List of United States Navy three-star admirals from 2000 to 2009

Summary

This is a list of three-star admirals in the United States Navy from 2000 to 2009. The rank of vice admiral (or three-star admiral) is the second-highest rank normally achievable in the U.S. Navy, and the first to have a specified number of appointments set by statute. It ranks above rear admiral (two-star admiral) and below admiral (four-star admiral).

Flag of a Navy vice admiral

There have been 107 vice admirals in the U.S. Navy from 2000 to 2009, 20 of whom were promoted to four-star admiral. All 107 achieved that rank while on active duty in the U.S. Navy. Admirals entered the Navy via several paths: 57 were commissioned via the U.S. Naval Academy (USNA), 29 via Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university, 10 via Officer Candidate School (OCS), 5 via Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS), 4 via direct commission (direct), one via the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy (USMMA), and one via direct commission inter-service transfer from the U.S. Army (USA).

List of admiralsEdit

Entries in the following list of vice admirals are indexed by the numerical order in which each officer was promoted to that rank while on active duty, or by an asterisk (*) if the officer did not serve in that rank while on active duty. Each entry lists the admiral's name, date of rank,[1] active-duty positions held while serving at three-star rank,[2] number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank (Yrs),[3] year commissioned and source of commission,[4] number of years in commission when promoted to three-star rank (YC),[5] and other biographical notes.[6]

