born's Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 218 (4578): 1193–1198. JSTOR 1688979.
  78. ^ Masani, Pesi R. (2012-12-06). Norbert Wiener 1894–1964. Birkhäuser. ISBN 9783034892520.
  79. ^ "Purcell, Edward M." history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  80. ^ "EDWARD M. PURCELL". ed-thelen.org. Retrieved 2019-10-19.
  81. ^ "John B. Goodenough". NAE Website. Retrieved 2019-10-09.
  82. ^ "Paul Modrich - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
  83. ^ "CV (ADA YONATH)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-29.
  84. ^ "Richard R. Schrock - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
  85. ^ "CV (Aaron Ciechanover)" (PDF).
  86. ^ "K. Barry Sharpless -- Curriculum Vitae". www.scripps.edu. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
  87. ^ "CV (Mario J. Molina)" (PDF).
  88. ^ "Elias James Corey - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-01-20.
  89. ^ "CV (Thomas R. Cech)" (PDF).
  90. ^ "Sidney Altman - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  91. ^ "Charles J. Pedersen - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  92. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  93. ^ "Donald James Cram". senate.universityofcalifornia.edu. Retrieved 2020-01-30.
  94. ^ "Mulliken, Robert Sanderson". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-26.
  95. ^ "Robert B. Woodward - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-01-26.
  96. ^ Todd, Alexander (1983-11-17). A Time to Remember: The Autobiography of a Chemist. Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 0521255937.
  97. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 2019-10-15.
  98. ^ "Geoffrey Wilkinson - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
  99. ^ "Geoffrey Wilkinson" (PDF). American Chemistry Society.
  100. ^ "Debye, Peter J. W. (Peter Josef William), 1884-1966". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  101. ^ "Peter Debye - Session III". 2015-01-15. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
  102. ^ Dalbaa, Giuseppe (November 2016). "Peter J. W. Debye – a whole life devoted to science". Acta Crystallographica Section A. 72 (Pt 6): 591–607. doi:10.1107/S2053273316013619. PMID 27809199.
  103. ^ "Michael Rosbash | The Gruber Foundation". gruber.yale.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-04.
  104. ^ "James E Rothman, PhD > Rothman Lab | Cell Biology | Yale School of Medicine". medicine.yale.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
  105. ^ "Andrew Z. Fire - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  106. ^ "H. Robert Horvitz - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-02-10.
  107. ^ "CV (Leland H. Hartwell)" (PDF).
  108. ^ Langrill, John. "Phil Sharp's Lab - CV". web.mit.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  109. ^ "E. Donnall Thomas - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  110. ^ van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Hansen, John A. (2013-01-02). "A tribute to E. Donnall Thomas". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 123 (1): 3–4. doi:10.1172/JCI67590. ISSN 0021-9738. PMC 3533313.
  111. ^ "Edward Donnall Thomas (1920-2012) | The Embryo Project Encyclopedia". embryo.asu.edu. Retrieved 2019-10-15.
  112. ^ "CV (Susumu Tonegawa)" (PDF).
  113. ^ Hoffmann, Ilire Hasani, Robert. "Academy of Europe: CV". www.ae-info.org. Retrieved 2018-02-16.
  114. ^ "Werner Arber - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-02-16.
  115. ^ "David Baltimore - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  116. ^ "Salvador E. Luria - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-02-21.
  117. ^ "H. Gobind Khorana - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-02-21.
  118. ^ "CV (Michael Kremer)" (PDF).
  119. ^ "CV (Esther Duflo)".
  120. ^ "CV (Abhijit Banerjee)". Archived from the original on 2019-10-14.
  121. ^ "About Paul Romer – Paul Romer". paulromer.net. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  122. ^ "CV (William Nordhaus)".
  123. ^ "CV (Richard Thaler)" (PDF).
  124. ^ "CV (Bengt Holmstrom)".
  125. ^ "CV (Oliver Hart)" (PDF).
  126. ^ "CV (Jean Tirole)" (PDF).
  127. ^ "CV (Robert Shiller)" (PDF).
  128. ^ "CV (Lars Peter Hanson)".
  129. ^ "CV (Christopher A. Sims)" (PDF).
  130. ^ "CV (Peter A. Diamond)".
  131. ^ "CV (Oliver E. Williamson)" (PDF).
  132. ^ "CV (Paul Krugman)" (PDF).
  133. ^ "CV (Eric S. Maskin)" (PDF).
  134. ^ "Biography (Leonid Hurwicz)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-10-25.
  135. ^ "CV (Edmund S. Phelps)" (PDF).
  136. ^ "CV (Robert J. Aumann)". Einstein Institute of Mathematics. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  137. ^ "CV (ROBERT F. ENGLE)" (PDF).
  138. ^ "CV (George A. Akerlof)" (PDF).
  139. ^ "CV (Joseph Stiglitz)" (PDF).
  140. ^ "Daniel McFadden". eml.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
  141. ^ "C.V. of Robert Mundell". www.columbia.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  142. ^ "CV (Amartya Sen)" (PDF).
  143. ^ "Myron S. Scholes". Stanford Graduate School of Business. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  144. ^ "Curriculum Vitae - Robert C. Merton". Robert C. Merton. Retrieved 2017-12-11.
  145. ^ "James A. Mirrlees - Curriculum Vitae". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  146. ^ "John F. Nash Jr. - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  147. ^ "Robert M. Solow - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  148. ^ "Franco Modigliani - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  149. ^ "Lawrence R. Klein - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  150. ^ Arrow, Kenneth J. "Declaration of Kenneth J. Arrow" (PDF). U.S. Department of Justice.
  151. ^ "Paul A. Samuelson - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  152. ^ "Kofi Annan - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-03-08.

Bibliography

  • Born, Max (1970). Problems of Atomic Dynamics. The MIT Press. ISBN 0262520192.

External links

  • Honors and Awards Database