List of U.S. Navy three-star admirals from 2000 to 2009
# Name Photo Date of rank [1] Position [2] Yrs [3] Commission [4] YC [5] Notes [6]
1 Gordon S. Holder   1 Mar 2000   4 1968 (OCS) 32 (1946–        )
2 Joseph W. Dyer Jr.   30 Jun 2000[7] 3 1970 (AOCS)[8] 30 (1947–        ) Naval aviator.
3 John J. Grossenbacher   4 Jul 2000   3 1970 (USNA) 30 (1946–        )[9]
4 Paul G. Gaffney II   7 Jul 2000   3 1968 (USNA) 32 (1946–        ) President, Monmouth University, 2003–2013; Chair, Ocean Exploration Advisory Board, 2014–2017.
5 James W. Metzger   12 Jul 2000   5 1971 (USNA) 29 (1949–        )
6 Michael D. Haskins   31 Jul 2000   3 1966 (USNA) 34 (1942–        ) Naval aviator. President, Vice Admiral James B. Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership, 2005–2007.
* John B. Nathman   1 Aug 2000   4 1970 (USNA) 30 (1948–        )[10] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 1 Dec 2004.
7 Toney M. Bucchi   6 Oct 2000   3 1970 (NROTC) 30 (1946–        ) Naval aviator.
8 Richard W. Mayo   16 Oct 2000   4 1968 (NROTC) 32 (1946–        )
* Timothy J. Keating   1 Nov 2000[11] 5 1971 (USNA) 29 (1949–        )[12] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 1 Jan 2005.
* Michael G. Mullen   1 Nov 2000[13]
  • Commander, U.S. Second Fleet/Commander, Striking Fleet Atlantic (COMSECONDFLT/COMSTRIKFLTLANT), 2000–2001.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Resources, Requirements, and Assessments (DCNO N8), 2001–2003.
3 1968 (USNA) 32 (1946–        )[10][14][15] Promoted to admiral, 28 Aug 2003.
9 Martin J. Mayer   22 Nov 2000   3 1966 (OCS) 34 (1944–        )
10 Malcolm I. Fages   1 May 2001   3 1969 (NROTC) 32 (1946–        )
11 Albert H. Konetzni Jr.   4 May 2001   3 1966 (USNA) 35 (1944–        )
12 Timothy W. LaFleur   18 May 2001[16] 4 1970 (USNA) 31 (1948–        )
13 Alfred G. Harms Jr.   24 May 2001   3 1971 (NROTC) 30 (1949–        ) President, Lake Highland Preparatory School, 2019–present.
14 John B. Totushek   7 Jun 2001[17] 2 1966 (NROTC) 35 (1944–        ) Naval aviator. First active-duty Navy Reserve officer to achieve the rank of vice admiral.
15 Keith W. Lippert   20 Jul 2001   5 1968 (NROTC) 33 (1947–        ) Supply Corps.
16 J. Cutler Dawson Jr.   27 Jul 2001  
  • Commander, U.S. Second Fleet/Commander, Striking Fleet Atlantic (COMSECONDFLT/COMSTRIKFLTLANT), 2001–2003.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Resources, Requirements, and Assessments (DCNO N8), 2003–2004.
3 1970 (USNA) 31 (1948–        ) President/CEO, Navy Federal Credit Union, 2004–2019.
17 Michael L. Cowan   10 Aug 2001[18] 3 1971 (direct) 30 (1944–        ) Medical Corps.
18 Richard J. Naughton   7 Jun 2002   1 1968 (USNA) 34 (1946–2011)[19] Resigned, 2003.
19 Phillip M. Balisle   28 Jun 2002   3 1970 (OCS) 32 (1948–        )
* Robert F. Willard   18 Jul 2002[20] 3 1973 (USNA) 29 (1950–        )[10][12] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 18 Mar 2005.
20 Michael D. Malone   2 Aug 2002   2 1970 (USNA) 32 (1948–2019)[21] Naval aviator.
21 Kevin P. Green   18 Sep 2002  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Plans, Policy and Operations (DCNO N3/N5), 2002–2004.
2 1971 (USNA) 31 (1949–        )
22 Gerald L. Hoewing   1 Oct 2002   3 1971 (NROTC) 31 (1949–        ) Naval aviator.
23 Lowell E. Jacoby   17 Oct 2002   3 1969 (AOCS) 33 (1945–        ) Director of Naval Intelligence, 1997–1999.
24 David L. Brewer III   23 Oct 2002[22] 4 1970 (NROTC) 32 (1946–        ) Superintendent, Los Angeles Unified School District, 2006–2009.
25 Stanley R. Szemborski   19 Nov 2002   5 1971 (USNA) 31 (1949–        )
26 Albert T. Church III   Mar 2003   2 1969 (USNA) 34 (1947–        ) First cousin once removed of U.S. Senator Frank Church.
27 Michael J. McCabe   28 May 2003   2 1970 (AOCS) 33 (1948–        ) First University of Portland alumnus to achieve flag rank in the Navy.
28 Rodney P. Rempt   1 Aug 2003   4 1966 (USNA) 37 (1945–        ) President, Naval War College, 2001–2003.
* Gary Roughead   15 Aug 2003[23]
  • Commander, U.S. Second Fleet/Commander, Striking Fleet Atlantic/Commander, Naval Forces North Fleet East/Commander, Joint Task Force 120/Commander, Joint Task Force 950 (COMSECONDFLT/COMSTRIKFLTLANT/COMNAVNFE/CDRJTF 120/CDRJTF 950), 2003–2004.
  • Deputy Commander, U.S. Pacific Command (DCDRUSPACOM), 2004–2005.
2 1973 (USNA) 30 (1951–        )[14] Promoted to admiral, 1 Sep 2005.
* Eric T. Olson   2 Sep 2003[24] 4 1973 (USNA) 30 (1952–        )[12] Navy SEAL. Promoted to admiral, 6 Jul 2007. First Navy SEAL to attain rank of vice admiral.
* Kirkland H. Donald   5 Sep 2003[25] 1 1975 (USNA) 28 (1953–        )[27] Promoted to admiral, 1 Jan 2005.
29 David C. Nichols Jr.   7 Oct 2003   4 1974 (USA) 29 (1950–        )[28]
30 John G. Cotton   18 Oct 2003   5 1973 (USNA) 30 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
* Henry G. Ulrich III   4 Nov 2003   2 1972 (USNA) 31 (1950–        ) Promoted to admiral, 22 Jul 2005.
31 Walter B. Massenburg   1 Dec 2003   4 1970 (NROTC) 33 (1949–        ) Naval aviator.
32 Albert M. Calland III   26 Mar 2004   3 1974 (USNA) 30 (1952–        )[29] Navy SEAL. Resigned as CIA deputy director, 2006.
33 James D. McArthur Jr.   26 Mar 2004   3 1972 (USNA) 32 (1949–        ) Naval aviator.
34 Kevin J. Cosgriff   24 Jun 2004   4 1971 (USMMA) 33 (1949–        )
35 Justin D. McCarthy   Aug 2004  
  • Director, Material Readiness and Logistics (N4), 2004–2007.
3 1969 (OCS) 35 (1947–        ) Supply Corps.
36 Donald C. Arthur Jr.   3 Aug 2004[31] 3 1974 (direct) 30 (1950–        ) Medical Corps.
37 Ronald A. Route   12 Aug 2004   3 1971 (USNA) 33 (1949–        )[32] President, Naval War College, 2003–2004; President, Naval Postgraduate School, 2013–2019.
38 James M. Zortman   17 Aug 2004   3 1973 (USNA) 31 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
* James G. Stavridis   1 Sep 2004[33] 2 1976 (USNA) 28 (1955–        )[29][12][34] Promoted to admiral, 18 Oct 2006. Dean, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, 2013–2018.
* Mark P. Fitzgerald   1 Oct 2004   3 1973 (NROTC) 31 (1951–        ) Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 30 Nov 2007.
* Jonathan W. Greenert   1 Oct 2004[35]
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2004–2006.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Integration of Capabilities and Resources (DCNO N8), 2006–2007.
3 1975 (USNA) 29 (1953–        )[10][14] Promoted to admiral, 29 Sep 2007.
39 Charles L. Munns   15 Oct 2004   3 1973 (USNA) 31 (1950–        )
40 Lewis W. Crenshaw Jr.   4 Nov 2004  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Resources, Requirements and Assessments (DCNO N8), 2004–2006.
2 1974 (USNA) 30 (1952–        )
41 Joseph A. Sestak Jr.   17 Nov 2004  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Warfare Requirements and Programs (DCNO N6/N7), 2004–2005.
  • Special Assistant to the Vice Chief of Naval Operations, 2005.
1 1974 (USNA) 30 (1951–        )[36] Relieved as deputy chief of naval operations, 2005. U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania's 7th congressional district, 2007–2011.
42 J. Kevin Moran   3 Dec 2004   3 1974 (USNA) 30 (1952–        ) Naval aviator.
43 Terrance T. Etnyre   4 Mar 2005   3 1971 (OCS) 34 (1947–        )
44 Evan M. Chanik Jr.   17 Mar 2005   3 1973 (USNA) 32 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
45 Barry M. Costello   7 May 2005   2 1973 (NROTC) 32 (1951–        )
46 John D. Stufflebeem   20 May 2005   3 1975 (USNA) 30 (1952–        )[37] Naval aviator. Relieved, 2008.
47 Paul E. Sullivan   15 Jul 2005   3 1974 (USNA) 31 (1952–        )
48 Ann E. Rondeau   1 Aug 2005   7 1974 (OCS) 31 (1951–        ) President, College of DuPage, 2016–2019; President, Naval Postgraduate School, 2019–present.
49 John G. Morgan Jr.   15 Aug 2005  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Plans, Policy and Operations (DCNO N3/N5), 2005.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Information, Plans and Strategy (DCNO N3/N5), 2005–2008.
3 1972 (NROTC) 33 (1950–        )
* Patrick M. Walsh   3 Nov 2005   2 1977 (USNA) 28 (1955–        )[10] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 5 Apr 2007.
* John C. Harvey Jr.   22 Nov 2005  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education/Chief of Naval Personnel (DCNO N1/CNP), 2005.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Total Force/Chief of Naval Personnel (DCNO N1/CNP), 2005–2008.
  • Director, Navy Staff (DNS/N09B), 2008–2009.
4 1973 (USNA) 32 (1951–        ) Promoted to admiral, 24 Jul 2009. Virginia Secretary of Veterans and Defense Affairs, 2014–2017.
50 Robert T. Conway Jr.   14 Mar 2006   3 1972 (OCS) 34 (1950–        )
51 Mark J. Edwards   16 Jun 2006  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Communication Networks (DCNO N6), 2006–2008.
2 1972 (NROTC) 34 (1950–        )
52 Robert B. Murrett   7 Jul 2006   4 1975 (NROTC) 31 (1952–        ) Director of Naval Intelligence, 2005–2006; Deputy Director, Institute for National Security and Counterterrorism, 2011–present.
53 Nancy E. Brown   Aug 2006  
  • Director, Command, Control, Communications and Computer Systems, Joint Staff, J6, 2006–2009.
3 1974 (OCS) 32 (1952–        ) Deputy Director, White House Military Office, 1999–2000.
54 William D. Crowder   12 Sep 2006  
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2006–2008.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Information, Plans and Strategy (DCNO N3/N5), 2008.
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Operations, Plans and Strategy (DCNO N3/N5), 2008–2009.
3 1974 (USNA) 28 (1952–        )
55 P. Stephen Stanley   6 Dec 2006   6 1975 (USNA) 31 (1952–        )
56 Melvin G. Williams Jr.   1 Jan 2007   3 1978 (USNA) 28 (1955–        ) U.S. Associate Deputy Secretary of Energy, 2011–2013.
57 Michael K. Loose   31 Jan 2007[38]
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Fleet Readiness and Logistics (DCNO N4), 2007–2010.
3 1975 (NROTC) 32 (1953–        ) Civil Engineer Corps.
58 John J. Donnelly   3 Feb 2007  
  • Commander, Submarine Forces/Commander, Submarine Force, U.S. Atlantic Fleet/Commander, Allied Submarine Command/Commander, Task Force 46/Commander, Task Force 82/Commander, Task Force 144/Commander, Task Force 84 (COMSUBFOR/COMSUBLANT/COMASC/CTF-46/CTF-82/CTF-144/CTF-84), 2007–2010.
3 1975 (USNA) 32 (1952–        )
59 David J. Venlet   16 Feb 2007   5 1974 (USNA) 33 (1954–        ) Naval aviator.
* Samuel J. Locklear III   3 May 2007[39]
  • Commander, U.S. Third Fleet (COMTHIRDFLT), 2007–2009.
  • Director, Navy Staff (DNS/N09B), 2009–2010.
3 1977 (USNA) 30 (1954–        )[12] Promoted to admiral, 6 Oct 2010.
60 Jeffrey L. Fowler   8 Jun 2007   3 1978 (USNA) 29 (1956–        ) Resigned, 2010.
61 H. Denby Starling II   15 Jun 2007   3 1974 (NROTC) 33 (1952–        ) Naval aviator.
62 Thomas J. Kilcline Jr.   22 Jun 2007   3 1973 (USNA) 34 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
63 Joseph Maguire   28 Jun 2007   3 1974 (NROTC) 33 (1951–        ) Navy SEAL. Director, National Counterterrorism Center, 2018–2019.
64 David Architzel   1 Aug 2007   5 1973 (USNA) 34 (1951–        ) Naval aviator.
65 Adam M. Robinson Jr.   27 Aug 2007   4 1977 (direct)[40] 30 (1950–        )[29] Medical Corps. Director, Veterans Affairs Maryland Health Care System, 2015–present.
66 Jeffrey A. Wieringa   29 Aug 2007   3 1976 (AOCS) 31 (1955–        )[29] Naval aviator.
* James A. Winnefeld Jr.   14 Sep 2007[41] 3 1978 (NROTC) 29 (1956–        )[12][42] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 19 May 2010.
67 Richard K. Gallagher   1 Oct 2007   5 1976 (USNA) 31 (1952–        ) Naval aviator.
68 Robert T. Moeller   10 Oct 2007  
  • Deputy to the Commander for Military Operations, U.S. Africa Command (DCDR-MILOP, USAFRICOM), 2007–2010.
3 1974 (NROTC) 33 (1951–2011)
69 William D. Sullivan   11 Oct 2007   2 1972 (OCS) 35 (1950–        )
70 Carl V. Mauney   15 Oct 2007   3 1975 (NROTC) 32 (1953–        )
71 Bernard J. McCullough III   1 Nov 2007   4 1975 (USNA) 32 (1953–        )
72 Anthony L. Winns   9 Nov 2007   4 1978 (USNA) 30 (1956–        )[43]
73 Derwood C. Curtis   13 Mar 2008   3 1976 (USNA) 32 (1953–        )
* Mark E. Ferguson III   16 Apr 2008  
  • Deputy Chief of Naval Operations, Manpower, Personnel, Training and Education/Chief of Naval Personnel (DCNO N1/CNP), 2008–2011.
3 1978 (USNA) 30 (1956–        )[10] Promoted to admiral, 22 Aug 2011.
74 David J. Dorsett   4 Jun 2008   3 1978 (NROTC) 30 (1956–        )
* William H. McRaven   13 Jun 2008[44] 3 1977 (NROTC) 31 (1955–        )[12] Navy SEAL. Promoted to admiral, 8 Aug 2011. Chancellor, University of Texas System, 2015–2018.
* Harry B. Harris Jr.   13 Jun 2008[45] 5 1978 (USNA) 30 (1956–        )[12] Promoted to admiral, 16 Oct 2013. U.S. Ambassador to South Korea, 2018–2021.
* William E. Gortney   5 Jul 2008[46] 4 1977 (AOCS) 31 (1955–        )[12] Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 14 Sep 2012.
75 John M. Bird   12 Jul 2008  
  • Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet (COMSEVENTHFLT), 2008–2010.
  • Director, Navy Staff (DNS/N09B), 2010–2012.
4 1977 (USNA) 31 (1955–        )
76 Dirk J. Debbink   22 Jul 2008   4 1977 (USNA) 31 (1955–        )
77 Peter H. Daly   Aug 2008   3 1977 (NROTC) 31 (1955–        ) CEO, U.S. Naval Institute, 2011–present.
78 Bruce E. MacDonald   4 Aug 2008   1 1978 (NROTC) 30 (1955–        ) Judge Advocate General's Corps. Convening Authority, Office of Military Commissions, 2010–2013. First judge advocate in any service to hold three-star rank.
79 Kevin M. McCoy   8 Aug 2008   5 1978 (NROTC) 30 (1956–        )[29]
* Bruce W. Clingan   27 Aug 2008   4 1977 (NROTC) 31 (1955–        ) Naval aviator. Promoted to admiral, 24 Feb 2012.
80 Robert S. Harward Jr.   3 Nov 2008   5 1979 (USNA) 29 (1956–        )[29] Navy SEAL.
81 Alan S. Thompson   19 Nov 2008   3 1976 (NROTC) 32 (1954–        )
82 John M. Mateczun   8 Dec 2008   4 1973 (direct) 35 (1947–        )
83 Michael C. Vitale   30 Jan 2009   3 1977 (NROTC) 32 (1955–        )
84 Joseph D. Kernan   Jun 2009   4 1977 (USNA) 32 (1955–        ) U.S. Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, 2017–2020.
85 Richard W. Hunt   13 Jun 2009   4 1976 (OCS) 33 (1953–        )
86 James W. Houck   14 Aug 2009   3 1980 (USNA) 29 (1958–        ) Judge Advocate General's Corps. Interim Dean, Penn State School of International Affairs, 2021–present.
87 Mark D. Harnitchek   12 Nov 2009   5 1977 (NROTC) 32 (1955–        )[47] Supply Corps.

TimelineEdit

2000–2009Edit

Mark D. HarnitchekJames W. HouckRichard W. HuntJoseph D. KernanMichael C. VitaleJohn M. MateczunAlan S. ThompsonRobert HarwardBruce W. ClinganKevin M. McCoyBruce E. MacDonaldPeter H. Daly (U.S. Navy)Dirk J. DebbinkJohn M. BirdWilliam E. GortneyHarry B. Harris Jr.William H. McRavenDavid J. DorsettMark E. Ferguson IIID.C. CurtisAnthony L. WinnsBernard J. McCullough IIICarl V. MauneyWilliam D. SullivanRobert T. MoellerRichard K. GallagherJames A. Winnefeld Jr.Jeffrey A. WieringaAdam M. Robinson Jr.David ArchitzelJoseph MaguireTom Kilcline Jr.H. Denby Starling IIJeffrey L. FowlerSamuel J. Locklear IIIDavid J. VenletJohn J. DonnellyMichael K. LooseMelvin Williams (admiral)P. Stephen StanleyWilliam D. CrowderNancy Elizabeth BrownRobert B. MurrettMark J. EdwardsRobert Conway (admiral)John C. Harvey Jr.Patrick M. WalshJohn Morgan (admiral)Ann E. RondeauPaul E. SullivanJohn Dickson StufflebeemBarry M. CostelloEvan M. Chanik Jr.Terrance T. EtnyreJ. Kevin MoranJoe SestakLewis W. Crenshaw Jr.Charles L. MunnsJonathan W. GreenertMark P. FitzgeraldJames G. StavridisJames M. ZortmanRonald A. RouteDonald ArthurJustin D. McCarthyKevin J. CosgriffJames D. McArthur Jr.Albert M. Calland IIIWalter B. MassenburgHenry G. Ulrich IIIJohn G. CottonDavid C. NicholsKirkland H. DonaldEric T. OlsonGary RougheadRodney P. RemptMichael J. McCabeAlbert T. Church IIIStanley R. SzemborskiDavid L. Brewer IIILowell E. JacobyGerald L. HoewingKevin P. GreenMichael D. MaloneRobert F. WillardPhillip BalisleRichard J. NaughtonMichael L. CowanJ. Cutler Dawson Jr.Keith W. LippertJohn B. TotushekAlfred G. Harms Jr.Timothy W. LaFleurAlbert H. Konetzni Jr.Malcolm I. FagesMartin J. MayerMichael MullenTimothy J. KeatingRichard W. MayoToney M. BucchiJohn B. NathmanMichael D. HaskinsJames W. MetzgerPaul G. Gaffney IIJohn J. GrossenbacherJoseph W. Dyer Jr.Gordon S. HolderIraq WarWar in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

HistoryEdit

Civil WarEdit

The grade of vice admiral in the United States Navy was created by Congress in December 1864 to honor David G. Farragut for his victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay during the American Civil War. The promotion made Farragut the senior officer in the Navy but did not give him command of all naval forces, unlike the corresponding grade of lieutenant general that had been revived for Ulysses S. Grant earlier that year.[48] After the war, Farragut was promoted to admiral and his vacated vice admiralcy was filled by David D. Porter. When Farragut died in 1870, Porter succeeded him as admiral and Stephen C. Rowan became vice admiral. Three years later, Congress stopped further promotions to admiral or vice admiral, and the vice admiral grade expired with Rowan in 1890.[49]

After the Spanish-American War, Congress tried to revive the grade to reward William T. Sampson and Winfield S. Schley for winning the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, but the officers feuded bitterly over credit for the victory and their partisans in the Senate could not agree on who would be the senior vice admiral, so neither was promoted.[50][51] Even after Sampson died in 1902, his admirers continued to prevent Schley from being promoted, while Schley's friends blocked all moves to elevate any other officer over him during his lifetime, such as an attempt to promote Robley D. Evans to vice admiral on the retired list in 1909. No new vice admirals were created until after Schley's death in 1911.[52][53]

World War IEdit

In 1915, Congress authorized the President to designate the commanders in chief of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Asiatic Fleets to hold the rank of admiral, and their seconds in command the rank of vice admiral. The chief of naval operations (CNO) received the rank of admiral the following year.[54] Because Porter and Rowan had been promoted permanently to vice admiral and then never gone to sea again, Congress made these new ranks strictly ex officio. Upon relinquishing command, an officer lost his designation as admiral or vice admiral and reverted to his permanent grade of rear admiral.[55] The three fleet commanders were immediately made admirals to match the rank of their foreign counterparts, but only the second in command of the Atlantic Fleet, Henry T. Mayo, was designated a vice admiral, since the Pacific and Asiatic Fleets were too small to employ their vice admirals.[56]

When the United States entered World War I, Congress generalized the law to let the President designate up to six commanders of any fleet or subdivision of a fleet to hold ranks higher than rear admiral, of which up to three could be admirals and the rest vice admirals. This allowed William S. Sims to be designated vice admiral as commander of U.S. Naval Forces in European Waters. The other two vice admiral designations went to the Atlantic Fleet's two battleship force commanders.[57] When the Asiatic Fleet's commander in chief retired in December 1918, his four-star designation was transferred to Sims, whose vacated vice admiralcy went to Albert Gleaves, commander of the Atlantic Fleet's cruiser and transport force.[58] By the end of 1918, all three seagoing admirals and all three vice admirals were assigned to the Atlantic and European theaters, including the four-star commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet, who had taken a force to patrol the South Atlantic Ocean.[59]

With the end of hostilities in Europe, the six designations for admirals and vice admirals were redistributed in 1919. The commanders in chief of the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets remained admirals. About half of the major ships in the Atlantic Fleet transferred to the Pacific Fleet, which was now large enough to employ a vice admiral to command its battleship force. A second vice admiral commanded the battleship force of the Atlantic Fleet, and a third vice admiral, Gleaves, commanded its cruiser and transport force. The sixth designation returned to the Asiatic Fleet when Sims left his European command, but its commander in chief, William L. Rodgers, was promoted only to vice admiral since Gleaves was already slated to be its admiral, so for a few months there were four vice admirals and only three admirals, including the CNO.[60]

In September 1919, Gleaves was appointed commander in chief of the Asiatic Fleet with the rank of admiral. Rodgers remained vice admiral in command of Division 1 of the Asiatic Fleet until January 1920, so for the first and only time, the Pacific, Atlantic, and Asiatic Fleets each had an admiral and vice admiral, as originally envisioned in 1915.[61]

InterwarEdit

In 1922 the three fleets were combined into a single United States Fleet with three admirals and three vice admirals. One admiral served as commander in chief of the United States Fleet (CINCUS), a second admiral as commander in chief of the Asiatic Fleet, and the third admiral as commander in chief of the former Pacific Fleet, now the Battle Fleet. A vice admiral commanded the former Atlantic Fleet, now the Scouting Fleet, and a second vice admiral commanded the battleship divisions of the Battle Fleet.[62] The Battle Fleet and Scouting Fleet became the Battle Force and Scouting Force, respectively, when the United States Fleet was reorganized into type commands in 1931.[63] When the Pacific and Atlantic Fleets were reconstituted in February 1941, CINCUS was dual-hatted as commander in chief of the Pacific Fleet (CINCPAC), and the commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet was made an admiral by downgrading the Battle Force's commander to vice admiral and its battleship commander to rear admiral.[64]

The third vice admiral designation moved from the Asiatic Fleet to the commander of U.S. Naval Forces in European Waters in 1920 and lapsed when the European force was disbanded in 1929. It was revived the next year for the commander of the Scouting Fleet's light cruiser divisions and subsequently the Scouting Force's cruisers, before migrating in 1935 to the commander of the Battle Force's aircraft.[65]

A flag officer in the United States Fleet climbed a cursus honorum that nominally began with command of a battleship division as a rear admiral, followed by command of all battleship divisions in the Battle Force as a vice admiral, then command of the entire Battle Force as an admiral, and finally either CINCUS, the highest office afloat, or CNO, the highest office ashore—or both, in the case of William V. Pratt.[66] Upon leaving the fleet, it was normal for a former three- or four-star commander to revert to his permanent grade of rear admiral and remain on active duty until statutory retirement as president of the Naval War College, commandant of a naval district, or member of the General Board.[54]

Since there were four admirals and only three vice admirals, it was not uncommon to skip the rank of vice admiral entirely, especially for commanders in chief of the Asiatic Fleet, which was seen as a four-star consolation prize for flag officers who were out of the running for CINCUS or CNO.[66] By the early 1940s, neither the CNO (Harold R. Stark), CINCUS (Claude C. Bloch, James O. Richardson), nor CINCPAC (Husband E. Kimmel, Chester W. Nimitz) had ever been a vice admiral.

World War IIEdit

In July 1941, Congress authorized the President to designate, at his own discretion, up to nine additional officers to carry the ex officio rank of vice admiral while performing special or unusual duty, for a total of 12 vice admirals in the permanent establishment.[67] The first of the nine new vice admiral designations was assigned to Robert L. Ghormley, then serving as special observer in the U.S. Embassy in London.[68] After the United States entry into World War II in December 1941, the new commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet, Royal E. Ingersoll, was designated a vice admiral after his predecessor, Ernest J. King, was appointed commander in chief of the United States Fleet (COMINCH, formerly CINCUS) and took the Atlantic Fleet's four-star designation with him.[69] The remaining seven vice admiral slots were quickly filled by the director of the Office of Procurement and Material and the commanders of U.S. Naval Forces, Southwest Pacific; ANZAC Force; the service forces in the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets; and two anti-submarine task forces in the Atlantic Fleet.

All 12 vice admiral designations were in use by March 1942, when a headquarters reorganization called for two more vice admirals to be vice chief of naval operations and chief of staff to COMINCH. Frederick J. Horne and Russell Willson were nominated to be temporary vice admirals,[70] under a 1941 statute that authorized an unlimited number of appointments in all grades for temporary service during a national emergency, with temporary flag officers needing confirmation by the Senate.[71] The statute technically created temporary grades only up to rear admiral, but the Senate confirmed Horne and Willson as vice admirals anyway,[72] and continued to confirm temporary admirals and vice admirals when nominated. Dozens of temporary vice admirals were appointed during World War II, either to serve in a specified job or simply for the duration of the national emergency.

PostwarEdit

The Officer Personnel Act of 1947 consolidated the various laws governing vice admiral appointments. Previously, the President had controlled a pool of 12 vice admiral designations that he could assign at his own discretion.[73] In addition, the Senate could confirm an unlimited number of officers nominated by the President to hold the temporary personal grade of vice admiral, either while serving in a particular job or for the duration of a national emergency.[71] Under the new law, all vice admirals had to be confirmed by the Senate, and held that temporary grade only while serving in a particular job. The maximum number of vice admirals was proportional to the total number of flag officers.[74]

The new law also made any former admiral or vice admiral eligible to retire with that rank,[74] simplifying the hodgepodge of rules that had promoted various classes of retirees piecemeal. Originally every designated admiral and vice admiral retired in his permanent grade of rear admiral. In 1930 Congress promoted officers on the retired list to their highest rank held during World War I, which was defined as having ended on July 2, 1921, so John D. McDonald, who became vice admiral on July 1, 1921, was promoted, but William R. Shoemaker, who became vice admiral only a week later, was not.[75][76] In 1942 former fleet commanders were allowed to retire as admiral or vice admiral if they had served in that grade for at least a year, a cutoff that John H. Dayton and Walter R. Sexton both missed by about two weeks. Dayton lived long enough to be advanced back to vice admiral by the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, but Sexton did not.[77]

Postwar vice admirals typically headed directorates in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, numbered fleets, type commands, sea frontiers, senior educational institutions like the National War College and the Naval War College, or other interservice or international positions. Upon completing their capstone assignments, many senior flag officers resumed the prewar pattern of remaining on active duty in a lower grade until statutory retirement, in contrast to Army and Air Force general officers who usually preferred to retire immediately to avoid demotion. For example, Lynde D. McCormick reverted from vice admiral to rear admiral but rose again to vice admiral and admiral before dropping to vice admiral for his final assignment.[78]

Tombstone promotionsEdit

In 1925 Congress authorized Navy and Marine Corps officers who had been specially commended for performance of duty in actual combat during World War I to retire with the rank of the next higher grade but not its pay. Such honorary increases in rank at retirement were dubbed tombstone promotions, since their only tangible benefit was the right to carve the higher rank on the officer's tombstone.[79][80] Later laws expanded eligibility beyond World War I and to officers already on the retired list. Tombstone promotions were limited in 1947 to duty performed before the end of World War II, meaning before January 1, 1947, and halted entirely in 1959.[81] By May 29, 1959, there were 154 vice admirals on the retired list who had never served on active duty in that rank, not counting those already deceased.[82]

Dozens of vice admirals received tombstone promotions to admiral.[82] Even if a vice admiral reverted to rear admiral, he could still retire as a vice admiral and then claim a tombstone promotion to admiral, but only if he had satisfactory service in the temporary grade of vice admiral during World War II. For example, Gerald F. Bogan, David W. Bagley, Robert C. Giffen, and Alexander Sharp Jr. all reverted to rear admiral after serving as a vice admiral, and all qualified for a tombstone promotion, but only Bagley was advanced to admiral when he retired.

  • Bogan was confirmed by the Senate to be a temporary vice admiral while commanding the First Task Fleet after World War II, but offended the secretary of the Navy during the so-called Revolt of the Admirals and was relieved of his three-star command only three weeks before he was scheduled to retire with a tombstone promotion to admiral. Instead, he reverted to rear admiral and received a tombstone promotion back to vice admiral.[83][84]
  • Bagley was confirmed by the Senate to be a temporary vice admiral while serving in a succession of jobs during World War II, before reverting to rear admiral. He retired in his highest wartime grade of vice admiral and received a tombstone promotion to admiral.[85][86]
  • Giffen was confirmed by the Senate to be a temporary vice admiral while commanding the Caribbean Sea Frontier during World War II, but was reprimanded for misconduct in that role. Having unsatisfactory service as a vice admiral, he retired as a rear admiral and received a tombstone promotion back to vice admiral.[87][88][89]
  • Sharp was designated by the President to hold the rank of vice admiral while commanding the Service Force, Atlantic Fleet during World War II, but was never confirmed by the Senate to hold the temporary personal grade of vice admiral, unlike Bagley and Giffen. Sharp retired with his highest active-duty rank of vice admiral but was not advanced to admiral because tombstone promotions were based on personal grades, not designated ranks.[86]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Dates of rank are taken, where available, from the U.S. Navy register of active and retired commissioned officers, or from the monthly U.S. Navy flag officer roster. The date listed is that of the officer's first promotion to vice admiral. If such a date that qualifies for the above cannot be found, the next date substituted should be that of the officer's assumption of his/her first three-star appointment. Failing which, the officer's first Senate confirmation date to vice admiral should be substituted. For officers promoted to vice admiral on the same date, they should be organized first by date of promotion to four-star rank, and then by the tier of their first listed assignment upon promotion to vice admiral.
  2. ^ a b Positions listed are those held by the officer when promoted to vice admiral. Dates listed are for the officer's full tenure, which may predate promotion to three-star rank or postdate retirement from active duty.
  3. ^ a b The number of years of active-duty service at three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Date of rank" column from the last year in the "Position" column. Time spent between active-duty three-star assignments is not counted.
  4. ^ a b The year commissioned is taken to be the year the officer graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy, or equivalent. Sources of commission are listed in parentheses after the year of commission and include: the United States Naval Academy (USNA); Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC) at a civilian university; NROTC at a senior military college such as the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), Norwich University (Norwich), Pennsylvania Military College (PMC), or Widener University (Widener); Officer Candidate School (OCS); warrant; the United States Merchant Marine Academy (USMMA); the Massachusetts Maritime Academy (MMA); United States Military Academy (USMA); and the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA).
  5. ^ a b The number of years in commission before being promoted to three-star rank is approximated by subtracting the year in the "Commission" column from the year in the "Date of rank" column.
  6. ^ a b Notes include years of birth and death; awards of the Medal of Honor, Congressional Gold Medal, Presidential Medal of Freedom, or honors of similar significance; major government appointments; university presidencies or equivalents; familial relationships with significant military officers or significant government officials such as U.S. Presidents, cabinet secretaries, U.S. Senators, or state governors; and unusual career events such as premature relief or death in office.
  7. ^ "Vice Adm. Dyer confirmed as new NAVAIR commander". Naval Air Systems Command. July 1, 2000.
  8. ^ Commissioned via the Aviation Reserve Officer Candidate (AVROC) Program.
  9. ^ Nomination to be Chairman, Nuclear Regulatory Commission withdrawn, 2004.
  10. ^ a b c d e f Served as Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO).
  11. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 108th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2005. p. 291. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Served as a combatant commander (CCDR).
  13. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, First Session, 109th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2006. p. 200. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  14. ^ a b c Served as Chief of Naval Operations (CNO).
  15. ^ Served as Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS).
  16. ^ "Vice Admiral Timothy W. LaFleur". Chief Information Officer, U.S. Navy. Archived from the original on December 14, 2002. Retrieved January 5, 2022.
  17. ^ Hearings on National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002--H.R. 2586 and Oversight of Previously Authorized Programs, Before the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session: Military Personnel Subcommittee Hearings on Title IV--personnel Authorizations, Title V--military Personnel Policy, Title VI--compensation and Other Personnel Benefits, Title VII--health Care Provisions, Hearings Held June 21, and July 18, 2001. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 2001. p. 374. ISBN 9780160688713.
  18. ^ Harte, Damion (December 14, 2015). "Interview: Vice Adm. Mike Cowan, MC, USN (Ret.), AMSUS Executive Director". Defense Media Network.
  19. ^ Resigned, Jun 2003, and retired as rear admiral.
  20. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, First Session, 111th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2010. p. 1068. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  21. ^ "Obituary of VADM Michael D. Malone". Legacy. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  22. ^ "Navy's ocean transportation leader promoted to 3-Star admiral". U.S. Transportation Command. October 2001.
  23. ^ "Aboard USS Harry S. Truman (CVN 75) Aug. 15, 2003 -- Vice Adm. Gary Roughead delivers his remarks while assuming duties as Commander Second Fleet/Commander Striking Fleet Atlantic, during a change of command ceremony. U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 2nd Class Greg Roberts. (RELEASED) US Navy 030815-N-3725R-005 Vice Adm. Gary Roughead delivers his remarks while assuming duties as Commander Second Fleet-Commander Striking Fleet Atlantic, during a change of command ceremony". Alamy. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  24. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, First Session, 110th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2008. p. 679. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  25. ^ "Vice Admiral Kirkland H. Donald". U.S. Navy. Archived from the original on March 1, 2004. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  26. ^ Donald was frocked to the grade of admiral on November 5, 2004 to serve as Director, Naval Reactors, with date of rank effective January 1, 2005.
  27. ^ Served as Director, Naval Reactors.
  28. ^ Transferred from U.S. Army, 1974.
  29. ^ a b c d e f Promoted directly from rank of rear admiral (lower half).
  30. ^ Onley, Dawn (November 17, 2014). "McArthur named Navy deputy CIO". GCN. Retrieved December 31, 2021.
  31. ^ "Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 75, No. 10". October 2004. Retrieved December 27, 2021.
  32. ^ Retired, 1 Jan 2008.
  33. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 109th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 2006. p. 454. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  34. ^ Served as Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR).
  35. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, First Session, 112th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2012. p. 975. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  36. ^ Relieved, July 2005, and retired as rear admiral.
  37. ^ Relieved, Mar 2008, and retired as rear admiral.
  38. ^ "Seabee (Spring 2007) Issue" (PDF). U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command. 2007.
  39. ^ "Nominations Before the Senate, ... S. Hrg. 112-745, February 9; March 29; April 26; July 19; November 15, 2012, 112-2 Hearings". U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2009. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
  40. ^ Directly commissioned via the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program (HPSP).
  41. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 111th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2010. p. 207. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  42. ^ Served as Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (VJCS).
  43. ^ Crosby, Robert (2001). Inspiring Innovation. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. p. 81. ISBN 9781935352464.
  44. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, First Session, 112th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2012. p. 469. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  45. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 113th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2014. p. 1048. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  46. ^ "Nominations Before The Senate Armed Services Committee, Second Session, 113th Congress" (PDF). GovInfo. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Publishing Office. 2014. p. 723. Retrieved March 23, 2022.
  47. ^ Retired, 1 Jan 2015.
  48. ^ "Vice-Admiral Farragut". The New York Times. December 23, 1864. p. 6.
  49. ^ Acts of December 21, 1874 (13 Stat. 420); July 25, 1866 (14 Stat. 222); and January 24, 1873 (17 Stat. 418). Chisholm, pp. 311-313, 349-353.
  50. ^ "Admirals Sampson and Schley". The Army and Navy Journal. February 23, 1901. p. 617.
  51. ^ "Sampson Doomed". The Wilkes-Barre Record. February 28, 1901. p. 5.
  52. ^ "Case Is Lost". The Courier-Journal. January 29, 1902. p. 1.
  53. ^ "Evans No Vice Admiral". The Baltimore Sun. February 16, 1909. p. 2.
  54. ^ a b Peeks, Ryan (October 2016). "Temporary Admirals Might Do". United States Naval Institute Proceedings. 142 (10).
  55. ^ Chisholm, pp. 557, 565, 568. House Report No. 377, 63d Congress, 2d Session: Admirals and Vice Admirals, United States Navy. Government Printing Office. March 13, 1914.
  56. ^ Hearings Before the Committee on Naval Affairs, House of Representatives, Sixty-Fourth Congress, First Session, on Estimates Submitted by the Secretary of the Navy, 1916, Volume 3. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1916. pp. 3565–3566, 3653–3654.
  57. ^ "Two Divisions Of Atlantic Battleship Fleet Announced". The Official Bulletin. July 19, 1917. p. 2.
  58. ^ "Half Of U.S. Navy Soon Will Be Sent To The Pacific Ocean". The Capital. November 30, 1918. p. 1.
  59. ^ Johnson, pp 181–183.
  60. ^ "To Command Our Atlantic Fleet". The Beattie Eagle. July 10, 1919. p. 2.
  61. ^ "Changes Among Navy Flag Officers". Army and Navy Journal. February 7, 1920. p. 698.
  62. ^ Annual Reports of the Navy Department For The Fiscal Year 1923. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1924. p. 122.
  63. ^ Wheeler, pp. 325–326.
  64. ^ King and Whitehill, p. 318.
  65. ^ "Marvell Awarded Vice Admiralcy As Third Of Rank". The Honolulu Advertiser. December 14, 1930. p. 1.
  66. ^ a b Wheeler, pp. 242, 252–255.
  67. ^ Chisholm, pp. 763–764. Hearings Before the Committee on Naval Affairs of the House of Representatives on Sundry Legislation Affecting the Naval Establishment, 1941–[1942]: Seventy-Sixth Congress, First–[Second] Session, Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1942. pp. 1426–1433.
  68. ^ Rear Admiral Robert L. Ghormley Advanced To Vice Admiral. Navy Department press release. September 20, 1941.
  69. ^ "Ingersoll Raised To Full Admiral". The Muncie Evening Press. July 3, 1942. p. 2.
  70. ^ "Admiral King Named To Head Operations; Two Are Promoted". The Cincinnati Enquirer. March 14, 1942. p. 7.
  71. ^ a b Acts of July 24, 1941 (55 Stat. 603) and August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 886). "Personal Money Allowance—Admirals And Vice Admirals (22 Comp. Gen. 1071)". Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States. Vol. 22. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1943. p. 1071.
  72. ^ Hearings Before the Committee on Naval Affairs of the House of Representatives on Sundry Legislation Affecting the Naval Establishment, 1943–[1944]: Seventy-Sixth Congress, First–[Second] Session, Volume 1. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1944. p. 3202.
  73. ^ Acts of March 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 941); May 22, 1917 (40 Stat. 89); July 17, 1941 (55 Stat. 598); and August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 886). Chisholm, pp. 763-764. Congressional Record (June 30, 1941), Vol. 87, Part 1, p. 5727.
  74. ^ a b Act of August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 886.)
  75. ^ "Ten Admirals For Life". The Cincinnati Enquirer. August 23, 1930. p. 7.
  76. ^ "Army and Navy News". The Sunday Star. August 17, 1930. p. 65.
  77. ^ "Navy Officers' Elevation Due". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. July 10, 1942. p. 15.
  78. ^ "Biographic Sketch: Vice Admiral Lynde D. McCormick, U.S.N." Naval War College Review. 9 (2): 54–55. October 1956. JSTOR 45183760.
  79. ^ "Navy Officers Make Honorary Rank Bid". The Fresno Bee. August 5, 1959. p. 3.
  80. ^ Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Eighty-Sixth Congress, Second Session, Part 3: Financial Statements: Manpower, Personnel, and Reserves. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1960. pp. 742–743.
  81. ^ Acts of March 4, 1925 (43 Stat. 1278); July 17, 1941 (55 Stat. 598); June 6, 1942 (56 Stat. 370); August 7, 1947 [Officer Personnel Act of 1947] (61 Stat. 886); October 12, 1949 [Career Compensation Act of 1949] (63 Stat. 806); and August 11, 1959 (72 Stat. 337). Patrick, Howard A. (August 1948). "The Effect of Combat Commendation Upon Retirement". United States Naval Institute Proceedings. 74 (8): 957–965.
  82. ^ a b Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, Eighty-Sixth Congress, First Session on S. 1795: A Bill Amending Title 10, United States Code, to Revise Certain Provisions Relating to the Promotion and Involuntary Retirement of Officers of the Regular Components of the Armed Forces. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1959. pp. 25–26, 61–62.
  83. ^ Wooldridge, E. T. (1995). Into the Jet Age: Conflict and Change in Naval Aviation, 1945–1975, An Oral History. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. pp. 104–105.
  84. ^ "Bogan's Retirement Rank In Jeopardy". News-Pilot. January 31, 1950. p. 12.
  85. ^ Confirmed by Senate as vice admiral for temporary service while serving as Commander, Western Sea Frontier, 18 Jan 1944; while serving as Commander, Hawaiian Sea Frontier, 27 Nov 1944; and until detachment from duty as member of the Joint Mexican-United States Defense Commission, 28 Jul 1945. Reverted to rear admiral, 31 Jan 1946; retired as vice admiral and advanced to tombstone admiral, 1 Apr 1947.
  86. ^ a b Court-Martial Order No. 4–1948: Advancement in rank on retired list: special commendation for performance of duty in actual combat. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. April 1948. pp. 127–131.
  87. ^ Confirmed as vice admiral for temporary service while serving as Commander, Caribbean Sea Frontier, 22 Mar 1944; and until detachment from duty as Commander, Service Force, Atlantic Fleet, 24 Jul 1945. Reverted to rear admiral, 3 Dec 1945; reprimanded for misconduct while Commander, Caribbean Sea Frontier, preventing retirement in highest wartime grade; retired as rear admiral and advanced to tombstone vice admiral, 1 Sep 1946.
  88. ^ "Admonish, Reprimand 5 Naval Men". The Windsor Daily Star. May 24, 1946. p. 8.
  89. ^ Investigation of the National Defense Program: Hearings Before A Special Committee Investigating The National Defense Program, United States Senate, Seventy-Ninth Congress, Second Session, Pursuant To S. Res. 55 (79th Congress), Part 33. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1946. pp. 17307–17322, 17539.

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